- FRENCH HISTORY 1640-1643
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An Indian is publicly flogged for listening to a pagan suitor.
The Whole country is enraged against the Blackrobes.
Everyone agrees the Jesuit's primary interest is power and the fur trade rather than winning souls.
The French want the Iroquois either wiped out or brought to reason.
At the General Assembly of the Huron Nation, the Council openly debated the execution of the Jesuits for bringing disease to the minds and bodies of the People.
Six marriages, eight births and eight deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.
(II)-Antoine Arnault, Metis, b-1637, Kebec, son (I)-Antoine Arnault and Madeleine Savage.
(I)-Simon Baron, a Jesuit donnes and self taught surgeon arrived Trois
Fort Trois Rivieres marriage (I)-Pierre Blondel to Marie Gourdin Alyson
(II)-Marie Blondel (1638-1638) Trois Rivieres
(II)-Jean Blondel (1639-1639) Trois Rivieres
(II)-Pierre Blondel married 1686 Marie Mezeral
(III)-Lienard Blondel b-1687 Quebec
(III)-Pierre Blondel (1697-1703) Quebec
(I)-Francois Boule established Sillery and married, likely a sauvagesse.
(II)-Marguerite Boule Metis b-1638 d-1639 Trois Rivieres
(I)-Chateauneuf? is commandant aux Trois Rivieres; Governor is (I)-Marc Antoine Brasdefer de Chateaufort (1636-1639)
(I)-Nicolas Deny resided in the La Heve region and focused on fishing, fur trade and lumbering.
(I)-Thomas Hayot married Kebec, this year, Jeanne Boucher, one child is recorded (II)-Genevieve Hayot born this year, died March 1, 1651, Quebec, married 1650, Quebec, Claude Dorval, some suggest he was married July 15, 1629, St. Jean, Normandy and arrived Kebec 1638.
(I)-David Kirke alias Kertks (1597-1654) the French Huguenot is awarded Newfoundland for his conquest of New France in 1629. He and his wife (I)-Sara d-1680's settled there and they had 3 sons.
(I)-Louis Henri Piguet (1588-1670) arrived Kebec with his family before 1637:
His wife Louise Bouche and three children:
(II)-Francoise Piguet d-1661, 1st married November 7, 1645, Kebec Pierre Delaunay: 2nd married February 8, 1655, Quebec, Vincent Poieier.
(II)-Noel Piguet, (1630-1685) married October 15, 1652, Quebec Marie Madeleine Du Mont, b-1636
(II)-Pierre Piguet (1630-1704) married November 4, 1659 Quebec, Anne Lechevalier.
Gillette Ronne or Baunk a likely Metis b-1636 married 1653 Trois Rivieres, Quebec (I)-Jacques Bertaut (Berault) (1626-1718)
(I)-La Treille is at Trois Rivieres.
Kebec or Tadoussac, birth (II)-Marie Marsolet, Metis daughter (I)-Nicolas Marsolet (Marsollet) De St. Agnan (1587-1677) and Marie La Barbide, savage or Metis, (1620-1688) epouse May 8, 1681, Quebec, Denis Lemaitre: married April 30, 1652 Mathieu D'Amours. This is likely the daughter of one of his 1st three wives?
(I)-Louis Sedilot (1600-1671) arrived Kebec 1637 with 2nd wife Francois Marie Grimoult.
(I)-Jean Terriau, b-1601, France, arriced Avadia, 1637, married 1635 (I)-Perrine Bourg.
Sieur (I)-Jean Nicolet (Nicollet de Belleborne (1598-1742) is acting as the Huron interpreter in Kebec and Trois Rivieres (Quebec). At Trois Rivieres, the River St. Jean is named after (I)-Jean Nicolet, interpreter and clerk of the store at Trois Rivieres. The River Des Prairies is named after a man, Des Prairies, who lost his way. Trois Rivieres was previously called the Island that contained a village. Sieur Nicollet brings three children to Kebec for the newly created Jesuit Residential School. It is not know if any of these children are his own Metis children.
The Jesuit opened a Residential School in Kebec but one of the young Savages asked soon after his arrival to return to his own country. Two of the young Savages died shortly after arriving. Paul Tisko, the son of Ouanda Koca, a Captain died after a Frenchman had hit the boy and some believe this caused his death. The boy had complained of the blows he had received to the head. The Jesuit claimed he died from overeating which is an absurd claim. Robert Satouta, a grandson of Tsondechaou Anouan an Admiral of the Savages also died as a result of a blow from a Frenchman, according to witnesses. They say the Frenchman drew his sword and hit the boy. The Jesuit attributed his death to a change of air and especially his diet. The Jesuit fabricated these wild stories out of fear of retaliation if violence can be proven, the French colony could be completely ruined. The Algonquin had witnessed the incidents and were fully aware of the lying nature of the Jesuits. Before their death, both boys were purged and bled to no avail. The Jesuits and Frenchmen involved were not punished.
The Jesuits say; These Barbarians say to me quite often, " Thou sayest one must not steal, and yet thy French have taken from us such and such things; thou sayest drunkards will go into the fires of hell, then such and such a one will be damned, for he is always drunk." Surely it would be far better to be tied to a millstone and thrown into the sea, than to scandalize these poor infidels;
The Sillery Reserve is cleared and houses built to settle the savages like the French. It later would be classified as a total failure. More Frenchmen went native than savages went French.
One young Savage said the Jesuit tried to make him believe in the French God by threats and by force, and, he refused to be forced by fear. The more threat of fire and eternal torments sometimes repels them.
The Jesuit say these young men are barbarians, have the law of wild asses, they are born, live and die in liberty without restraint, they do not know what is meant by bridle and bit. The Jesuit desire to have them conquer one's passion is considered a great joke, while given free rein to the senses is a lofty philosophy. The Jesuit desire to place the French yoke on this boys. If you attempt to employ harshness to the Huron Nation is to throw them into rebellion. The Jesuit concluded that the young Savages in their possession being 300 leagues from their homes helps in their control .
