FRENCH HISTORY 1850-1899
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In Montreal 1,500 young lady immigrants were in actual distress, starving and freezing. The females servants were subject to the usual European conditions, including the tact understanding that they were sexually available to their male employers.
The number of illegitimate (enfant du Roi) births recorded in Quebec from 1791 to 1800, was 411, legitimes are 89,343.
Anglican, Bishop Mountain, insisted that English speaking, Protestant teachers be established in each parish so that each child, by degree, be led to the Protestant religion. These are the same tactics used by the Catholic to recruit converts. Lieutenant Governor Milnes took possession of the Jesuit Estates and proposed the Estates be used to implement the Mountain System of Education. The decree passed with a proviso that required a majority consent in each parish before setting up any schools.
After 1763, the British suppressed the Jesuit Order by placing a ban on recruitment. Pope Clement XIV dissolved the Order about 1773 in response to increasing pressure from most of Europe and America for their clandestine methods. Bishop Briand of Quebec violated his vow of obedience and apposed the Pope by refusing to read the proclamation publicly. The last of the Canadian Jesuit priests died this year, and their considerable property and seigneuries reverted to Lower Canada. This was confirmed by London in 1831. The Jesuits would re-establish in Canada in 1842, but would never regain the property.
The illegitimate (enfant du Roi) births recorded in Quebec from 1791 to 1800 numbered 411.
The expulsion of Ezekiel Hart from the Quebec legislation, first officially introduced anti-Semitism into Canada. Goldwin Smith, a pathological anti-Semite, charged through his writings that Jews were parasites, dangerous and enemies to civilization. He had a profound impact on Mackenzie King and Henri Bourassa. Bourassa, in 1905, had urged Canada to keep its gates shut to Jewish immigrants. The Roman Catholic Church associated Jews with modernism, liberalism and a host of other dangerous doctrines, and used their press from 1880 to the 1940's to denounce the Jews. Popular news papers also joined in the ethnic assault. Current Quebec language laws are a more modern version of ethnic bigotry. Don't think it was only confined to Quebec- it had permeated into all regions of Canada, and North America, its systemic taking different forms. Language is an instrument by which people of European distinction articulate their identity, their very culture. History has proven that this fundamental European principle has been divisive, facilitates misunderstanding and leads to war. Language should be a living instrument that evolves with time and is influenced by other cultures. To attempt to freeze in time a language is fundamentally wrong.
It is estimated that 8,400 Canadian exiled Acadians found their way back to Nova Scotia. The Acadians from New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island finally got the right to vote.
Between the 1680's and 1800, it is estimated that New France had 4,000 slaves. This likely excludes those residing outside Quebec. These slaves lived short lives. Indian slave's average age at death was 18 years and black slaves was 25 years. How could this happen in a supposedly Christian community? As early as 1435 Pope Eugene IV in his Bull Sicut Dudum condemned slavery and those engaged in it, and those who ignore the Bull are excommunicated, ipso facto. In 1537, Pope Paul III issued the Bull Sublimis Deus that condemned slavery, Popes Gregory XIV, 1591, Pope Urban VIII, 1639, and Pope Benedict XIV, 1741 also all condemned slavery. In 1839, Pope Gregory XVI will again issue a Bull, entitled in Supremo, "we, by apostolic authority, warn and strongly exhort in the lord faithful Christians of every condition that no one in the future dare bother unjustly, despoil of their possessions, or reduce to slavery Indians, Blacks or other such people." It is noteworthy he used the words "in the future" in an attempt to exclude previous actions by the clergy concerning slavery.
January: St. Eustache, marriage (III)-Ignace Raizenne, Metis b-1771 son (II)-Jean Baptiste Raizenne, Metis and Marie Charlotte Sabourin; to Clemence Guindon.
October 27, Montreal, marriage, (IV)-Marie Sauvage, Metis daughter (III)-Pierre Sauvage, b-1751 and (IV)-Fillicite Viger, Metis, b-1743; married Joseph Nadeau, died July 16, 1832, Ottawa.
November 4: Trois Pistoles marriage (V)-Etienne Damours son (IV)-Ambroise Damours (1740-1786) and (III)-Marie Genevieve St Laurent Metis b-1748; married Marie Turcotte
Jean Baptiste Gagnier (Gager) (1801/02-1890) joined HBC at Lachine, Quebec (1830-1851) Columbia District, retired
on the Oregon Coast.
He abandoned his Montreal wife, and family is not recorded;
He had at least one native wife, who appeared to go by several names, Nancy/Julienne/Angelique b-1819, the daughter of an Umpqua chief. She was baptised under Angelique in the Yaquina area of Oregon in 1869. The size of his family is problematic for there appeared to be at least three sons
Antoine Gagner Metis b-1836
John Gagner Metis (1858-1911)
Francis Gagner Metis
November 16: Lachine, marriage (III)-Etenne Guy, Metis,, died September
31, 1820, Montreal, son (II)-Pierre Guy
(1738-1812) and (IV)-Marie Joseph Hervieux, Metis (1743-1785); married (V)-Catherine
Vallee Metis b-1773 daughter (IV)-Pierre Vallee b-1731 and (IV)-Marie
Catherine Treffle dit Rotot Metis b-1742
(IV)-Pierre Guy Metis (1802-1802) Montreal
(IV)-Marie Catherine Helene Guy Metis b-1803 Montreal
(IV)-Marie Elisabeth Guy Metis b-1804 Montreal
(IV)-Etienne Guy Metis b-1806 Montreal
(IV)-Georges Guy Metis b-1808 Montreal
(IV)-Michel Patrice Guy Metis b-1809 Montreal
Three hundred Scottish Highlanders settled at Sydney, Nova Scotia.
Hugh Munro (1802-1896) from Montreal likely son Lieutenant Hugh Munro, the son Captain John Munro; joined HBC (1815-1844) Fort Edmonton, a free man at Fort Edmonton (1823-1832), an interpreter (1832-1844) Fort Edmonton, retired 1844 on the Saskatchewan River, died on the Blackfoot Reservation, at Browning, Montana 1896
Joseph Etienne Porlier born February 9, 1729/30 Montreal married 1802 likely Maumee Bay, Lake Erie, Ohio an Indian girl.
Charles Roy married February 15, 1802, Nova Scotia, Marie Louise Minet an Indian from Red River, likely Metis.
(III)-Louise Versailles, Metis, b-1802, son (II)-Luois Bourquin dit Versailles, b-1743 and Magdelaine Montagnaise Sauvage; married 1823 Jean Baptiste Jolibois.
In the Niagara Herald several advertisements are found relating to Indian slaves. One of August 25, 1802, forbids all persons harboring a runaway Indian slave.
A Montreal Judge ordered 25 lashes on the bare backs of two dissolute women. The general public were horrified but the law abolishing whipping of females was not abolished until 1886.
January 18: Montreal marriage (II)-Joseph Gauvin dit
Dautour to (V)-Margerite Barsolou Metis B-1785 Montreal daughter
(IV)-Pierre Barsolou Metis and (IV)-Marie Anne Girouard
(III)-Marie Sophie Gauvin Metis b-1802 MontreaL Married Jutien Perrault
Junuary 25: Beaumont, marriage (IV)-Antoine Fournier, Metis, son (III)-Augustin Fournier b-1729 and (III)-Marie Boutillet, Metis (1731-1804); married (V)-Marie Catherine Roy.
Joseph Beriault, b-1803, Trois Rivieres, Quebec, son Joseph Beriault and
Marianne; married Isabelle Duval, Metis, b-1820 daughter Alexis Duval and
Joseph Cornoyer b-1803 likely Sorel, Quebec, joined NWC 1819-1821) & HBC (1821-1826) Fort Chipewyan, Athabasca and HBC (1826-11842) New Caledonia and Columbia District , free trader 1832, settled Willamette 1842, he married Thérèse Spokane/quilqual/Sehan , widow of Joseph Massa Grenier (1796-1930)who had been drowned at the Dalles in 1830. The recorded Cornoyer children were
Victoire Cornoyer Metis b-1831
Joseph Cornoyer Metis b-1838.
She had other children:
Martial Lavalee Metis b-1818
Pierre Lavalee Metis (1821-1844)
Marie Anne Grenier Metis (1830-1850).
(I)-Ramsey Crooks (1787-1859) son William Crooks and Margaret Ramsey joined the Montreal Fur Trade (1803-1810). In (1810-1812) joined Pacific Fur Company for Fort Astoria Columbia District. On 1817 joined the America Fur Company. March 10, 1825 married Emily Pratt (Marianna Pelagie)
Thomas Douglas, fifth Earl of Selkirk, 1771-1820, sailed with eight hundred of his poor tenants to settle on Orwell Bay, Prince Edward Island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. William Osgoode, Chief Justice of Upper Canada, declared slavery was inconsistent with the laws of Canada.
Horora Ryan, Acadian Metis, died this year, buried Baie des Vents, Hardwick, New Brunswick, source Archie Martin
France was aware that they could not hang on to the vast Louisiana Territory and sold it to the U.S. at about 2 1/2 cents an acre rather than let it fall into the hands of the British.
Bishop Pierre Denaut, in his ignorance, blamed the Acadians for the deportation of the Acadians saying it was because of their simple ways. Denaut estimated the Acadian numbered 7,500 with 1,000 in the Bay Sainte Marie, 500 Cape Sable, 1,500 Canso and ille Madame, 350 Cape Breton, 350 Magdalen Islands, 750 Prince Edward Island, 1,100 in southern New Brunswick and 2,000 along the Saint Lawrence River.
