FRENCH HISTORY 1630-1632
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The Basque fishermen controlled the fishery of the northeast coast of Canada from 1525 to 1626.
Population of Kebec 74 French + 10 Huron + 1 birth
Kebec birth (II)-Francois Boucher Metis son (I)- Marin Boucher (1589-1671) arrived Kebec 1619 and Julienne Barry Metis ; married September 3, 1641, Kebec, Florence Gareman b-1629
(I)-Gervais Monier, a Recollet arrived Kebec.
(I)-Nicholas Pivert, his wife Marguerite Lesage, d-1643 and a niece, also with a hired hand, are at Cap Tourments, Beaupre attending to the Kebec cattle.
(I)-Oliver Le Tardif (1601-1665) was a sub-agent for the Hundred Associates (1626-1629) he gave up the keys to Kirk in 1629 and returned to France..
Acadia: (II)-Charles LaTour (1596-1665) son (I)-Claude de Saint Etienne La Tour, (II) Charles, lived among the Indians in Acadia since 1610 and married a Mi'Kmaq (Micmac) girl and they had 3 Metis daughters and one Metis son. He had a second bigamist union to (I)-Francois Jacquelin, a Huguenot to improve his standing in France and she to become a business partner. The marriage was more of a contractual arrangement. His 3rd marriage was to Madame Motin widow Charles de Menou de Charnizay aka Chevalier Charles d'Aulnay de Charinsay (1605-1650) and they had 5 more children.
(I)-Rene de Rohault proposed establishing a college at Kebec.
Kebec has only 18-20 acres under cultivation; mainly wheat, rye and peas.
About 12k to 15k skins were exported through Tadoussac.
Isle aux Couldres, 10 leagues below Kebec is established as a cattle colony with a few men to care for their needs.
Lobsters, or sea crabs, were caught by the French of St. Sauveur in their great poverty.
The Jesuits were amazed that the savages knew the name of Jesus and the Jesuits assumed the Basques had told them as they frequented this place (Kebec). However the Recolet Fathers had lived among the savages for at least 10 years. The Jesuit were amazed that the savages knew two days before a ship arrived at Kebec. When asked how they knew, they say they saw it in a dream.
The Basque fishermen controlled the fishery of the northeast coast of Canada from 1525 to 1626. They set up fishing camps where they set up scaffolding to dry codfish and built stone ovens to prepare whale oil. Their encounters with Natives, particularly the Micmac, were friendly. Tadoussac, Quebec, one of their major trading centers, is booming, with as many as twenty ships being in the port at one time. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), for the Compagnie de Caen, had imposed a monopoly, reducing the number to two ships per year, and the Tadoussac settlement consists of 40 people or less. It is likely the free-traders move to new locations about this time. Twenty two thousand furs are taken this year with the usual average being 12,000 -15,000. The Company of Merchants in France received a 40% return on their investment.
Some French free traders are wintering for trade 25 leagues above the Kebec settlement. Father Brebeuf would venture into this wintering region to assess the situation. This is likely Trois Rivieres which is a historic trading location.
About 20 ships visited Tadoussac but since the fur business was given to the Association they see only 2 ships once a year. They say 40 men are in New France devoted to the fur trade.
There appears to be two interpreters operating in Kebec and are well paid for their services. The Recollets have been try since 1615 to have them teach the Savage language but they have always refused.
It is estimated that 8,000 beaver and other furs were traded to the Dutch.
The Jesuits had succeeded in disrupting the affairs of New France and would now begin their campaign to establish a French Roman Catholic citizenship with the Jesuits in control. The French colony of Fort Kebec (Quebec) is in great distress due to lack of provisions, and Father (I)-Charles Lalemant (1587-1674) accepted a invitation of de la Ralde to return the Jesuits, except for five, to France. Only forty or fifty-five men remained at Fort Kebec (Quebec). The number of free traders is unknown.
The Dutch West India Company established New Amsterdam (New York City). They claimed to have purchased Manhattan Island for about forty dollars in trade goods. The Dutch are Protestant and love liberty, but have no surplus population to emigrate. The Dutch, English and French developed rivalry over trading commerce. The Dutch had established Fort Nassau (Gloucester, New Jersey) by this time.