The younger Savages defer to the older, but the larger ones do not command the others in an imperious or dictatorial manner, like the French, but amiably and differentially, like country People, as if exhorting them, and testifying their love. They as so united that, if one offends the least among them, they consider themselves all equally offended.
The threat of withholding food is of no value, as the young Savages advised the Jesuit that if they wish to have success in hunting, they fast for a week, drinking or eating nothing.
The young Savages are not taught survival skills; two Savages became lost in the woods, one nearly killed his companion while cutting down a tree. The young Savages attempted to plant a field of corn but they failed.
The ships from France arrived late at Fort Kebec and food was scarce this year. It was clear that the French also lacked basic survival skills.
Only three Savages remain at the first Residential School at Kebec. One is called Teouatirhon, another Arieihoua and a third called Aiacidance, not long removed from the breast.
The Jesuit reported sending a number of 14-15 yr old girls to France, the only one named was Aliskoueion. Marguaret Algonquin is sent to France and Marie Magdeleine wife of an European (or potential wife?)
Teouatirhon (Taratouan), war captain and uncle of Teouatirhon of the Kebec Residential School arrived Trois Rivieres (Quebec). He had come to return his nephew to the country on the pretext that the Hiroquois (Iroquois)are believed to be massing to attack the French. Two of the young Savages of the Residential School threw themselves down from the bastion of the fort, in order to escape and return to their country. The French, under arms, arrested the War Captain to prevent the loss of their young Huron from the school. After much discussion the two Teouatirhon, uncle and nephew departed Trois Rivieres and they fell into a Hiroquois ambush of 500 warriors. The uncle is captured but the nephew escaped and returned to Trois Rivieres.
the General Assembly of the Huron Nation, the Council openly debated the
execution of the Jesuits for bringing disease to the minds and bodies of the
Father (I)-Paul Le Jeune (1591-1664) says that superstition, savagery and sin reign and triumph in New France. He advocates invading the enemies' own territory in order to attack him with his own weapons of idiom of the Montagnais, Algonquin and Wendat. He supports starting schools for the Savages and trying inducements to settle in one place so they can be controlled. The Jesuit at Sillery, (Quebec) introduced European penance to the Indians.
An Indian is publicly flogged as a punishment for listening to a pagan suitor. The People learn that the French are intolerant.
The Jesuit Father (I)-Jerome Lalemant (1593-1673) wished for more harsh treatment, such as the sword that served the Roman Church so well in the past. The sword, in a holy manner, gives authority to the Roman Church decrees to maintain justice and to curb those who trample under foot, the holiness of her mysteries. The Jesuits, Father (I)-Claude PiJart, (I)-Nicolas Gondoin, (I)-Jacque de la Place and (I)-Charles Raymbault, arrived at Fort Kabec.
The French attacked the Iroquois but lost the battle, and the Iroquois retaliated by waging war on the French and Huron.
Sillery, Kebec is established as the first Indian Reservation in Canada.
January 14: Kebec, marriage (I)-Antoine Brossard b-1609 and Francoise Mery b-1621, sudden death July 11, 1671 Quebec, before 1637 she lived in a large house in Kebec, possible sauvagesse?.
January 16: The Company of New France received a grant to establish a nunnery and Jesuit church and seminary at Kebec.
March 17: Father Superior (I)-Paul Le Jeune (1591-1664) and Father (I)-Francois La Mercier (1604-1690) visit Iahenhouton to propose whether it would be acceptable to them that some of our Frenchmen should marry in their country as soon as possible. The People said the Frenchmen who had resolved to marry were free to take wives where it seemed good to them; that those who had married in the past had not demanded a General Council for that purpose, but they had taken them in whatever way they had desired. The Father replied to this that it was very true that the Frenchmen who had hitherto married in the country had not made such a stir about it, but also that their intentions were far removed from ours, that their purpose had been to become barbarians (like the People of the country), and to render themselves exactly like them (Coureurs des Bois). He said we, on the contrary, aimed by this alliance to make them like us. This the People said would require a General Council. This is a significant turning point as most previous marriages are to barbarians by Coureurs des Bois and therefore not recorded in the marriage records of New France.
The Jesuits admit that Frenchmen have been taking savages as country wives where it seemed good to them and their purpose is to become barbarians. They wish to render themselves exactly like the savages.
The conditions necessary for their daughters to marry Frenchmen are as follows:
1. They needed to know what dowry the French would give to the wife, any wife's family,
2. And know whether the wife would have everything at her disposal.
3. If the husband returned to France, would he take her with him? If not, what compensation would he pay?
4. If wife failed in her duty and is driven off by her husband, what could she take away with her? And if, on her own free will, the fancy seized her to return to her relatives, what could she take with her?
The Jesuits report that some Frenchmen were more hesitant in entering into a marriage with a savage upon learning the terms and conditions of marriage to these barbarian girls. Most Coureurs des Bois, however, didn't give it a second thought, as they were committed to the relationship. It is noteworthy that many marriages of Frenchmen to barbarians are not recorded as such. Many Savage girls are given Christian names to hid their past.
January 14: Kebec, marriage Antoine Brossard to (I)-Francoise Emery, b-1671, died July 11, 1671, Quebec.
March: Kebec, arrival of (I)-Jacques Gourdeau b-1614 or 1624, a native of Pointou.
March 17: Kebec, birth (III)-Charles Le Gardeur, died September 23, 1684 Trois Rivieres son (II)-Pierre Le Gardeau, d-1675 and Marie Favery, d-1675.: 1st married January 18, 1663, Quebec, Marie Macard: 2nd marriage December 22, 1669, Jeanne Dematras.
March 26: Kebec, birth (II)-Jacques Bourdon, Metis, son (I)-Jean Bourdon, attorney general and engineer chief, died January 12, 1668, and Jacqueline Potel, most likely a sauvagesse or Metis, d-1654.