April 9: Maumee Bay, Lake Erie, Ohio birth Etienne Porlier Metis daughter Joseph Etienne Porlier born February 9, 1729/30 Montreal and Indian girl.
July 19: St. Charles, Montreal, marriage, (V)-Louis Menard, Metis, son (IV)-Pierre Menard dit Montour, Metis, b-1725 and Genevieve Sicard epouse November 27, 1781 Fort Detroit Joseph Carie; married Marie Berthelet.
Thomas Douglas conducted a second group of his highland tenants to the mouth of the Thames River which he called Baldoon Farm.
Louis Proveau (1805-1846) Yamaska,
married Julie a woman of the Lakes; joined HBC (1828-1846 Columbia District, on
Victoire Proveau Metis b-1840 Fort Covile, Columbia District.
February 25: St Jean Deschaillons marriage Urbain Courteau to Therese Courture daughter (V)-Jean Francois Couture b-1761 and (VI)-Therese Metivier, Metis (1764-1794)
June 25: Joseph Martin, b- 1744, Acadian Metis, died this year, buried Baie des Vents, Hardwick, New Brunswick, source Archie Martin
November 11: marriage (V)-Andre Ste Marie, b-1774, died July 12, 1858 Longueuil, married (III)-Elisabeth Vincent, Metis, b-1786, daughter (II)-Pierre Vincent, Metis, b-1756 and Elisabeth Brais
Francois David Clairmount, Metis born November 16, 1806 son Francoise (Sauge) Clairmont Metis and (VI)-Ludivine Doucet, Metis.
February: St Eustache, birth (IV)-Clet Raizenne, Metis son (III)-Ignace Raizenne and Clemence Guindon; married February 8, 1831 Rigaud, Rose Sophie Gautier.
(III)-Jean Baptiste Versailles, Metis, b-1806, son (II)-Luois Bourquin dit Versailles, b-1743 and Magdelaine Montagnaise Sauvage; married February 18, 1833, Red River, (II)-Genevieve Short, Metis, b-1808/09 daughter (I)-James Short, (1767-1840) and Betsey Sauteuse (Chippewa), b-1783, died April 2, 1863 Red River.
Quebec is still being controlled by the Roman Catholic Church and the appointed French seigniorial system that dominated French thinking (1627-1854). It was closely aligned with the English feudal system. The Province of Quebec (Lower Canada) is embracing the English parliamentary system with its free elections. The introduction of the printing press in Lower and Upper Canada, fuels the revulsion of the British ruling system. Upper Canadians go as far as calling the the British pimps. Opposition to the the British style of rule is not tolerated and will not be forgiven. The publishers of the press are imprisoned for treason.
May: Jean Baptiste Lagimodiere Metis? (1778-1855) and 2nd wife Marie Anne Gaboury Metis? (1780-1875) departed Quebec for Red River des Metis.
June 18: Marguerite Muzerall,, b-1749, Acadian Metis, died this year, buried Baie des Vents, Hardwick, New Brunswick, source Archie Martin
The Americans created the Embargo Act and the non-Intercourse Act of 1809
halting all trade, that was designed to damage the economies of Britain, France
and Canada. These ignorant acts contributed to the war of 1812.
Ezekiel Hart, born 1770, Trois Rivieres d-1843 son Aaron Hart is elected to represent Trois Rivieres, but is declared ineligible because he is a Jew. He is re-elected in 1808 and again barred from sitting. It would take 25 years to settle the issue if a Jew can sit in the legislature. Only Christians are allowed to be members of Parliament.
Felix Le Brun (1807/08-1830) son Louis Le Brun terrien and [married 1794
Maskinonge] Marie (Etiennette) Belair; Joined HBC (1830) Columbia district,
drowned, married Davide Sigard
Julie Le Brun Metis married 1820 Maskinonge Louis Paquin
Louis Le Brun Metis married 1828 St. Cuthbert Genevieve Duteau
Unknamed son died 1830
Amable Le Brun Metis married 1829 1st Elisabeth Landry, 2nd marriage 1841 Louis Juneau
David Le Brun Metis b-1809? or 1830? Davide was pregnant in 1830
The first possible indication of anti-Jewish sentiment in Canada was the expulsion of Ezekiel Hart from the Quebec legislature. Anti-Semitism was particularly acute in Quebec, where the Roman Catholic Church regarded Jews as the killers of Christ. They refused to repent and be converted. They were seen as supporting modernism, liberalism, and violated a host of other Church doctrines.
2: Rimouski marriage (VI)-Charles Lepage Metis son (V)-Charles Lepage Metis
b-1753 and Marie Anne Dion;
1st married (VI)-Louise Cote b-1792
2nd married 1811 Rinouski (II)-Marguerite Hppell b-1796
(VII)-Marguerite Lepage Metis married Abel Cote Pere de I'abbe Philemon Cote
17: Montreal, marriage (V)-Jacques Viger Metis (1787-1858) sn (IV)-Jacques Viger
Metis (1735-1798) and (III)-Amarante Prevost (1742-1813); married to
(III)-Marguerite St Luc Lacorne Metis veuve de John Lennox
(VI)-Amarente Eugenie Viger Metis b-1810 Montreal
(VI)-Elise Hermine Viger Metis b-1812 Montreal
(VI)-Charles Augustin Wellesly Viger Metis b-1810 Montreal
A Montreal Judge ordered twenty-five lashes on the bare backs of two disorderly women.
Canada's first steamship, Accommodation, is launched in Montreal, Quebec.
Propertied women in Quebec voted unchallenged between 1809-1849 on municipal voting. The word male was inserted into the Quebec Franchise Act removing this loop hole. Most Canadians, this century, believed that the sexes were assigned to separate spheres by natural and divine laws that overrode mere man-made laws. It is noteworthy that many Canadians still believe into the twenty first century, that mans interpretation of God's laws override natural, civil and criminal laws.
August 15: St Charles marriage (VI)-Clement Reaume Metis son (V)-Etienne
Reaume b-1755 and Marguerite Noel Metis b-1760 daughter (IV)-Louis Noel Metis
b-1738 and (IV)-Marguerite Paradis b-1738
(VII)-Anselme Reaume Metis married 1847 St Roch Adeline Simard
Francis Butcher (Boucher, Bouchier) b-1810 likely Lachine, joined HBC (1832-1856) Lachine, Montreal (1832-1833), York Factory (1833-1834), Athabasca (1834-1853) Furlough to visit relatives, (1853-1854) at Sault St Marie 1853, Fort William (1854-1855) New Brunswick, Moose District (1855-1856)
Montreal, Quebec: (I)-John George McTavish, a Scot (1778-1847) employed NWC (1798-1821) then employed HBC (1821-1846), is assigned to Montreal (1810-1811) where he joined the expedition with David Thompson to the West and Columbia District.
Thomas Petit dit Gobin (1810/11-1886) Yamaska Quebec possible son
Thomas Petit b-1797 or more likely Antoine Godin and Angelique Gauoher, joined
HBC (1831-1842) assigned (1831-1832) Lac La Pluie then (1832-1842) Columbia
District, retired Wallamette 1842; three marriages are recorded and nine or more
1st married native woman
Toussaint Petit Metis b-1835
Jean Baptiste Petit Metis (1837-1858)
2nd marrisge 1841 Fort Vancouver Margeurite Venier (1819-1858)
François Xavier Petit Metis (1842-?),
Angelique Petit Metis (1845-1873),
Julie Petit Metis (1849-1876),
Isabelle Petit Metis b-1851
Antoine Petit Metis (1854-1854),
Joseph Petit Metis b-1856
3rd married 1863/68 Therese Depot (Dubreuille)
(I)-John Leopoid Iserhoff a shipwrecked Russian sailor others say German, married a Cree woman
(II)-Joseph Iserhoff Sr Metis (1810-1894) born Woswonaby, Rupert River, James Bay, Quebec
(II)-John Iserhoff Metis (1829-1865) born Woswonaby, Rupert River, James Bay, Quebec
(II)-Joseph Iserhoff Sr Metis (1810-1894) born Woswonaby, Rupert River, James
Bay, Quebec son (I)-John Leopoid Iserhoff a shipwrecked Russian sailor others
say German. Still others suggest he was Gustave Iserhoff from Brunswick
who settled Quebec and married Genevieve Pepin and had a son Jean Baptiste
Leopold Iserhoff who joined NWC (1805-1821) The first claim seems more
credible. (II)-Joseph joined HBC (1835-1875) Rupert River, married a Cree
(III)-Joseph Leopold Iserhoff Metis Jr. (1855-1913) born Woswonaby HBC (1869-1913)
(III)-John C. Iserhoff Metis (1859-1926) HBC (1882-1922) married 7 children
(III)-William Robert Iserhoff Metis died young
(III)-Hannah Iserhoff Metis married 1875 Rupert House John B.
The Acadians were not given the right to vote by the English until this year and until they were sure they were in a minority. This is the same tactics they would employ in western Canada against the Metis and Indians.
Peter Durandm a British Merchant invented the tin can this year. The Quebec French used the tin cans as bougie. A bougie is an Arabic word for candle lantern. It is a candle set in a tin can with a small hole cut in the side to let light out. It was used to make ones way to the outhouse or barn at night.