A trading post is established at Penobscot Bay (Castine, Main).
Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649), the Jesuit, and Anne de Nouve traveled to Huronia. The Jesuit complained of the Calvinists at Tadoussac and would not be satisfied until all Protestant heretics were driven from New France and Roman Orthodox Catholic administrators are assigned. The Jesuit requested of the Kings Council that the fur trade be taken away from the Calvinists and given to the Jesuit, as these evil men are blocking the attempts to Christianize the savages. The French Calvinists, hearing of the Jesuit intrigue, curtailed supplies and obstructed the sailing of ships to New France. The Jesuit embraced the principle that the end justifies the means.
Pere Joseph visits the Neutrial People who considered the French magician, unsociable, rude, sad, and a melancholy people. It is likely that the Huron (Wendat) spread these stories so that they would not be by-passed in trade.
The Jesuit noted that some Savages can tell you two days before a ship is coming and the hour of its arrival.
Father Philibert Noyrot (1592-1629), a Jesuit, arrived Kebec with 20 workmen to build a residence for the Jesuit. Father Lalement immediately sent him back to France to have the Huguenots removed from the direction of the Mercantile Company resulting in the Company of New France. Noyrot attempted to send a year supply for the Jesuit and workman but De Caen stopped the ship at Hontleur, from resentment over Jesuit complaints of the Recollet conduct. The workmen had to be recalled due to lack of provisions.
Jesuit Father Philibert Noyrot (1592-1629) proposes to Cardinal Richelieu that missionary work in New France be organized and strengthened. The first 4 Jesuits arrive in Huronia under Father Paul Le Jeune.
The Mercantile Company only cleared one arpent of land in 22 years, an arpent is 191.85 English feet.
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) began expanding his Kebec facilities in 1626. This second fort was surrounded by ramparts of wood and soil
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) wrote one league from Cape of Gaspey is a small rock they call the forillon, a stones throw from the mainland.
March 10: The Seigniory of Notre Dame des Anges, on the St. Charles River near Fort Kebec (Quebec), is the first of many grants to the Jesuits.
April 15: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), lieutenant of the Compagnie de Chaen, is ordered back to Kebec.
July: The Jesuits Fathers Brebeuf, Noue and Daillion left Quebec to re-establish a mission on Georgian Bay at the present site of Penetanguishene.
July 5: Champlain arrived in Kebec and completed the building of an outpost at Cap Tourmente.
August 1: Father (I)-Joseph de la Roche-Dallon (d'allion), a Recollet, accompanied the Jesuit to New France and went to the Neutral Nation.. More Recollet arrived including brother (I)-Gervas Mohier.
August 1: The Jesuit are allowed into New France and those arriving include:
Father (I)-Charles Lalemont, superior,
Father (I)-Enemond (Ennemond) Massee (1574-1646)
Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649)
Father (I)-Anne de Nouve (1587-1646)
Brother (I)-Gilbert Burel d-1635
Brother (I)-Jean Goffestre
Brother (I)-Francois Charrenton (Carton) d-1626
August 1: The Jesuit entered the Huron Country with a set of preconceived beliefs.
- The Savages are beggars.
- They consider the French less intelligent than themselves.
- Their rude and untutored minds, able to comprehend so little.
- They live licentious and lazy lives.
- Vices of the flesh are common among them.
- They are very dirty about their eating.
- They are covered with vermin in their cabins.
- They believe in the immortality of the soul.
- They call the sun Jesus and it is believed the Basques frequented Kebec and likely told them this.
- They believe that there is one who made all, but they do not render him any homage.
- They have physicians, and cure all kinds of disease.
Lalemant writes to his brother Jerome, in France, who is also
a Jesuit. He explains the difficulties encountered by the missionaries in
acquiring the native languages, are mentioned, together with their relations
with a certain interpreter, (likely a Metis but not named) and the help received
from him. He sends a little Huron boy to be instructed in France.