March 27: The Savages say the country is failing us, there is now scarcely any more game in the neighborhood of the French (Fort Kebec). Unless we reap something from the earth, we are going to ruin.
March 27: Monsieur de Champlain had promised to help the Montagnez to enclose a village at Trois Rivieres, to clear land, and to build some houses. Sieur Oliver, the translator and Sieur Nicolet also a translator confirmed this promise was true.
April 5: Kebec, birth (II)-Marie Peltier Metis daughter (I)-Nicolas Peltier (1596-1679) and Jeanne de (Voisy) Roussy, Metis/Indian b-1612/1622, died December 12, 1689, Sorel; married 1st. October 17, 1650, Quebec, (I)-Nicolas Goupil; 2nd marriage August 30, 1655, Quebec, Denis Jean.. The family is living at Sillery an Indian reservation so it is highly likely Marie is Metis?
May: (I)-Pierre Pijart (1608-1676), a Jesuit, established the Mission of the Immaculate Conception at Ossossane- the largest Huron village, near Elmvale, Ontario.
May: Kebec, arrival of (I)-Pierre De Laporte, a native of Paris.
May 28: Montreal death (I)-Jean Pierre Gambeau dit St Onage (1719-1737)
June 14: Kabec, birth (II)-Antoine Arnault, Metis, son (I)-Antoine Arnault, a carpenter married 1636, Kabec , Madeleine savage
July: Kebec, an unknown number of ships arrived this month, one ship was called the Nicolas, a vessel with captain Fournier and a bark with captain Faybault, the others are unknown.
July: St Joseph de Sillery, 4 miles above Kebec, is established by Noul de Sillery, and contains two Algonkin families totaling 20 persons. This hardly qualifies as a settlement, but more as a traditional wintering location. Monsieur the Chavalier de Montmagny replaced the late Monsieur de Champellain.
July 5: A ship arrived Tadoussac (Quebec) bringing new settlers from France.
July 12: Kebec, marriage performed by Father Charles Lallemant, at Notre Dame
des Anges (I)-Francois Belanger b-1612 to (II)-Marie Madeline Robin Guyon
Metis (1618/1622-1696) [others say born March 18, 1624 France], daughter (I)-Jean Francois
Huet (Guton) Guyon (Dion) dit du Buisson (1592-1663)
Quebec and Mathurine Madeleine Avard Robin Metis (1597-1663) died April 17, 1662, Quebec Is this the (I)-Jean Guyon who arrived Kebec
1619?? and children are possible Metis?? Most likely and the Guyon family
married into and located with other Metis families.
(II)-Nicolas Belanger Metis b-1638 d-1682 Beauport, married 1660 Quebec (II)-Marie De Rainville d-1711
(II)-Charles Belanger Metis b-1640 Kebec d-1692 Cap St Ignace, married 1663 Chateau Richer (II)-Barbe Cloutier epouse 1705 Noel Gagnon
(II)-Marie Madeleine Belanger Metis b-1643 Kebec married 1656 Quebec (I)-Bertrand Chesne et Chesnay dit Lagarenne Sieur de Lothainville (1621-1683)
(II)-Marguerite Belanger Metis b-1645 Kebec, d-1703 Quebec, 1st married 1663 Chateau Richer (I)-Antoine Berton et Berson dit Chatillon b-1636, 2nd marriage 1666 Chateau Richer (I)-Louis Levasseur (1628-1690)
(II)-Jean Francoise Belanger Metis b-1648 Kebec, d-1682 Cap St Ignace, married 1671 Chateau Richer (III)-Marie Cloutier
(II)-Francoise Charlotte Belanger Metis b-1650 Quebec 1st married 1665 Chateau Richer (II)-Jean Langlois d-1687, 2nd married 1691 (I)-Thomas Rousseau b-1626
(II)-Mathurine Belanger Metis b-1652 Quebec married 1st 1673 Chateau Richer (II)-Jean Mahu, 2nd married 1674 Chateau Richard Antoine De Serre, 3rd married 1688 Pointe aux Trembles Francois Fregoire
(II)-Louis Belanger Metis b-1655 Quebec married 1682 Chateau Richer (II)-Marguerite Lefrancois (1663-1735)
(II)-Louise Belanger Metis b-1657 married 1679 Chateau Richer (III)-Jean Cloutier d-1709
(II)-Genevieve Belanger Metis b-1659 married 1682 Cap St Ignace (I)-Guillaume Ferte (1634-1699)
(II)-Guillaume Belanger Metis b-1661 Chateau Richer
(II)-Jacques Belanger Metis b-1662 Chateau Richer married 1691 Quebec (II)-Elizabeth Tibault epouse 1700 Martin Rousseau
(II)-Anne Belanger Metis (1664-1665) Chateau Richer
July 12: Kebec marriage Robert Drouin to Anne Cloutier age eleven
August 4: The whole country is enraged against the Black robes, especially the one called Brebeuf (1593-1649) who is considered a sorcerer. The Hurons hold a council to inquire into the cause of a terrible disease ravaging their people. They concluded it was caused by the sorceries of the Jesuits.
August 6: The Hiroquois (Iroquois) had effectively blockaded the Saint Lawrence River above Trois Rivieres (Quebec) preventing the Huron from reaching the French at Fort Kebec.
August 11: The French quickly responded to the Hiroquois (Iroquois) threat by dispatching to Trois Rivieres, 6 well equipped shallops for war. The French drove the Hiroquois from the area and only one canon was fired.
August 16: The Duchesse d'Aiguillon, Cardinal Armand Jean de Plessis, Duc de Richelieu's (1585-1642), niece, donated 22,400 Livres to establish Hotel Dieu (a hospital) at Fort Kebec.