June 5: Montreal Charles Boucher joined the Pacific Fur Company W.P. Hunt expedition to the west. By August 1, 1810 they were at Mackinac and arrived Pacific coast at Fort Astoria February 19, 1812. He joined NWC 1813 assigned to Spokane House.
September 10: Lac Des Deux Montagnes, Quebec, marriage (IV)-Antoine Benjamin
Dicairie son (III)-Pierre Dicairie et Dickeree Metis b-1755 and (III)-Marie
Francoise Ranger b-1745; married Reine Titly
(VI)-Antoine Macaire Dicaire Metis b-1811
Urbain Heroux b-1811/12 Trois Rivieres joined HBC (1833-1844) assigned
Northern Department and English River, then assigned (1837-1844) Columbia
District. Married 1837/38 Chinook woman
Julien Heroux Metis b-1840 Fort Vancouver
A Metis daughter b-1842 Fort Simpson
British war ships are seizing American ships who are supplying goods to France. The American crews are pressed into service for the British. The Americans are incensed, and Thomas Jefferson says Canada can be taken by just marching. Thomas Jefferson, a Virginian, believes in a peaceful eradication of the Indian culture through education of their children and by emphasizing agriculture to confine the men to the land.
George McKenzie Metis born Indian Territory joined NWC (1812-1821) assignment not recorded; HBC (1821-1831) Montreal
President James Madison calls for a declaration of War against Canada on June 1, 1812. One grievance is that the Canadians are supporting the western Indians in opposing white settlement. The other is control of the western fur trade.
Cape Breton Island is re-annexed to Nova Scotia. The British wanted to flood the area with British emigrants as they didn't trust the loyalty of the American squatters along the border.
Africville, Halifax, Nova Scotia is considered as having started about this time and was officially recognized in the 1840's. Residence however have traced their ancestry back to the 1700's. Africville is now an underused park that stands as a reminder of racism in Nova Scotia. The City of Halifax over the years was determined to destroy the historic village of Africville. They refused to provide water, sewage and lightning to the community but religiously collected their taxes. They allowed a railway line to be constructed right through the community. They authorized the building of a fertilizer plant and located a city dump in the community. Then they had the ignorance to label the area a dark dirty blight on the city and in the 1960's forced these people from their historic lands and used city garbage trucks to transport their goods to slum housings.
June 18: The American Congress declared war on Canada and former U.S. President Thomas Jefferson said: “The acquisition of Canada this year, as far as the neighbourhood of Quebec, will be a mere matter of marching.”
Timothee Doucet, Metis son Joseph Doucet and (V)-Ludivine Muise aka Mius, Metis, b-1737; married August 1813, S.A.R. Gertrude Muise aka Mius, Metis.
(I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) died Montreal, joined
HBC (1786-1797) York Factory;
NWC (1797-1806) Saskatchewan River District; (1807-1811) Columbia District
June 10, 1799 IIe-A-La-Crosse, Athabasca District married (II)-Charlotte Small Metis (1784-1857) daughter (I)-Patrick Small and Cree woman.. Its noteworthy her only brother (II)-Patrick Small Metis (1789-1846) worked the Saskatchewan Department from (1804-1846). Thompson was churched October 30, 1812 Montreal.
Thirteen children are recorded:
(II)-Fanny Thompsin Metis born June 10, Rocky Mountain House (Alberta)
(II)-Samuel Thompsin Metis born March 5, 1804, Peace River Forks (Alberta)
(II)-Emma Thompsin Metis b-1806 Rocky Mountain House (Alberta) died 1813 Montreal
(II)-John Thompsin Metis b-1808 Boggy Hall, source of the Athabasca River or Fort Augustus (Alberta) died January 11, 1814 Terrebonne
(II)-Joshuah Thompsin Metis b-1811 Fort Augustus, (Alberta)
(II)-Henry Thompsin Metis b-1813 Montreal or Terrebonne
(II)-Charlotte Thompsin Metis b-1815 Williamstone
(II)-Elizabeth Thompsin Metis b-1817
(II)-William Thompsin Metis b-1819
(II)-Thomas Thompsin Metis b-1822
(II)-George Thompsin Metis b-1824
(II)-Mary Thompsin Metis b-1827
(II)-Elizabeth Thompsin Metis b-1824
In 1831 (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) a HBC & North West Company man who was rated as the most important explorer of Canada was bankrupt and living in poverty and obscurity, selling everything just to feed his wife and family. He died 1857 and his Metis wife of 58 years three months later. A great shame on Quebec and Canada.
In the fall of this year, the Americans control the western frontier of upper Canada. The now plan to attack Quebec. The plan is to take Montreal in a pincer movement.
A thirteen year old boy was hanged in Montreal for stealing a cow.
A troop ship returning from the war of 1812 ran ashore at Cape Pine on Newfoundland's Avalon Peninsula. All 350 passengers died.
The invading US army burned the Canadian Niagara-on-the-Lake.
February 1: St Jean Deschaillons marriage Francois Courteau (V)-Jean Francois Couture b-1761 and (VI)-Therese Metivier Metis (1764-1794); married Marie Paris
May 14: St Joseph de Chambly, marriage Charles Michel Sallaberry and (IV)-Marrie Anne Julie Hertel, Metis died April 24, 1854 daughter (V)-Jean Baptiste Melchior Hertel b-1748 and (IV)-Marie Anne Hervieux, Metis.
May 27: The invading US army captured Fort George Canada.
May 29: The invading United States Army under command of William Henry Harrison (1773-1841) captured Fort Meigs, Canada.
June 6: The US invasion of Canada is stopped at Stoney Creek, Upper Canada (Ontario). Billy the Scout aka William Green (1794-1877) is credited with providing information and leading the Canadian allies that surprised and defeated the US invading army.
October 26: About 4,000 Americans advance on a few hundred Canadians. The Canadians shoot 35-40 rounds each with deadly accuracy, and the Americans are in full retreat within a few hours. The Canadians remain in position another eight days, thinking the Americans are reforming for another attack.
November 11: The second attack at Montreal, from an American force much superior to the small Canadian and British defending force, is also a total failure.
December 18: Canada and her allies defeated the US army at Fort Niagara.
December 29: The Canadian army and her allies marched on and burned Buffalo, New York.
(II)-Thomas Hodgson, Metis (1789/1790-1865) employed HBC & NWC at Albany (1800-1814) with brother (II)-James Hodgson, Metis b-1785 employed HBC (1800-1814), they joined their father (I)-John Hodgson Sr. b-1763, employed HBC (1774-1810) and Indian wife on the Ottawa River.
A seven year old colored boy named Dick is bonded to slavery to Joseph Clark in New Brunswick to be trained in the business of husbandry and house servant.
Dozens of Upper Canadians commit treason, being led by Joseph Wilcox who is still a member of the Upper Canada government and has been passing information to the Americans. He gets 130 Canadians to join his personal army. They have been burning and pillaging Canadian villages for the past year; even the towns that voted him into power. Wilcox joins the American Army in an all out attack on Canada. At Lundays Laine, 3,500 Canadians and British are waiting for the Americans and turncoats, and will fight the bloodiest battle of the war. About 5,000 men die this day, including 1/3 of the Canadians, and the fighting went on into the night. But Wilcox and his turncoats retreat, and the Canadians and British hold the battlefield. Joseph Wilcox is killed six weeks later in another battle.
The Kingston House of Industry (1814-1916), a workhouse under English Poor Law, is opened for degraded habits, immorality and an undesirable environment for the young. The children are not cared for, supervised or protected from vice and degradation. It has no humanizing influences.
John Molson an emigrant from Lincolnshire, a brewer, learned French and started his fanous Molson's Beer empire. He was nicknamed le Pere Molson. He was not considered the creme de la Creme of French society so this year he changed religions from Presbyterian to Anglican to step up the social latter.
St. Paul Island in the Cabot Strait between Nova Scotia and Newfoundland is the site of 350 shipwrecks. This year a British troop ship sank with few survivors, it is said 200 were buried in a mass grave near Atlantic Cove.
Summer: Eight men are convicted of treason for aiding the Americans, sending a strong message to other Americans in Upper Canada.
August 19: The Canadian allied forces landed Patuxent River putting the US Army on the run. They then marched on Washington D.C. after defeating the US Army at Blansburg, Maryland. The capital of the United States fell to the Canadians and the President and his family fled the Whitehouse. Washington D.C. was burned, the Whitehouse and nearly every public building was also burnt. This was in retaliation for the United States burning of York (Toronto) of Upper Canada. Unfortunately the Library of Congress containing 3,000 books was also burnt. The Whitehouse got its name as it was painted white to cover the Canadian burn marks. It stands as a reminder of the infamous attack on Canada.
August 24, 1814. The English sailed up Chesapeake Bay and marched to Washington after driving out the American army. The White House was looted then burned. It is believed the HMS Fantome contains the White House loot.
November 5: The US army were in full retreat from the Niagara Frontier in Canada and on their way blew up Fort Erie on their retreat.
November 24: the HMS Fantome a man-of-war sank 20 miles southwest of Halifax, Nova Scotia as did two other ships in the convoy. The Fantome was full of plunder having taken and burned the American White House on August 24, 1814. Others dispute the White House loot story.
December 25: A peace treaty is signed, and Canada will never again will be attacked by the Americans. The American war was to assimilate Canada, but it did the opposite, driving the Canadians into the arms of Britain.