August 10: Kebec, birth (II)-Marguerite Couillard, Metis, died April 20, 1705, Kebec daughter (I)-Guillaume Couillard, d-1663 and (II)-Guillemette Herbert, Metis (1606-1684); 1st married October 7, 1637, Kebec, (I)-Jean Nicolet (1598-1642): 2nd marriage November 12, 1648, Kebec, Nicolas Macard. Nicolet was first married to a Nipissing woman and had a daughter Madeleine Euphrosine Nicolet., Metis.
October 20: Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) wintered among
the Savages about 20-25 leagues from Kebec, returning March 27, 1627. It
is noteworthy that after called the Savages lazy the Jesuit complain they can't
keep pace with the Savages and how hard they work is.
Population of Kebec 71 French + 1 birth, this was 60 men, 5 women and 6 young
girls. Those living outside Kebec and the Metis are not counted.
Who were these 5 European women *: The 6 young girls are likely ? or they are also Metis ?
See 1619 for other claims
Marie Rollet (1588-1649) *
Marguerite Langlois b-1592 *
Francois Toureau (1600-1663) * some suggest she was sauvagesse
Marguerite Couillard * Mother of Anne Martin b-1614
Marguerite Martin b-1611
Anne Martin b-1614 *
Eustache Martin b-1621 ?
Marguerite Martin b-1624 ?
Helene Martin b-1627 ?
Francoise Langlois b-1600 ?
Helene Desportes b-1620 ? daughter Francoise Langlois b-1600
Marguerite Langlois b-1611 ?
Helen Desportes b-1620 ?
Anne Archambault b-1621 ?
Jeanne Aunois b-1620 ?
May 8, 1620: (I)-Helene Boulle born 1598 and married 1610 to (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) arrived at Kebec with her husband and four women servants. I assume these 5 French women returned 1622-1623 to France
(I)-Robert Giffard (1587-1658), a physician, is in Kebec 1627-1629, others say 1621-1627 and built a cabin in the woods. He had asked for permission to take a savage wife but was turned down. It is likely he took a country anyway, the Kirk brothers let him stay.
(I)-Pierre Magnan, baptised 1627, arrived Kebec 1617, is killed by the Iroquois 1627
(I)-Francois Marguerie, from Normandy arrived Kebec 1617 as an interpreter to the Algonkins.
The Jesuits recorded that to the west from Kebec are 38 to 40 tribes of savages before the ocean sea of China.
Kebec started out with only one resident (I)-Louis Hebert (1575-1627) and wife (I)-Marie Rollet d-1649 epouse Hebout (Hubou). This is not true as Guillaume Couillard who married Hebert's Metis daughter was farming at the same time as Herbert. Some call him the first tiller of the soil. The Jesuit said in 1636 he was seeking passage back to Old France in order to live under the laws of the true religion. The Jesuit could be confusing Louis with Marie's second husband? Hebert had planted apple trees, that did quite well, but the cattle spoiled the trees. Others had escaped into the forests during the English occupation but the Hebert family remained to Kebec. Some suggest as many as 20 people remained in New France after the deportation of 1629.
The Jesuits concluded the Basque had frequented the savages near Fort Kebec before this period. From this date, Missionary work in Canada is restricted to Roman Catholics. No Protestant worship nor Protestant teaching is permitted in Canada. Many would pay lip service to the governing church and practice their religion in secret.
The Jesuit planted peas, rye, oats and Meslin this year.
New France had a population of 107. New England and Newfoundland had a population of 2,100, not counting the 4,000 fishermen.
The Superior of the Quebec mission, Father (I)-Charles Lalemant (1587-1674) decides that work cannot continue with the Huguenot in power. He lobbies Cardinal Richelieu, the powerful advisor to King Louis, to annul the traders' charter. Little does he realize he began the down fall of New France. Richelieu does so, forming his own company, the Company of New France, headed by himself and composed of 100 Associates who each contribue 3,000 livres and together receive a fief running from the North Pole to Florida. The rules are: it is to form a Catholic colony, no foreign Protestants are allowed; the Company will defray the costs of running a mission, the seigneurial land system will be inaugurated and baptized Indians are entitled to French naturalization. They have a 15 year charter and a formidible budget. There are about 100 habitants in Quebec.