September 2: Kebec, birth (II)-Anne Langlois, Metis, daughter (I)-Noel Langlois dit Boisverdum, pilote (1606-1684), arrived Kebec 1634, 1st married Francoise Grenier (Garnier), born Hochelaga (Montreal) area, died November 1, 1665, Quebec. No marriage contract was found. (Francoise could be a Native or Metis? but most likely a sauvagesse however with a French name more likely Metis or adopted): married November 9, 1649, Kebec Jean Pelletier
September 2: Kebec marriage (I)-Pierre Nicolet to Nicolas Bonhomme.
September 21: Kebec, marriage (I)-Jacques Selle dit de L'espine to (I)-Marie
Berard dit Lepine b-1619, epouse November 5, 1719 Quebec, Pierre Pivain at (100
(II)-Pierre Selle b-1638 Kebec
(II)-Paul Selle b-1640 Kebec
October 7: Kebec, marriage (I)-Jean Nicolet, (1598-1642) a noble man and interpreter,
who arrived Kebec 1618 married to (II)-Marguerite Couillard, Metis d-1705 daughter (I)-Guillaume Couillard, d-1663 and (II)-Guillemette
Marguerite married 2nd time April 20. 1705 Kebec. Marguerite epouse November 12,
1646, Kebec, (I)-Nicolas Macard dit Champagne d-1659. Nicolet 1st married Nipissing woman , b-1610
and had one known daughter:
(II)-Madeleine Euphrosine Nicolet, Metis.
(II)-Ignace Nicolet Metis (1640-1640)
Marguerite Nicolet Metis b-1642 married 1656 Quebec (III)-Jean Baptiste Le Gardeur De Repentogny
October 7: The marriage of (I)-Jean Nicolet, (1598-1642) to Marguerite Couillard age 11, was attended by (I)-Francois Derre de Gand (chief of police), the late Oliver, Noel Juehereau, Pierre De la Portie, Guillaume Hubout, Guitianume Hebert, Marie Rolet, Claude Racine and Etienne Racine.
October 7: (I)-Pierre Nicolet was present at the contract to marriage of (I)-Nicolas Bonhomme dit Beaupre (1603-1683) who eventually married September 2, 1640 Catherine Goujet (1616-`1679)
October 21, Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Michel Godfroy, died May 18, 1709, Trois Rivieres son (I)-Jean Baptiste Godfroy de Linctot, (1608-1681) and Marie Le Neuf b-1612-1688); married September 2, 1664, Montreal, Perinne Picote
October 22, 1637 it is reported that (I)-Jean Nicolet attended the marriage contracts of Francis Derre, chief of police, Oliver Le Tardif, Noel Juehereau, Pierre De la Porte, Guillaume Hubout, Guiliaume Herbert, Marie Rolet and future epouse Claude Racine and (I)-Etienne Racine, b-1607
November 3: Kebec, marriage (I)-Oliver Tardif (Letardif), b-1601, died January 28, 1665, Chateau Richer, (some suggest Tardif was an interpreter for Samuel de Champlain about 1620 and likely remained in Kebec during the English occupation) (others suggest he returned to France) he married 1st. November 3, 1737, Kabec (II)-Louise Couillard, b-1625, Kebec, died November 23, 1641, Kebec, daughter (I)-Guillaume Couillard, died March 4, 1663, Kebec and (II)-Guillemette Herbert b-1606, died October 20, 1684, Quebec: married 2nd (I)-Jean Aymart dit Aymard daughter (I)-Jean Aymart dit Aymard and Marie Bineau
November 13: David Kirke, Marquis of Hamilton and the Earls of Pembroke and Holland are appointed co-proprietors of Newfoundland. The prior rights of Lord Baltimore were deserted. (I)-David Kirke, as Governor of Newfoundland, brought out 100 colonists and built Fort Ferryland, Fort St. Johns and Fort Bay de Verde. This is in conflict with the Western Adventurers who want the Island free of settlers so as to maintain control of the Grand Bank's fisheries.
December 9: Kebec, birth (II)-Simone Cote, Metis, daughter (I)-Jean Cote, d-1661and (II)-Anne Martin, Metis, d-1684: married November 16, 1649, Kebec, Pierre Soumande
December 21: Kebec, birth (II)-Jacqueline Sedilot daughter (I)-Louis Sedilot (1600-1672) and Marie Grimoultt, b-1606: married October 23, 1651, Kebec, Jean Chenier.
Three marriages, nine births and two deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.
(I)-Francois Baugy b-1586 married 1638 Denyse Mercieu d-1661
(II)-Micheal Baugy (1639-1717) married 1661 Quebec, Madelein Dubois b-1640
(II)-Nicolas Belanger son (I)-Francois Belanger b-1612, died October 20, 1682 Beaufort, and Marie Guyon (1618-1696: married January 11, 1660 Quebec, Marie De Rainville
(II)-Marguerite Boule, b-1638, died January 31, 1639, Trois Rivieres daughter (I)-Francois Boule established Sillery and married, likely a sauvagesse.
Ship list of colonists from Soleil, France to Kebec
Jacques Chauson, wood worker
Jeanne Chesson, a woman of precedent
Marie Griffon, woman of precedent
Helie (Elie) Grimard, carpenter, and settled Trois Rivieres
Francois Parpailler, labourer
Daniel Parpailler, labourer
Jean Vanuel, tailor
Francois Verdon, master baker
Two Christian Savage girls marry Frenchmen this year and are given some land to settle on. See September 3, 1639.
Genevieve Agnas Skanndharon b-1638, died November 3, 1657, Kabec daughter Pierre Ondakion, Huron and Jeanne Asenraquehaon, Genevieve is adopted by Mr. & Mrs. Bodeau common folks from Paris who paid 3,000 livres for the little girl
(I)-David Kirke (1597-1654) seized the property and mansion of Lord Baltimore, then occupied by William Hill, Newfoundland.
Father (I)-Jerome Lalemant (1593-1673), brother of (I)-Charles Lalemant, Superior (1587-1674) and uncle of (I)-Gabriel Lalemant, is made Superior of Huron Mission of the Society of Jesus of New France. (I)-Jerome Lalemant visited the Wendat mission, bringing a number of Frenchmen of various trades. In 1639 he centralized operations at Ste Marie to establish an ideal fortified village with 13 Jesuit priests..