Montreal: Marguerite Kil-a-ko-tah (little song bird) Clatsop (1800-1873) daughter chief Coboway
Clatsop Columbia District.
1st married William Matthews of Pacific Fur Trade, one daughter is recorded:
Ellen Mathews Metis b-1815 and raised in Montreal. see record below.
2nd marriage (I)- James McMillan (1783-1858) a bigamist NWC (1804-1821) HBC (1821-1930) one daughter is recorded:
(II)-Victoria McMillan Metis b-1821
3rd marriage Louis Labonte, a Astorian who retired with her to French Prairie, aka Walama, or Willamette and Wallamette, Columbia District (Oregon Territory) in 1830. Three children are recorded:
Louise Labonte Metis
Julienne Labonte Metis b-1818
Caloine Labonte Metis b-1840
They also raised (II)-Victoria McMillan Metis b-1821
William Wallace Mathews of New York joined Pacific Fur Company and NWC
(1810-1815) . He married Kilakotah, the daughter of Clatsop Chief Coboway,
and their daughter
Ellen Mathews Metis b-1815.
He either traveled with or sent for his daughter for later, Ellen was educated in the East and married a wealthy citizen of Montreal.
(III)-Francois Xavier Vautrin dit Bienvenne, Metis born May 10, 1815, St. Philippe, Quebec, son (II)-Pierre Vautrin dit Bienvenne and Agathe Baudin (Baubin) a Miami Indian of the Detroit River region.
The immigrant trade began in earnest because of the Canadian Timber Trade. Owners of vessels carrying wood from Quebec and Saint John each summer did not want their vessels returning to Canada empty so they offered space to poor emigrants. By 1845 this human cargo in ships, called 'coffin ships', earned more money than timber and other goods. The British Government called it their answer to the surplus inhabitant policy. They underwrote some of the first mass migration, but this proved too costly. The French of Quebec encouraged the English to move on to Ontario, fearing domination as a plot by the English to overwhelm the French.
Forty thousand Scots came to Nova Scotia between 1815 and 1838, being enticed by forty hectares of free land. A New Brunswick yeoman indentured his eight-year-old daughter for ten years to her master to neither fornicate nor marry, nor absent herself day or nights from the household without leave. At age 18 she is to be provided two suits of clothing for common and Sunday wear for the ten years service.
Halifax more than any other British Colony practiced an extreme form of a class system. The rich and the poor treated each other as members of a different species. As an example "the Bishop's lady once swept out of the ball-room with her daughters, because he saw the wife of a baker who had made money coming in the door."
After the end of the War of 1812. Halifax swarmed with sailors from the British Navy. Privateers towed their captured prizes into harbor to be auctioned off. To serve this traffic whole sections of grog shops and dancing houses sprang up. Abandoned females, in a constant state of drunkenness, without shoes, in filthy and abominable conditions sprawled or solicicited.
The Priests were scandalized by the dress of young ladies. Not only did the girls go practically naked to balls, but the dresses they wore in the daytime were hardly any better. Some women didn't bother to wear even one petticoat.
Washing all over, like the savages, that was previously thought to be dangerous to the health, is becoming accepted. Bathtubs are becoming fashionable in upper society.
A man was hanged for shoplifting.
The following people are likely related;
Jean Baptiste LaRance (LaFrance) b-1790 NWT in Red River in 1838
Francois LaFrance b-1791 joined HBC (1827-1828) from Montreal assigned New Caledonia
Bazil LaRance b-1799 joined HBC (1826-1827) Fort Vancouver
Supplie Larance b-1808 joined HBC (1831-1851) New Caledonia
Theodore Larance b-1811 joined HBC (1832-1854 Columbia District
Bazil Larance (LaRance - LaFrance) b-1795/98 (from Berthier Country in Western Quebec) joined HBC (1816-1818) Montreal, assigned (1818-1819) Peace River District, (1819-1820) Fort Wedderburn (aka Fort Chipewyan) Athabasca District altered between noth Districts (1820-1826), (1827-1828) traveled York Factory, Saskatchewan District and Columbia District; (1828-1847) Saskatchewan District Fort Edmonton, Fort Carlton, retired Red River 1847; married Agathe Michel L'Iroquoise
Basile Larance Metis b-1831 Columbia District married Marguerite Desjardins
Charles Larance Metis b-1834 Fort Edmonton d-1872 Pembina married Marie Anbichion
Iean Baptiste Larance Metis b-1836 Fort Edmonton married Josephte Hamelin b-1839
Joseph Larance Metis b-1842 NWT married Clara Farquarhson b-1847 daughter John Ferguson (Farquarhson) (1809-1875) and Monique Hamlin b-1832 Pembina
The Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia, George Ramsey, 9th Earl of Dalhousie, wrote that the people are very poor and very indolent, fond of rum; they appear generally half-drunk. They waste time loitering about their houses and their field work and seem content in raising a sufficiency of potatoes for their winter.
Bathing after October was viewed as highly imprudent, even among the upper class. New France was a smelly place even though they wore perfume.
Between 1749 to 1816 about 10,000 blacks came to Acadia (Nova Scotia).
June 6/10: Quebec City snow fell accumulating to 30 cm (12 inches) with "drifts reaching the axel trees of carriages" during the infamous year without summer.
July 12: Montreal, death (III)-Marie Charlotte Raizenne, Metis grey nun, daughter (II)-Jean Baptiste Jerome Raizenne, Metis and (IV)-Marie Charlotte Sabourin b-1741.
September 2: Bonaventure, marriage Soulanges Bonaventure Levag de Joybert to Marguerite Ranger, Metis daughter Claude Ranger and Felicite Sagola Sanschagrin, Sauvahesse.
September 2: Soulanges marriage Bonventure Levag to Marguerite Ranger Metis daughter Claude Ranger and Felisite Sagola dit Sanschagrin Sauvagesse
September 9: Paul Mazerolle, b-1`754, Acadian Metis, died this year, buried Baie des Vents, Hardwick, New Brunswick, source Archie Martin
Ovid Allard (Alard) (1817-1874) born St. Roch, Montreal son Francois Allard dit Chatelin
and Suzanne Mercier
of Montreal, He joined HBC (1834-1874) Columbia District
1834-1837 Fort Hall (Idaho)
1837 Fort Boise (Idaho)
1839-1874 mostly Fort Langley (B,C.)
He married a native girl at Fort Hall, one child;
Marie Sennie Allard Metis who married Aprnaut and became the mother of Julia Hamburger Apnaut Metis; Ovid's second wife gave Sennie at Fort Langley to Mr. McKay
He married Justine Cowichan (1823-1907) marriage formalized 1853
Lucie Allard Metis (1842-1924)
Jason Ovide Allard Metis (1848-1931) married Seraphine Indian of Port Townsend area and had 12 children
Mathilde Allard Metis b-1851
Sara Allard Metis bapt-1856
Joseph Allard Metis b-1862
Marie Allard Metis
unnamed daughter born died Fort Langley
Two other children are recorded;
Laurent Allard Metis (1851-1860)
Eugenie Allard Metis bapt-1854
Even lower-middle-class French Canadian families had a servant, usually female. Back in England, with its surplus population and starving poor, servants counted themselves lucky even if they had to slave from morning to night and did so without complaint. In Montreal 1,500 young lady immigrants were in actual distress, starving and freezing. The females servants were subject to the usual European conditions, including the tact understanding that they were sexually available to their male employers. Prospects for pregnant servants were bleak, she might become a wet nurse for the upper class who considered it déclassé to nurse their own babies. Most babies were left on the Hotel Dieu for the nuns.
I'lle a La Crosse, birth (VI)-Louis Riel, Metis son (V)-Jean Baptiste Riel son (IV)-Jean Baptiste Riel and French Metisse.
May: The chief agent of the American Fur Company, at Lachine, Quebec, complained that upwards of 25 men out of 60 had failed to show for canoe departure. He expects 12-15 will not show before departure and very few will return monies and supplies advanced. Matthews is in charge of the canoes.
June 7: Longueuil, birth (VI)-Jean Baptiste Ste. Marie, Metis, died July 19, 1887 St. Hubert, son (V)-Andre Ste. Marie (1774-1858) and (III)-Elisabeth Vincent, Metis, b-1786; married 1st. October 18, 1842 Longueuil, (VI)-Zoe Achin, b-1821, died September 28, 1864 Longueuil; married 2nd. October 21, 1871, Montreal, Tharsille Ida Larocque.
(I)-George Budge, Orkney, (1779-1847) employed HBC (1797-1818) is assigned to New Brunswick (1816-1818), he was discharged by a Mr, Vincent and George went to the Lake Superior area, was at Sault Ste. Marie, Michipicoten and Drummonds Island (1818-1819).
(III)-Peter Skene Ogden (1794-1854) born Quebec son (II)-Isaac Ogden and Sarah Hanson, from New York is indicted in murder in Quebec, so he fled with the NWC to the Columbia River. He later abandoned his Cree wife and two Metis children. He was known to be a violent man and a bully-boy on the Saskatchewan River.