(I)-Jean Nicolet de Belleborne (1598-1642), journeyed to Lake Superior to establish trade relations for the Company of New France.
(I)-Jacques Panie arrived about 1638 Quebec with Marie Pousset de Rouen
(II)-Isabeau Panie born Rouen married 1639 Kebec Jean Gory
(II)-Marie Panie married 1639 Quebec Guillaume Bigot
The Jesuit are focusing on learning the Montagnais, Algonquian and Huron tongues.
St. Joseph Sillery, four miles above Kebec on the St. Lawrence River is established with two Algonkin families.
The Swedish West India Company established Fort Cristina (Wilmington, Delaware), consisting of some 200 to 300 Swedes and Finns in New Netherlands. Some contend they contributed log cabin construction to New England. The Dutch would annex the colony in 1655. The Jesuit Father Superior, Jerome Lalemant (1593-1673), introduced a centralization policy, ordering the Jesuit to live together in Sante Marie. This policy proved impractical, and the policy is reversed in 1643.
The New England colonies passed a law, making it a felony to run off to the Indians.
The parish Silleryr aka Mission de St Joseph de Sillery is established this year.
January 27: Kebec, birth (III)-Francoise Hebert, Metis daughter (II)-Guillaume Hebert, Metis, (1604-1639) and Helene Desportes, b-1620, epouse January 9, 1640, Kebec, Noel Morin: married November 20, 1651, Kebec, Guillaume Fournier
February 10: King Louis XIII made Charles de Menou d'Aulnay de Charnisay (1604-1650), a cousin (I)-Isaac de Launoy de Razilly (1587-1635), Lieutenant General of Acadia, with authority over Port Royal and La Heve and the command of Pentagouet (Acadia Maine); a trading post on the Penobscot River (Maine). (II)-Charles de La Tour (1593-1666) was granted the rest of Acadia ( Nova Scotia) and the command of Cape de Sable and Fort La Tour on the St. John River. This arrangement caused ill-feelings and hostility between the two.
February 22: Kebec, birth (II)-Marie Marsolet, Metis daughter (I)-Nicolas Marsolet (Marsollet) De St. Agnan (1587-1677) and Marie La Barbide, savage or Metis, (1620-1688), epouse May 8, 1681, Quebec, Denis Lemaitre:
April 30: The Island of Hochelaga (Montreal) concession is passed from (I)-Jacques Girard, Sieur de la Chaussee, who acquired it January 15, 1636 to (I)-Jean de Lauzon, being witnessed by (I)-Hardin-Huart and (I)-Haguenier.
May 13: Kebec, marriage (I)-Denis Duquet (1605-1675) to Catherine Gautier,
(II)-Pierre Duquet b-1643 Kuebec , d-1687 Quebec married 1666 Quebec Anne Lamarre b-1649
(II)-Antoine Duquet b-1660 Quebec d-1733 Lachenayemarried 1694 Montreal Marie Tetard
May 22: Kebec, marriage (I)-Etienne Racine, b-1607 to (II)-Marguerite
Martin, Metis (1624-1679) daughter (I)-Abraham Martin dit L'Ecossais (1589-1664)
and Huron savagesse and/or Marguerite Langlois, Metis b-1611?, see 1624: It
was on May 22, 1638 that, Father Nicolas Adam fulfilled his parish duties at
Quebec. He blessed the union of (I)-Etienne Racine and (II)-Marguerite Martin, Metis,
b-1624, now fourteen years old. Olivier Tardif/LeTardif and Guillaume Couillard
were present. Promise of marriage was made November 16, 1637.
(II)-Anonyme Racine Metis (1640-1640) Quebec
(II)-Louise Racine Metis (1641-1675) Quebec married 1653 Quebec (II)-Simon Guyon d-1682
(II)-Noel Racine Metis b-1643 Quebec married 1667 Chateau Richer (II)-Marguerite Gravelle d-1708
(II)-Madeleine Racine Metis b-1646 Quebec married 1661 Chateau Richer (I)-Noel Symard dit Lombrette
(II)-Francois Racine Metis b-1649 Quebec b-1714 St Anne married 1676 Ste Famille (II)-Marie Bauche et Bauchet Metis (1660-1703)
(II)-Marguerite Racine Metis b-1652 St Anne d-1695 Chateau Richer married about 1667 (II)-Jean Gagnon d-1699
(II)-Pierre Racine Metis b-1654 Chateau Richer d-1729 Quebec married 1682 Ste Famille (III)-Louise Guyon d-1727
(II)-Etienne Racine Metis b-1662 Chateau Richer d-1722 Ste Anne married 1683 St Francois (III)-Catherine Guyon d-1718
(II)-Jeanne Racine Metis b-1660 married 1682 Chateau Richer (II)-Jean Pare
June 11: The Jesuit Relations reported an earthquake at Trois Rivieres (Quebec).
June 24: Saint Jean Baptiste Day is first celebrated in Kebec using bonfires which were common in France.
July: Kebec, an unknown number of ships arrived, two known are the Petit Saint Jean, captain J. Coupereau and Marie Marthe captain N. Eccussard.
July 21: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Marie Blondel, died July 22, 1638, Trois Rivieres daughter (I)-Pierre Blondel, brewer at Fort Trois Riviers and Marie Gourdin Alyson
July 24: Kebec, birth (II)-Pierre Selle son (I)- Jacques Selle dit de L'espine to (I)-Marie Berard dit Lepine b-1619
August 27: Kebec, birth (II)-Noel Guyon son (I)-Jean Guyon, sieur du Buisson, a mason and educated man from Perche married to Madeleine Boule
September 3: Kebec Country Marriage (I)Guillaume Bigot b-1614 (contract of marriage December 19, 1639) married Marie Panis, slave of Jack and Marie Pouchet of St. Maclou, Bishopic of Rouen, France. This is likely one of those Indian or Metis girls sent to France for education and returned for marriage.
October 12: Kebec marriage (I)-Francois Drouet Greffe de Guitet b-1616 to
Perinne Godin b-1618
(II)-Francois Drouet b-1638 Kebec
October 30: Kebec, birth (II)-Adrien Hayot son (I)-Thomas Hayot and Jeanne Boucher: 1st married November 24, 1661 Quebec, Marie Guyon: 2nd married February 18, 1686, Quebec, Marie Pechine..
November 16; Kebec, (I)-Etienne Racine and (II)-Marguerite Martin, Metis (1624-1679) were the heros of the celebration held in the house of (I)-Abraham Martin, (1589-1664). This document is the first to reveal to us the origins of the young fiance. He was the son of Rene Racine and Marie Loisel, from the parish Fumichon, in Normandy. For the occasion, he was assisted by his "kind friends" Guillaume Couillard and Adrienne d'Abancourt, the future bride of Jean Joliet.
November 22: (II)-Adrien Martin, Metis, born November 22, 1638, Kebec son (I)-Abraham Martin dit L'ecossais, (1589-1664) and Marguerite Langlois, Metis, b-1611?).
November 24: Kabec, birth (II)-Genevieve Bourdon, Metis, died December 13, 1700, Quebec, daughter ((I)-Jean Bourdon, attorney general and engineer chief, died January 12, 1668, and Jacqueline Potel, most likely a sauvagesse or Metis, d-1654.
December 31: A lunar eclipse sighted in the Huron country, caused panic among the People who placed the blame on the Jesuits. It is likely the Jesuits used this natural phenomena to create converts, but it back fired.
Five marriages, fifteen births and nine deaths are recorded in Kebec, New France.
Kebec marriage (I)-Jacques Boissel b-1601 to Marie Eripert ou Heripel b-1611
(II)-Jacques Boissel (1640-1640) Kebec
(II)-Noel Boissel (1641-1669) Quebec married 1669 Quebec Marie Mortin (1645-1725)
(II)-Marguerite Boissel b-1643 Kebec 1st married 1657 Quebec (I)-Etienne Bouchard (1622-1676), 2nd marriage 1687 Quebec (I)-Julien Joyen b-1661
(II)-Jacques Boissel (1646-1674) Kebec
(II)-Nicolas Boissel (1648-1660) Kebec
(II)-Guillaume Boissel b-1651 Kebec d-1687 Montreal married 1686 Montreal (II0-Louise Le Blanc veuve Michel Le Court
(II)-Marie Madeleine Boissel (1655-1674) Kebec
(II)-Gilles Boissel b-1658 Quebec d-1715 St Michel married 1696 (II)-Angelique Marguerite Salouer
(II)-Jeanne Boissel b-1662 Quebec married 1683 (I)-Jean Vergeat (1648-1724)
(I)-Jean Bourdon, attorney general and engineer chief, who died January 12, 1668, in 1639 obtained the seigniories of Donbourg, Neuville, today's Point aux Tremble, Quebec
(II)-Antoine Brossard, b-1639, died April 12, 1642, Kebec son (I)-Antoine Brossard b-1609 and Francoise Mery b-1621, sudden death July 11, 1671 Quebec, before 1637 she lived in a large house in Kebec, possible sauvagesse?.
Francois de Champflour is Governor Trois Rivieres (1639-1645)
Marie Crespin, b-1639 Ville-Marie (Montreal) aka Hochelaga, married 1681 (I)-Jean Fournier, b-1627; she is likely a Metis, a daughter of a free trader in this area
(I)-Francois de Chamflour is commandant Trois Rivieres (Quebec).
(I)-Jacques Le Neuf De la Poterie b-1606 Governor Trois Rivieres (1645-1648), (1650-1651), (1652-1653) and (1658-1662) married Trois Rivieres (II)-Marguerite Le Gardeur b-1608 daughter (I)-Rene Le Gardeur and Catherine De Corde, died July 7, 1657 Quebec. Some suggest he married France about 1631?
(I)-Andre de Malapart (Malapart) arrived Trois Rivieres 1635 and is made commandant in 1639.
A coal mine is operating at Grand Lake (New Brunswick).
Jeanne Enard, b-1619 wife of (I)-Christophe Crevier, sieur de la Mesle arrives Trois Rivieres (Quebec) (not recorded by Tanguay) and begins a flourishing trade in brandy with the Natives. (I)-Christophe was involved in 27 court cases at Trois Riviers. I suspect Jeanne might be Metis or a savageese??
(I)-Pierre Pasquier de Franclieu married about 1739 Marie de Porta
(II)-Marie Pasquier b-1640 Kebec d-1685 Recollets married 1668 Charles Couillard
Smallpox hit this year in Fort Kebec and Trois Rivieres killing hundreds of people. The Huron (Wendat) lost half their population. The Jesuit, following their isolation policy, created the first Indian reservation- St. Joseph de Sillery, seven kilometers north of Fort Kebec, which included three thousand, five hundred hectares. The Jesuits, having failed to educate the Algonquian into Christianity, called on the Ursuline order of nuns to educate the women. They also would fail. This ill-conceived policy, however, would last for the next three hundred and fifty years, causing much suffering to the Native Peoples.
The Ursuline arrived to educate the savage girls. Marie de I'Incarnation said "A Frenchman is more readily become a savage than a savage a Frenchman". It's ironic that any analysis of the two cultures suggest the Europeans were the savages.
The Hospitan Nuns say; in France you have to be on guard every day, to prevent disputes among the poor, or to quell them, and in Kebec we have not observed the least discord among our sick Savages, not even a slight quarrel has arisen. How these persons, so different in country, age and sex, can agree so well. The love of the mother towards their children is very great.