February 15: Paul Martin, b-1782, Acadian Metis, died this year, buried Baie des Vents, Hardwick, New Brunswick, source Archie Martin
(I)-Hugh Chisholm (1804-1876) joined NWC (1819-1821) Kings Posts, HBC
(1821-1836) King's Posts and Mingan, married Elisabeth Volant (Eesinekapo, a
(II)-Bernard Simon Chisholm Metis (1834-1924)
(II)-William Chisholm Metis (1838-1917)
(II)-Louise (Lisa, Elisa, Elisabeth) Chisholm Metis b-1840
(II)-Maire Josette Chisholm Metis b-1843
(II)-Anne Chisholm Metis (1845-1849)
(I)-Patrick Corcoran aka Cochrane, and Cochran, b-1787 Ireland, came to York Factory as a Red River Settler (1811-1812), found his way to Montreal, joined HBC, in Montreal, traveled to Athabasca (1819-1822) worked Fort Wedderburn, Athabasca District (1820-1822). Brother (I)-John Corcoran d-1827, (I)-Thomas Corcoran (1794-1865), (I)-Richard Corcoran, (I)-Edward Corcoran. Married by 1826, at Rawdon, but no name given for wife and child.
(I)-John Corcoran d-1827 of Ireland came to York Factory as HBC employee
(1818-1855), Brothers (I)-Patrick Corcoran b-1787, (I)-Thomas Corcoran
(I)-Richard Corcoran b-1823, (I)-Edward Corcoran; joined HBC (1818-1826) Moose,
Micawanish, New Brunswick (1819-1821) and Lake Superior, retired England.
He had one child at Sault Ste. Marie by 1827,
Mary Corcoran b-1821 Micawbanish, New Brunswick, died April 20, 1873, living with his brother (I)-Thomas Corcoran (1794-1865) Moose District, married (II)-Thomas Wiegand aka Wiggand, Metis b-1795/1800 and living Albany 1855. John retired to England 1826, no mention of his wife but likely Indian or Metis.
(III)-Alexander Fisher Jr.(1783-1847) son (II)-Judge Alexander Fisher of
Adolphustown, Upper Canada and Miriam Bower a Dutch woman d-1806 who were both
slave owners; joined NWC (1820-1821) Lake of Two Mountains, HBC (1821-1842),
assigned Lake of Two Mountains (1821-1819), Fort Alexander, New Caledonia
(1829-1839), Fort Good Hope, Mackenzie River, retired to Montreal 1845, NWC
listed him as 'unfit', HBC a superficial lying creature, a habitual Liar without
conduct or principles and much addicted to Liquor, married but wife not listed,
most likely Metis or Indian
(IV)-Charlotte Fisher Metis
(IV)-John Fisher Metis
(IV)-Innrace Fisher Metis
(IV)-Jauco Fisher Metis
(IV)-Mary Fisher Metis
(IV)-Donald Fisher Metis
October 2: Acada, birth, Rose Suzanne Robichard, Metis daughter Pierre Robichard, b-1737 and Marie Rose Corporon, Metis, b-1752: married John Fitzgerald. Rose birth date appears to be error?
The number of illegitimate (enfant du Roi) births recorded in Quebec from 1811 to 1820, was 911, legitimes are 145,195.
(I)-George Simpson (1787/92-1860) an illegitimate Scot, son George Simpson
d-1860 Lachine near Montreal. He likely had an inferiority complex because
of the nature of his birth and lack of stature. This might also account
for his distain of women. Joined HBC (1817-1860) sent men he didn't like to New
Caledonia (British Columbia) He established policy that his officers make
alliances (country marriages) with important Indian families to improve
trade. In exchange for their daughters, the Indians would have access to
supplies from the forts. Other accounts suggest he forbid his lower
ranking men from
marrying Indians or Metis unless it was his cast offs of which 6 were known. The Hudson Bay Company policy was that a man was
not legally bound to these relationships when he moved to another post, as there
was no longer an economic advantage. He was however expected to maintain
the woman and her Metis children until she was "under the protection of
another" or in a new relationship with another man. The agreement
from a H.B.C. perspective was that of a mistress, concubine not as a
wife. (I)-Sir George Simpson (1787/92-1860) an illegitimate Scot, was a vile man when it came to
country women. He referred to them as bits of brown, commodities and brown
jugs when he referred to them at all. He disrespected the customs of the
country. He abandoned his own women with no concern for their feelings and
showed only minor concern for his Metis children. By modern standards he
would be considered as a psychopath. Most of the Men of the North West
Company did not endorse this uncivilized H.B.C. policy however many Scottish and
English traders followed the example of Simpson. Some
considered him as 'quite mad'. Others suggest he had an inferiority
complex because of his short stature.
He was described as cold hearted. The people called him "the Little Emperor". He wore a top hat and long black coat and had a piper, pipe him into posts. He took a hard line with the Indian people, their character and nature demanded "a proper state of subordination". Bottom line he was a repugnant man with morals of an alley cat. He was a serious bigamist who abandoned wives and children. That he was knighted speaks loudly about British values concerning authoritarian dictatorship at this time.
He arrived Quebec 1820 and proceeded directly to Athabasca (Alberta).
He became Governor of Rupert's Land and Columbia District hor HBC.
He maintained homes in Red River and Lachine, Montreal, Quebec.
He married at least 7 times; He paradoxically, opposed marriages between other fur traders and Indian or Metis women.
Wife #1 is unrecorded, in Scotland but known abandoned children are:
(II)-Marie Louisa Simpson b-1815 Scotland married Donald McTavish
(II)-Isabella Simpson b-1817 Scotland married James Cook Gordon
Wife #2 is (II)-Elizabeth Betsy Sinclair daughter (I)-William Sinclair and Margaret (Nahoway Cree) she was passed off to (I)-Robert Seaborn Miles Sr. (1795-1870) in 1822, wife and daughter was abandoned.
(II)-Maria Simpson Miles Metis (1822-1838), daughter (II)-Elizabeth; she married Robert Wallace
Wife #3 goes unrecorded and were also abandoned;
(II)-James Keith Simpson Metis b-1823
(II)-Unamed Simpson Metis
Wife #4 is (II)-Maria ( Betsey) Miles Metis d-1838 daughter (I)-Robert Seaborn Miles (1795-1870) and Elizabeth Betsay Sinclair Metis (1805-1822), this wife and children were also adandoned.
(II)-Mary Keith Simpson Metis
(II)-Ann Foster Simpson Metis
(II)-Margaret Simpson Metis
Wife #5 about 1826 Margaret Taylor (1810-1816), wife and children were abandoned and he didn't have the common courtesy of telling her he had remarried.
(II)-George Stewart Simpson Metis (1827-1894)
(II)-John Simpson Metis b-1829
Married his 6th wife about 1830 Cousin Frances Ramsey Simpson (1812-1853) daughter Feddes MacKenzie Simpson and they came to New York, then on to Montreal, then on to Red River (1830-1833). Non white wives were not welcome in the Simpson household. This caused great consternation in the Red River des Metis community. Frances would would discover her husband was a not a very warm and loving personality. She likely discovered he had many wives and she was no different. They were forced to relocate to Lachine in 1834, due to harassment by the Metis community. She soon retreated to England 1840 but returned to Lachine Quebec in 1845 and died there 1853
(II)-George Geddes Simpson (1831-1832)
(II)-Francois Webster Fanny Simpson b-1833
(II)-Augusta D'Este Gussy Simpson b-1841
(II)-Margaret Mackenzie (Maggie) b-1843
(II)-unnamed Simpson Metis? daughter, may belong to Lachine girl?
(II)-unnamed Simpson Metis? daughter, May belong to Lachine girl
Married his 7th wife a Lachine girl
(II)-John Henry Pelly Simpson Metis? b-1850
January 10: Montreal, birth (V)-Toussaint Pothier, Metis, son (IV)-Louis Toussaint Joseph Pothier, Metis, a merchant and (III)-Marie Louise Courault, courreaud Lacote b-1749; married Anne Francoise Bruyere.
October 16: Cape Breton is re-annexed to Nova Scotia. A committee is established in Halifax to stop children from begging on the street. In 1820 alone, 4,213 handouts are given.
Simon Guile (Guille) b-1821/22, likely son Thomas Gill and Catherine Basin of
St. Francois, Montreal, employed HBC (1842-1849) Columbia District.
He married 1845 Mary Ayhaelis of Tsegalis nation (1822-1846), bapt 1845 born in the Columbia District and had one child,
Simon Guile Metis b-1844/45, bapt 1845 the day of his birth.
He married 1849 Marie Pepin Metis daughter Etienne Pepin of Masca, Montreal and woman of the tribe of Mascoyennes
All the above ceremonies were performed in Fort Vancouver
Vaudreuil, Quebec, birth (II)-James Russell Spence, Metis son (I)-Peter Spence (1800-1814) and (II)-Charlotte Thomas, Metis, (1788-1843), born Moose River, Hudson Bay
(II)-Edward Spencer Metis (1821-1898) born Montreal son (I)-John Hodges Spencer (1790-1881) and (II)-Ann Sinclair Metis (1796-1861) joined HBC (1839-1851) Columbia District, (1851-1858) postmaster Caweeman, (1858-1861 postmaster Fort Nisqually. Oregon.
Jasper Haws d-1855 joined NWC (1797-1821) took command of Rocky Mountain Portage House on Bruel Lake built 1813 as a provision depot for brigades crossing the Athabasca Pass to the Pacific. It became known as Jasper's House and was provisioned by Indians and Metis and included pack horses. Jasper married an Iroquois and they had 5 children, three Metis boys and two Metis girls. Jasper returned to homestead in Hinchinbrooke, Quebec in 1821 until his death in 1855.