In the Huron Country are 13 Jesuit and 27 Frenchmen. (II)-Pierre Boucher (1622-1717) served this mission (1639-1643) he is likely living with his Indian girl and they would settle Trois Rivieres. Father Superior, (I)-Jerome Lalemant (1593-1673), opened a mission among the Petuns and Neutrals, being fearful of the Dutch Calvinists' influence, as the Jesuits had previously, vigorously opposed to them in India, Japan and the East Indies. The Jesuit Father (I)-Barthelemy Vimont (1594-1667) arrived at Fort Kabec this year for a second time. The Algonquin accused the Wa-mit-ig-oshe (Jesuit) and Christian Wendat of plotting to destroy the whole Nation of Peoples.
Smallpox, carried by the Jesuits, destroyed 50% of the Huron Nation, leaving only 10,000 people. Others suggest disease in 1634, 1636 and 1639 destroyed 18,000 Huron. Earlier unknown diseases (likely also smallpox) had already thinned their numbers. Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) in 1645 estimated the Huron numbered some 30,000 people in 20 towns.
The Company of (New) France issued a resolution that Savages should be on the same footing as the French at the Company stores. Savage girls who marry French husbands should be allotted a piece of land prepared for crop.
The French Jesuits build Fort Ste. Marie #1 (1639-1649) on the River Wye, near Lake Attigouanatan (Huron), Ontario. Fort Ste Marie was burned down by the Jesuits in 1649.
Girls (Filles du Roi) are first mentioned in the Jesuit Relations as being sent to New France this year in their 1641 reports. The Jesuits said that rumors circulating in Paris in 1639, as to the girls virtue, were untrue, as the girls virtue was attested to by a doctor before they departed France. Rumors in Paris say this is not true.
The Wenrohronons, an associate nation of the Neutral Nation, had a falling out, for unknown reasons, and fled to New France. They traveled over 80 leagues, made by over 600 persons, the majority being women and children, many die in transit with most being sick on arrival. They were distributed among the various Huron villages. The best places of the cabins were given to them, the granaries or chests of corn were opened and they were given liberty to dispose of them as if they were their own. The Wenrohronons were grateful and the Jesuit saw this as an opportunity to make converts.
The European Islanders (English) who have settled to the south are barbarians who are hostile to the Roman Church and the Black Robes. They tell the Hiroquois, the Black Robes are associated to destroy and ruin the world. They said there are some Jesuit in England, but concealed, and as soon as caught, they are put to death.
(I)-Charles Huault de Montmagny, d-1651, the Governor of Canada (1635-1648) built Hotel Dieu, Kebec.
January 2: Kebec, birth (III)-Marie Madeleine Sevestre, died November 7, 1706, daughter (II)-Charles Sevestre, died December 9, 1657, Kebec and Marie Pichon, died May 4, 1661, Quebec: 1st married October 22, 1653, Quebec, Jacques Loyer: 2nd marriage February 22, 1672, Quebec, Louis DeNiort.
January 29: Kebec, birth (III)-Ignace Le Gardeur, died June 5, 1644 Trois Rivieres son (II)-Pierre Le Gardeau, d-1675 and Marie Favery, d-1675.
February 13, 1639 birth (II)-Pierre Boucher son (I)-Marin Boucher (1589-1671) arrived Kebec 1619, 1st marriage 1625 Julienne Barry; 2nd marriage 1631 Perinne Malet (1606-1687); married April 4, 1663 Chateau Richer, Marie St. Denis
March 20, Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Louis Godfroy, son (I)-Jean Baptiste Godfroy de Linctot, b-1608-1681) and Marie Le Neuf (1612-1688); married March 1663 (II)-Marguerite Seigneuret, b-1650
March 30: Kebec: birth (II)-Louise Giffard, died October 31, 1658, Quebec, 1665, Quebec daughter (I)-Robert Giffard de Moncel (1587-1658/1668) and (I)-Marie Renouard b-1599/1659: married August 12, 1652, Quebec, Charles De Lauzon
May 4: The St. Joseph sailed from Dieppe, France with the following passengers: Jesuit (I)-Joseph Antoine Poncet de La Riviere (1610-1675), Jesuit (I)-Pierre Joseph Marie Chaumonot (1611-1693) and Jesuit Barthelemy Vimont (1594-1667), new Superior of the Jesuits in Canada. Also included are Ursuline (I)-Marie Guyart aka Marie de I'Incarnation (1599-1672), Ursuline (I)-Marie de Savonnieres de La Touche, Ursuline Marie de Saint Joseph (1616-1652, and Mother (I)-Cecile de Sainte Croix. (I)-Marie Madeleine de Chauvigny de La Peltrie (1603-1671) was on board. Three Hospitallers were included: Mother Marie Guenat, Marie de Saint Ignace (1610-1646), Anne le Cointre, Anne de Saint Bernard and Marie Forestier and Marie de Saint Bonaventure (1615-1698).
July/August: Kebec, three ships arrived the Saint Joseph Captain Bontemps, the Saint Jacques captain Ancelot and one classified as a boat.
July 12: Kebec, birth (II)-Martin Cote, Metis, son (I)-Jean Cote, d-1661and (II)-Anne Martin, Metis, d-1684: married July 25, 1667, Chateau Richer, Suzanne Page
July 18: Trois Rivieres, birth (II)-Jean Blondel, died August 10, 1639, Trois
Rivieres son (I)-Pierre Blondel, brewer at Fort Trois Riviers and Marie Gourdin
August: Prior to this time some savage girls were placed in French families as domestics for education and training in the French way. The Jesuits selected what they considered the brighter girls and shipped them to France for what they called a thoroughly gallic education, baptism, French name assignment and return to marry Kebec Frenchmen. The cost was too high for the Jesuits so they requested Ursuline teachers to come to Kebec. I suspect after this date only wealthy families or men in Kebec could afford to send their domestics or slave girls to France for education. It is noteworthy that Samuel de Champlain started this practice of sending young girls to France and his young wife began educated the Indian girls in Kebec when she was there for four years.
August 1: Marie de La Peltrie and Marie de I'Incarnation founded the Ursuline convent. They were teaching nuns with a primary goal of educating Indian Girls as wives to Frenchmen. It was true that girls who converted to Catholicism often desired to marry French Catholic husbands. The early records were lost in a fire the the schooling of Indian girls was said to be substantial. They were given practical household skills and provided with a dowry if they married a Frenchman. The actual convent was not built until 1641 and likely peaked at 60-80 girls. Many girls prior to 1641 were shipped to France for their education and were adopted into French families before being returned to New France. It is assumed many returned to the the convent before marriage but these records were lost in a fire. This is the reason why many Metis families go unrecorded in New France. Some say those who accepted the Ursuline education were better behaved than French girls. Sthers suggest the Ursuline were not prepared to educate Indian girls and the program failed. We may never know as records were lost, but early estimates are 60-80 per day and they range in age 5 years to age 17. 1641 = 48 students, 1668 = 19 students, 1681 = 9 students, 1725 = 0 students because of shutdown oh Ursuline education. No Indian girl became an Ursuline.
August 2: Kebec, birth (III)-Angelique Hebert, Metis daughter (II)-Guillaume Hebert, Metis (1604-1639) and Helene Desportes, b-1620, epouse January 9, 1640, Kebec, Noel Morin
August 8: Kebec, marriage (I)-Claude Poulain (1615-1687) who arrived Kebec
1636 this precludes he brought her over from France, marriage in 1639 to Jeanne Mercier
(1622-1687) likely Indian or Metis, no Mercier in New France at this time except
a Jesuit priest and no record of Jeanne Mercier in France. Mercier in
French means haberdasher or a dealer of small wares, its possible she has
(II)-Madeleine Poulain b-1646 married Pierre Mauffis
(II)-Martin Poulain b-1648 Kebec , d-1710 Ste Anne married 1688 Ste Anne (II)-Jeanne Barette
(II)-Rene Poulain b-1651 Quebec
(II)-Ignace Poulain b-1656 Quebec married 1683 Ste Anne (II)-Marguerite Pare
(II)-Marguerite Poulain (1658-1722) Quebec, married 1673 Ste Anne Jean Amyot
(II)-Marie Poulain b-1661 Ste Anne married 1679 Ste Anne Etienne Lessart
(II)-Marie Poulain d-1716 Ste Anne, 1st married 1654 Quebec Julien Mercier, 2nd marriage 1682 Ste Anne Charles Monmaignier
(II)-Pierre Poulain b-1664 Quebec married 1689 Ste Anne (II)-Anne Giguere
August 9: Kebec, birth (II)-Madeleine Couillard, Metis daughter (I)-Guillaume Couillard, d-1663 and (II)-Guillemette Herbert, Metis (1606-1684);
September 3: Kabec, marriage (I)-Guillaume Bigot, b-1614, child of Louis and Bertranne Malescot; married September 3, 1639, Kabec to (II)-Marie Panie of (I)-Jacques Panie and Marie Pouchet de St Maclou, bishopric de Rouen, France. Contract of marriage December 18, 1639 Greffe de Guitet.
September 3: Kabec, birth, (II)-Marguerite Langlois, Metis, died September 25, 1697, Beauport, daughter (I)-Noel Langlois dit Boisverdum, pilote (1606-1684), arrived Kebec 1634, 1st married Francoise Grenier (Garnier), Algonquin Metis born Hochelaga (Montreal) area, died November 1, 1665, Quebec: married October 22, 1653, Kebec Paul Vachon
September 12: Kabec, marriage (I)-Jean Gory, b-1611 married Isabeau Panie, slave sauvagesse or Metis daughter Jacques and Marie Dousset de St. Maclou, eveche de Rouen.
September 26: Kebec, marriage (I)-Jacques Maheu, d-1663 married Anne Convent epouse
1627, France (I)-Philippe Amiot and epouse September 10, 1666 Quebec, Etienne
(II)-Marie Madeleine Maheu (1641-1641) Kebec
(II)-Jean Maheu b-1643 Quebec, d-1674, 1st married 1663 Quebec Marguerite Corriveau, 2nd marriage 1673 Chateau Richer Mathurine Belanger
(II)-Nicolas Maheu d-1673 Chateau Richer
September 9: Kebec, marriage (I)-Jean Jolliet (1574-1651) to Marie D'Abancour
dite La Caille [likely a Metis see January 22, 1664]
(II)-Adrien Jollet Metis married 1664 Trois Rivieres Jeanne Dodier Metis
September 12; Kebec marriage (I)-Jean Gory b-1611 to (II)-Isabean
Panie daughter (I)-Jacques Panie and Marie Pousset, de St Maclou, eveche
October 9: Kebec marriage (I)-Jean Jolliet (1574-1651) to (II)-Marie D'Abancour b-1618 epouse 1651 Quebec Godefroy Guillot, epouse 1665 Quebec Martin Prevost; daughter (I)-Adrien D'Abancour dit Lacaille d-1641 Quebec and Simone D'Orgeville d-1649
(II)-Adrien Jolliet married 1664 Trois Rivieres Jeanne Dodier
November 1: Kebec: birth (II)-Marie Giffard, died June 3, 1714, Beauport daughter (I)-Robert Giffard de Moncel (1587-1668) and (I)-Marie Renouard b-1599: married September 22, 1649, Kebec, Nicolas Juchereau
December 7: Kebec, birth (II)-Francoise Guyon daughter (I)-Jean Guyon, sieur du Buisson, a mason and educated man from Perche married Madeleine Boule
December 10: Kebec, birth (II)-Marguerite Gareman daughter (I)-Pierre Gareman dit Garnier (in 1666 census) and Madeleine Charlot: married January 29, 1652, Quebec, Mathurin Tru
December 18: Kebec, birth (II)-Adrien Sedilot, died March 1, 1715, son (I)-Louis Sedilot (1600-1672) and Marie Grimoult, b-1606: married October 23, 1651, Kebec, Jean Chenier: married September 22, 1661, Quebec, Jeanne Briere..
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