November 26: Montreal marriage
(V)-Simon Dominique Valois Metis b-1793 son (IV)-Pierre Valois Metis b-1761 and
(IV)-Marie Catherine Lefebvre
1st married 1821 Montreal Emerande Persille pour Parseile Lachapelle daughter Noel Paschal Persille
2nd married 1829 Montreal Joseph Emile Milliette Latrimouillr daughter Hyacinthe Milliette
(VI)-Simon Jules Valois Metis b-1830 Montreal
(VI)-Augustin Jude Valois Metis (1832-1834) Montreal
(VI)-Louis Etienne Valois Metis b-1834 Montreal, ordonne 1860
(VI)-Marguerite Philomene Valois Metis b-1837 Montreal married 1857 Montreal Paul Lussier
(VI)-Josephine Emilie Valois Metis (1841-1841) Montreal
Bazil Courville Metis b-1822 New York State but lived Pointe Claire,
Quebec, joined HBC (1839-1845) Columbia
District. On June 16, 1851 when he was living in St. Louis, he married
Marianne King Klickatat in St. Paul, the widow of Honore King. Their recorded
Louis Courville Metis b-1853
Edward Courville Metis b-1857
Gilbert Courville Metis b-1861
(I)-Mad Donald McKay (1753-1833) married about 1790, likely Albany (II)-Hannah Sutherland, Metis, died 1802 near York Factory, likely daughter (I)-James Sutherland (1751-1797); 2nd marriage Mary Mackenzie about 1810 in Scotland 1809-1822 when he then emigrated to Nova Scotia.
John Caldwell is dismissed as receiver-general of Lower Canada for defrauding the Government of £96,000.
June 14: Vaudreuil, Quebecr, birth (II)-Charlotte Spence, Metis daughter (I)-Peter Spence (1800-1814) and (II)-Charlotte Thomas, Metis, (1788-1843) born Moose River Hudson Bay
Nova Scotia has an estimated population of 100,000 people and by 1855, would total 275,000 people. The Scots and Irish took advantage of the low fares on the returning empty timber ships.
Patrick Bergren an 18 year old boy in St. Johns, New Brunswick is hung for stealing 24¢.
Newfoundland became a British Colony.
(II)-Angus McAskill (1825-1863) was born Scotland, lived St. Anns, Nova Scotia. He was 7 feet 7.5 inches tall and weighted 419 lbs.
February 1: Vaudreuil, Quebec, birth (II)-Charles Spence, Metis son (I)-Peter Spence (1800-1814) and (II)-Charlotte Thomas, Metis, (1788-1843) born Moose River, Hudson Bay
An October fire in New Brunswick destroyed four million acres and the towns of Fredericton and Newcastle, killing 160 people. Smoke burned the eyes and lungs of people as far away as Montreal.
November 7: Acada, birth, Pierre Robichard, Metis son Pierre Robichard, b-1737 and Marie Rose Corporon, Metis, b-1752: married Marie Thibault
The journey from Scotland is perilous. One ship of Gaelic speaking Highlanders, this year, lost 20 percent of the passengers. The Scots usually immigrated in family groups or clans.
Micawbanish, New Brunswick: Albany, marriage (I)-Thomas Corcoran (1794-1865) employed HBC (1818-1855) married (II)-Charlotte Sutherland, Metis, d-1854 Albany, daughter of (I)-John Sutherland, (1778-1812) and Indian widow of Donald McPherson. Children (II)-Richard Edwards Corcoran, Metis, (II)-Jane Isabella Corcoran, Metis, (II)-Margaret Corcoran, Metis, (II)-Mary Corcoran, Metis, b-1821, Moose daughter of (I)-John Corcoran d-1827, employed HBC (1818-1826) and Indian woman. (I)-John is brother of (II)-Thomas. (II)-Mary Corcoran married 1855, Albany, Thomas Wiegand. (I)-John left one child (II)-Mary Corcoran, Metis, born (1819-1821) in Micawbanish, New Brunswick and another child at Sault Ste. Marie in 1827.
September 18: Quebec marriage (IV) Pierre Philippe Chalou Metis son (III)-Pierre Chalou and (V)-Amarante Metis; married to Emilie Gauvin
June 14: Vaudreuil, Quebec, birth (II)-Hanna Spence, Metis daughter (I)-Peter Spence (1800-1855) and (II)-Charlotte Thomas, Metis, (1788-1843) born Moose River Hudson Bay
Iserhoff Metis (1829-1865) born Woswonaby, Rupert River, James Bay, Quebec son
(I)-John Leopoid Iserhoff a shipwrecked Russian sailor others say German,
married a Cree woman, joined HBC (1855-1865) Ruperts River, married Mary Chilton
(III)-John B. Iserhoff Metis (1849-1924) born Woswonaby, HBC (1868-1915), married 1875 Hannah daughter of Joseph
(III)-Charles Iserhoff Metis (1858-1930) born Waswanipi, HBC (1875-1899) wife died soon after marriage
(III)-William A Iserhoff Metis (1861-1919) born Nitchequon, married with 5 children
(III)-Samuel R. Iserhoff Metis (1866-1951) born Ruperts House or Woswonaby, HBC (1881-1925) married Hannah Nosmet/Naasaet
Two men were executed for sacrilege in Quebec.
September 14: Mathurin Mazerolle, b-1745 or 1755, Acadian Metis, died this year, buried Baie des Vents, Hardwick, New Brunswick, source Archie Martin
The number of illegitimate (enfant du Roi) births recorded in Quebec from 1821 to 1830, was 1,409, legitimes are 194,766.
Segregated schooling is introduced in Newfoundland to protect the delicacy of feeling and resentment, but the desperately poor children’s sensibilities are ignored.
Acadians were not allowed to become members of Parliament until this year.
Bissett b-1831 Lachine Canal son Alexander Bissett, Superintendent of Lachind
Canal, Quebec, (1843-1868); joined HBC (1853-1880) Montreal (1853-1859),
Honolulu (1859-1860), Victoria & Shushwap (1860-1871), Montreal (1871-1880)
living Lachine 1891
One unnamed son b-1863 in Woodland Cottage, Victoria
Peter McLeod Jr. Metis b-1808 son Peter McLeod Sr. likely Metis b-1785 both worked in the Kings Posts (Domaine du Roy) north of St. Lawrence River to Hudson Bay. Jr. was employed HBC (1831-1841)
The governor wants to see the French become a minority and the Quebec governments calls for massive waves of Anglophone immigration, mostly Irish. They bring cholera that kills 10,000 people in a single year.
The English army opened fire on an unarmed crowd in Montreal killing three citizens.
A quarantine station is built at Grosse Island, St. Lawrence River (50 km from Quebec) this year to avoid the cholera epidemic that is sweeping Europe. Catherine Parr Traill, an Englishwoman who landed at Grosse Island, St. Lawrence River, noted every variety of disease, vice, poverty, filth and famine. Human misery in its most disgusting and saddening forms. Over 50,000 immigrants are examined at Grosse Island in its first year of operation. However, the immigrants, this season, still brought cholera to Quebec and it spread throughout Canada. One thousand people died in Montreal, and it then spread into upper Canada. Others suggest the cholera epidemic killed 7,000 people in Montreal and Quebec. Smallpox, typhus, influenza, malaria and tuberculosis also took heavy tolls.
Protestant Orphan Houses, alias Asylums or more commonly known as Work Houses, began in Montreal this year. Most children of these asylums are not orphans but are removed from their homes on moral grounds and placed, indentured or bound into indenture-ship. Adoption, at this time, simply meant that very young children were placed with families and had no legal claims to that family in later years. Most natural parents had to relinquish all claims for the child for an indefinite period or a minimum two-year period. Requests for reclaiming or even visiting their children was usually refused for fear that the child might be enticed from their place of employment. The grounds for taking children were demoralizing influences of ungodly homes by downward degraded parents. The Methodist Asylum of St. John's, later this century, would return girls if their mother remarried.
A committee report of Poor Houses in Halifax concluded that conditions
are intolerable and observed that a great number of the 74 children are
forced to sleep with male or female adults with no regard for health or
Asiatic cholera visited Montreal, leaving 70 orphans in its wake. Years of insect plagues and alternative floods and droughts has ruined the harvest. Habitants around Montreal were destitute. Many were forced to abandon the land. Some clogged Montreal and were forced to begging beside the new immigrants. Some trekked south to Vermont.
A law is passed giving Jews the same rights and privileges as other citizens.
October 2: Longueuil, marriage (VI)-Andre Ste. Marie, Metis, born November 30, 1807, died July 16, 1885 St. Hubert, son (V)-Andre Ste. Marie (1774-1858) and (III)-Elisabeth Vincent, Metis, b-1786; married Louise Lamarre daughter Alexis Lamarre
April 15: Vaudreuil, Quebec, birth (II)-Henry Thompson Spence, Metis son (I)-Peter Spence (1800-1855) and (II)-Charlotte Thomas, Metis, (1788-1843) born Moose River Hudson Bay
Negro slavery was abolished in Ontario in 1793, but not in Quebec until 1833.
Public outrage against hanging is mounting and the number of offences for hanging is reduced from over one hundred to twelve. The public demanded women have their own jails to keep them from depravity. Crime was no longer viewed as the result of Original Sin.
October 5: Longueuil, birth/death (VII)-Anonyme Ste. Marie, Metis, child (VI)-Andre Ste. Marie, Metis and Louise Lamarre.
October 8: Longueuil, marriage (VI)-Pierre Ste. Marie, Metis, born January 26, 1809, son (V)-Andre Ste. Marie (1774-1858) and (III)-Elisabeth Vincent, Metis, b-1786; married Mare Bray Labonte, daughter Amable Bray-Labonte.
Francois Noel Annance, Metis, b-1789/90 of the Abenaki tribe, a descendent
of Samuel Gill and Rasaline James captured and raised by the Abenaki tribe, employed NWC
(1820-1821) Columbia District and HBC (1821-1834) Columbia, Mackenzie River,
retired to Montreal 1834-1835.
1st married a flathead woman and had 3 boys one who died young
One Metis son b-1826
2nd unnamed wife
Became involved with John Stuart's wife 1833, Mary Taylor, she may have been his 2nd unnamed wife?
Charlotte Creighton, in Halifax, Nova Scotia, wrote of 600 deaths from cholera in the past six weeks despite the use of burning tar pots during the night and day.
731 lives were lost in shipwrecks on their way to Quebec this year. One was an Irish ship enroute to Quebec that struck a rock off the coast of Nova Scotia and sank with 316 passengers.
(I)-John Wedderburn Simpson (1817-1865) joined HBC (1834-1865) Moose,
Rupert's River but mostly Temiscamingue, Quebec, children
(II)-George Simpson Metis b-1857
(II)-Angele Simpson Metis b-1860
December 19: Longueuil, birth (VII)-Marie Heloise Ste. Marie, Metis, died February 7, 1837 Longueuil, daughter (VI)-Andre Ste. Marie, Metis and Louise Lamarre.
Joseph Howe purchased the Nova Scotian newspaper and proclaimed that if you want learned men, make learned women.
A painting by John Toole shows what appears to be a game of hockey in Virginia on a frozen pond. This predates the Nova Scotia painting of 1867 that is considered a hockey match. England claims in creation of hockey in 1747 having evolved from Bandy Ball. In 1776 a book details the specifics of hockey. In 1797 an engraving shows a man playing hockey on the Thames River
October 6: Longueuil, marriage (VI)-Michel Ste. Marie, Metis, born December 13, 1813, son (V)-Andre Ste. Marie (1774-1858) and (III)-Elisabeth Vincent, Metis, b-1786; married Sophie Adam Laramee, b-1817 daughter Francois Adam-Laramee.
George McKenzie Metis born Indian Territory joined HBC (1836-1842) Esquimaux, Montreal, Rigolet, Montreal
Some contend La Rebellion des Patriotes started this year.
Henry Forrester, aged five years, is indentured (enslaved) in New Brunswick for 16 years, to faithfully serve his master and to keep his secrets, his lawful commands, and not to commit fornication nor contract matrimony until he reaches 21 years of age. A scandal of the Orphans' Friend Society that indentured children to colonists in New Brunswick and the African colonies, said that the harsh treatment of the children represents the labor previously extracted from the now free coloreds or emancipated slaves. Slavery in America just adopted a different form and few people protested. Many claimed these children are only the filth of the streets, being dumped in the Americas and were of little concern. Only the young are desired as being the most pliable in nature. The other fear is if children reached the age of 12 to 14, being able to earn a living, the parents would claim the child and, thereby, make them unavailable for the slave trade.
The insurrection of 1837-1838 was a demand for democracy, self-government, liberalism, nationalism and anticolonial ideology for Lower Canada (Quebec). Some aspired to the ideals of the American Revolution. The Patriotes (Parti Canadien) as they were called wanted to maintain the historic seigniorial System (which was abolished 1854) and return to their agricultural roots and stem the flow of British capitalism. The issues was the British domination of the French. Leaders include Louis Joseph Papineau (1786-1871), Jean Oliver Chenier and Wolfred Nelson.
850 insurrection suspects were arrested
108 suspects were brought before the courts
99 of those brought before the courts were sentenced to death
58 of those sentenced to death were deported to Australia
12 of those sentenced to death were hung.
The only winners of the insurrection was the Roman Catholic Church as they had a vision of a French, Catholic Nation.
January 14: Saint John, New Brunswick, fire ignited on Peter's wharf and destroyed most of the old city. The glow could be seen in Frederiction, 90 miles away.
October: Longueuil, birth (VII)-Andre Ste. Marie, Metis, died March 8, 1839 Longueuil, son (VI)-Andre Ste. Marie, Metis and Louise Lamarre.
October 23: St. Charles, 4,000 Patriotes at a rally proclaimed French Independence and the 'Patriotes Rebellion' began.
November: British Troops were sent to put down the rebellion but are defeated at St. Denis but won the battles at St. Charles and St. Eustache. Some suggest Louis Joseph Papineau (1786-1871) disappeared just before the fighting at St. Denis and fled to the United States after the revolution appeared lost. Some at the time considered Papineau a traitor.
Spencer Metis b-1822 Montreal son (I)-John Hodges Spencer (1790-1881) and
(II)-Anne Sinclair Metis (1796-1861) joined HBC (1838-1872);
(1838-1840) Lake Superior
(1841-1844) Columbia District
(1844-1846) English River
(1846-1848) Lesser Slave Lake
(1848-1849) Rocky Mountain House
Married (III)-Caroline Small Metis b-1827 Fort Carlton daughter (II)-Patrick Small Metis (1789-1846) and Nancy Hughes Metis; recorded child:
(III)-Arthur Spencer Metis bapt 1860
November 4: Rebels attacked Caughnawaga, near Montreal, while the Iroquois were at church. They rushed out, and put the rebels to flight.
The number of illegitimate (enfant du Roi) births recorded in Quebec from 1831 to 1840, was 1,841, legitimes are 246,341.
(II)-George Anderson (1820-1905) born Georgia, Canada West son (I)-Robert Anderson (1781-1840) of East India Company and married 1809 Elizabeth Charlotte Simpson d-1885; joined HBC (1840-1849) Quebec, Ungava, Esquimaux Bay
Louis: Sidney, Australia, death (IV)-Louis Dumouchel, Metis, born Quebec, son (III)-Louis Joseph Dumouchel, Metis (1712-1769) and (II)-Marie Louise Lecleric, b-1720; married January 27, 1777 Chaleauguay, Marguerite Brau.
Because of poor economic conditions in Quebec between 1840 to 1850 some 40,000 French Canadians immigrated to the United States. It is noteworthy that between 1850 to 1940 is called the Great Exodus when 900,000 French Canadians leave Quebec for the United States.
(I)-Edward Martin Hopkins (1820-1893), joined HBC (1841-1870) Lachine,
Married 1st 1847, Lachine, (III)-Anne Ogden Metis, d-1854, Lachine, niece (II)-Peter Ogden Metis (1817-1870)
(II)-Edward Ogden Hopkins Metis, b-1850, Gouvernor Ogden
(II)-Peter Ogden Hopkins Metis, b-1852
(II)-Manley Ogden Hopkins Metis, (1853-1918)
Married 2nd 1858 Frances Anne Beechey (1836-1919)
(II)-Raymond Beechey Hopkins
(II)-Wilfred Hopkins (1861-1910)
(II)-Olive Beechey Hopkins (1863-1917)
(I)-Murdoch McPherson (1795-1863) employed NWC (1816-1821) is assigned to
Athabaska (1818-1821). When NWC was taken over by HBC he served
(1821-1849) mostly in Mackenzie River. In (1841-1844) he was Chief trader
Tadoussac. He married Jean Smith, b-1805 a Metis, daughter Edward Smith
Metis d-1849 from Athabasca and had four children
(II)-Hannah McPherson, Metis, d-1846,
(II)-Joseph Edward McPherson, Metis, (1826-1874) born Mackenzie River
(II)-Alexander McPherson, Metis,
(II)-Murdo (Murdoch) McPherson, Metis, b-1839 Fort Simpson
(I)-Wemyss MacKenzie Simpson (1823-1894) joined HBC
(1841-1870) Montreal, York Factory, Lake Huron, Sault St. Matie etc. died
Fort Munroe, Verginia but buried Sault St. Marie. married 1st. 1853 La
Cloche, Lake Huron, Annie Ironside d-1874 daughter Captain James Symington
Ironside of the Indian department.
(II)-Frank George Simpson Metis (1853-1941) born La Cloche, Lake Huron
(II)-Webster Scott Simpson Metis
(II)-Charles Simpson Metis
(II)-Anne Ironside Simpson Metis (1858-1952) Sault St Marie
(II)-Isobel Symington Simpson Metis (1862-1937) Sault St Marie
(II)-Amy Simpson Metis b-1863 Sault St. Marie
(II)-Gerald John Simpson Metis (1865-1917)
(II)-Geraldine Marie Simpson Metis (1865-1937)
(II)-Fanny W. Simpson Metis (1867-1867) Sault St. Marie
(II)-Edith Simpson Metis (1868-1937) Sault St. Marie
(II)-Algoma Simpson Metis (1868-1942) Sault St. Marie
(II)-Ethel Carole Simpson Metis (1871-1926)
(II)-Agnes C. Simpson Metis d-1874 an infant
At the invitation of Ignace Bourget, the second Roman Catholic bishop of Montreal, the Oblates of Mary Immaculate order, found its way to Canada this year to establish its first foreign mission. The Oblates would build schools and churches dedicated to erasing or neutralizing Aboriginal culture. Their total authority corrupted many, as magistrates, notary publics, doctors and priests bullied and even sexually abused their parishioners. Father Albert Lacombe would be an exception to the rule, and the Indians called him the Man of Good Heart.
(I)-Edward Martin Hopkins (1820-1893) son Martin Edward Hopkins (1786-1836) and Anne Manley (1785-1875). who married Trois Rivieres about 1847 (III)-Annie Ogden, d-1854, daughter of (II)-Isaac of Trois Rivieres. Hopkins joined the Hudson Bay Company in 1841 as a clerg, indentured for five years. Hopkins was the journey writer for Governor (I)-George Simpson (1787-1860) and accompanied him on most of his trips.
Bishop Ignace Bourget of Montreal invited the New Society of Jesus (Jesuits) to Canada. Pope Pius VII reconstitutes the outlawed society in 1814. They still believe in their motto of the end justifies the means which led to their dissolution 40 years earlier, but are now more careful in its execution.
October 18: Longueuil, marriage (VI)-Jean Baptiste Ste. Marie, Metis, b-1817, died July 19, 1887 St. Hubert: married 1st (VI)-Zoe Achin St. Andre, b-1821, died September 28, 1864 Longueuil daughter (V)-Amable Achin St. Andre; married 2nd October 21, 1871, Montreal, Tharsille Ida Larocque.
The Board of the Halifax Asylum returned an illegitimate (enfant du Roi) child to the doctor who admitted it, not wanting to cloak vice or diminish natural affection.
Grorge Barnston of HBC married Ellen Matthews a Metis; was appointed Tadoussac in 1844 and he wrote: that he could now give his eleven Metis children a better education, "an object ever near to me heart"
(I)-Robert Hamilton (1826-1891) joined HBC (1844-1876) assigned
from Tadoussac King's Posts 1844-1846 to Moose to Edmonton House. Married
1863 (II)-Annie Seaborn
Miles Metis b-1838 Ruperts House daughter (I)-Robert Seaborn Miles (1795-1870) and
(II)-Elizabeth (Betsey) Sinclaie Metis (1805-1878)
(II)-Miles Hamilton Metis b-1864 likely Brockville, Ontario
(II)-Max Hamilton Metis
(II)-William Hamilton Metis
(II)-unnamed Metis daughter (1875-1876)
Thomas Aldridge Reynolds (1844-1929) of Montreal Joined HBC (1865-1903)
married 1881 (III)-Elizabeth Finlatson Metis (1855-1942) daughter (II)-John
Finlayson Metis (1823-1898) son (I)-Nicol Finlayson (1794-1877 and native woman;
recorded children are;
Lena (Willow) Reynolds Metis (1886/87-1957)
William Courtney Metis Reynolds (1889-1952)
Maurice Reynolds Metis d-1952 married Ethel
John A. Reynolds Metis
Willow Reynolds Metis (Mrs. W.J,P. Thompson
Maurice (Tom) Rodney Reynolds Metis
Rodbey Reynolds Metis d-1917
John Reynolds died in infancy
(II)-Joseph Edward McPherson Metis (1825/26-1874) son (I)-Murdoch McPherson
(1795-1867) and Jean Smith Metis b-1805, joined HBC (1845-1870) Kings Posts,
Esquimaux Bay, Fort Chimo, Labrador
(III)-Richard Edward McPherson Metis b-1853
(III)-Murdoch George McPgerson Metis d-1946
(III)-Joseph McPherson Metis
(III)-Margaret McPherson Metis
(III)-Catherine McPherson Metis
The Governors of a Cornwallis poorhouse expressed perfect abhorrence and disgust at the inhumane treatment of little indentured Bridget Cody at the hand of her master. Nevertheless, Bridget is summarily indentured again into another household. Between 1832 and 1847, in Halifax , 301 children had been bound-out into slavery.
Francious Xavier Garneau (1809-1866), is said to have started his History of Canada, because of remarks made by John George Lambton, Earl of Durham (1792-1840), her majesty's High Commissioner and Governor General of British North America (1839). He said the French Canadians were a people "without a history and without a literature". He was nicked named 'Radical Jack' when he proposed the assimilation of French Canadians. It is noteworthy the French had an assimilation policy when it came to Huguenots, Indians and Metis cultures but were horrified at being assimilated into an English culture.
When Francois Xavier Garneau (1809- 1866), a notary, a historian, a poet, a civil servant first published his three-volume Histoire du Canada, (1845–1852), he denounced the neglect of New France by its motherland, but also wrote that the loss of the Huguenots, who fled mainly to the United States, had curtailed the development of New France. The Church demanded that Garneau remove his reference to the Huguenots
July 31: Longueuil, birth (VII)-Marie Basilisse Ste. Marie, Metis, religieuse des SS. NN. de Jesus et Marie, Hochelaga, Montreal daughter (VI)-Jean Baptiste Ste. Marie, Metis, (1817-1887) and (VI)-Zoe Achin St, Andre (1821-1864) St. Hubert..
August: Francious Xavier Garneau (1809-1866), in his three volume History of Canada, without first hand knowledge, continued to support the stereotypes of Native Peoples. He considered the French as civilized and the Indians as cruel hordes of barbarians. He spoke of the habitual vindictiveness of Indians. He wrote that they were sexually promiscuous, enslaved their women, took inadequate care of their children and lived solely by hunting and fishing. He believed the French introduced agriculture in 1650 to the savages. The 1st volume of his 'Histoire du Canada' was published in Quebec. Three more volumes were published in 1846, 1849 and 1952. His perspective was the history of French Canadians as a struggle for survival. He was hailed by the French as a 'National Historian' during his lifetime.
(II)-Charles John Griffin (1827-1874) born Ireland, died Ottawa, son
(I)-George Griffin, joined Montreal HBC (1846-1873) Fort Coulonge, Montreal,
Fort Edmonton (1847-1848), York Factory (1847-1849, Columbia-New Caledonia
(1849-1862), Red River, Oxford House, Churchill, married 1840 churched 1863, Red
River, (II)-Elizabeth Margaret Bird Metis b-1840 daughter (I)-James Bird
(1773-1856) and (II)-Mary Kelly Lowman Metis (1801-1873/74), children not
recorded but one possible son is Charles Griffin Metis b-1865 N.W.T. married Red
River, settled Fort Edmonton
Children as young as age eight years old are sent to the penitentiary and subjected to hard labor and silence and, like mature convicts, are also tortured and subjected to sexual predators. Some indentured children who were imprisoned were later found to be innocent of minor crimes, but their innocence was long lost.
Dr. Abraham Gesner first demonstrated kerosene in Prince Edward Island
A line of 40 sailing ships stretched for three kilometers down river from Grosse Island on the St. Lawrence River with 90,000 passengers; mainly Irish. Many died from typhus and dysentery. Over 5,000 people would die this summer at this quarantine station, including six doctors tending the dying. The deadly fever, however, would be carried on into Quebec, Montreal, Kingston and Toronto, where another 17,000 would die; mostly Irish immigrants. The total of all emigrants who died was 17,477; about 19% of all emigrants. The total number of deaths on ships was 5,293, and 3,452 at quarantine stations. Infants under one year of age are not counted. The average age was 24.4 years. Many deaths are attributed to overcrowded ships, poor hygienic conditions, and lack of food on board.
Partridge Island, in the harbor at Saint John New Brunswick. 16,000 emigrants arrived this year, and many had typhus. Six hundred victims were buried this summer.
February 25: Longueuil, birth (VII)-Rose de Lima Ste. Marie, Metis, died August 11, 1864 St. Hubert son (VI)-Jean Baptiste Ste. Marie, Metis, (1817-1887) and (VI)-Zoe Achin St. Andre (1821-1864).
August: Trois Rivieres (I)-Edward Martin Hopkins (1820-1893) son Martin Edward Hopkins (1786-1836) and Anne Manley (1785-1875). married (III)-Annie Ogden, d-1854, daughter of (II)-Isaac of Trois Rivieres. Hopkins was the journey writer for Governor (I)-George Simpson (1787/92-1860) and accompanied him on most of his trips.
August 17: St Roch marriage (VII)-Anselme Reaume Metis son
(VI)-Clement Reaume Metis and (VII)-Marie Louise Mercier; married 1847 St Roch
(VIII)-Anselme Reaume Metis b-1850 Sr Roch ordonne 1875 Quebec
Robert Gregor Bews Metis? d-1862 Fond du Lac, Athabasca, from Trois Rivieres joined HBC (1849-1862) Fond du Lac & Fort Vermilion, wife and two children left at death, estate was maintained until 1876. He was an interpreter suggesting he or wife might be Metis? Contract was signed at Lac des Allumettes further indicating Metis?.
(III)-John.Iserhoff Metis (1849-1924) born Woswonaby son (II)-John Iserhoff Metis (1829-1865) and Mary Chilton, joined HBC (1868-1915) Rupert's River and James Bay, married 1875 Hannah daughter Joseph & Corston daughter of Corston, 4 children were noted.
Twelve people are killed in a riot between Orangemen and Catholics in Saint John, New Brunswick.
Grosse-Ill, Quebec is the resting place for over 6,000 Irish souls and 1,480 others. It is a quarantine stop-over for European immigrants and was started in 1832 and eventually closed as a quarantine station in 1937. A Gaelic monument reads:
"Children of the Gael died in their thousands on this island having fled from the laws of the foreign tyrants and an artificial famine in the years 1847-48. God's loyal blessing upon them. Let this monument be a token to their name and honour from the Gaels of America. God save Ireland."
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