Philibert Noyrot secured permission to revoke the Nantes Edict of 1598 in New France, allowing religious and civil liberty to the Huguenot and thereby ensuring the Catholic fur trading monopoly and setting the stage to replace the less zealous Recollects in New France. Francois Marguerie arrived this season at Fort Kebec (Quebec).
(I)-William Alexander (1577/80-1640), a Scott, joined forces with the Kirke brothers to create the Scottish and English Company, a pirate organization, to seize Port Royal and establish trade in Acadia and the St. Lawrence. The Kirke company captured Tadoussac and off the Gaspe Peninsula (Quebec) they captured the French ships with 400 settlers. David Kirke (1597-1654) held Tadoussac while brothers Lewis Kirke (1599-1660) and Thomas Kirke went on to take Kebec.
As of this date, all descendants of Frenchmen, as well as converted Natives, will be considered as French citizens and may live in France without further declaration of nationalization. Political rhetoric but largely ignored by New France especially the Jesuits.
It is recorded that upwards of 20 ships are in Tadoussac at one time this year, vying for trade.
Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis duc de Richelieu, (1585-1642), while arranging to send settlers to New France, barred any non-Catholics from settling.
Virginia, New England had a population of 2,000 people who were basically engaged in the tobacco trade.
Cardinal Richelieu stipulated a goal for New France was to instruct and civilize the savages so they will be converted to Christianity.
March: England and France again commence hostilities.
April 25: King Louis XIII's minister, Cardinal Armand Jean de Plessis, Duc de Richelieu (1585-1642), revoked the charter of the Montmorency Company based on the Jesuit reports and formed the Compagnie de la Nouvelle France (Company of New France), also called the One Hundred Associates or Compagnie Des cents-associes. Huguenots, Calvinists or other aliens are excluded from joining the company, as are foreigners. Only Catholics are allowed to settle, and the company is required to settle 4,000 before 1643. Each settlement must support three priests. The Company, in perpetuity, gains the whole of New France, extending from Florida to the Arctic Circle in width, from New Found Land to the Great Lakes called the freshwater sea. The William de Caen charter had been revoked. The One Hundred Associates had full seigniorial ownership, a perpetual fur monopoly and a 15-year trade monopoly in New France, Acadia and Newfoundland. It is to nominate a Governor and settle 200 per year to 4,000 colonists by 1643. This population level, however, would not be achieved until about 1667. The Company of New France was unsuccessful in its goals. Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis duc de Richelieu, (1585-1642), hoped to populate Kebec with settlers who were moved more by religious and patriotic motives than by the hope of economic enrichment.
June 21: (II)-Helene Martin, Metis, born June 21, 1627, Kebec daughter (I)-Abraham Martin dit L'ecossais, (1589-1664) and Marguerite Langlois, Metis, b-1611?); married 1st. October 22, 1640, Kebec, (I)-Claude Etienne b-1610; married 2nd September 3, 1647, Kebec, (I)-Medard Chouart b-1621.
Population of Kebec 34 + 21 Huron French, source Tanguay
The estimated French population of Fort Kebec (Quebec)
is some 76 persons?
Basque fishermen are at Kebec.
A young man named Grec or Le Grec is in Kebec
Marguerite Couillard b-1628, Kebec daughter (I)-Guillaume Couillard and Guillemette Herbert.
(I)-Nicolas Pivert and his wife Marguerite Lesage, died November 29, 1643, Kebec was at Cap Tourmentse this year.
Raymond de la Ralde attacked the English in Newfoundland.
Father Joseph de la Roche-Dallon (d'allion), a Recollet, went to Huron
Friar Le Caron is at Kebec with brother Recollet. They discovered Foucher, who commanded Cape Tourmente and was disabled in a canoe on the river.
Montagnais dit Kebik (the Algonquian People) gave to (I)-Samuel Champlain (1570-1635) three young girls who he named Foi (Faith) b-1617, Esperance, b-1616 and Charity, b-1613 but Faith returned to her people.
The French, in 1687, claim that King Louis XIII established a new Company to which he conceded all countries of Canada including the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay). Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis duc de Richelieu, (1585-1642), also a Duke, had recruited 100 investors to send 400 settlers to Kebec. The Company of New France issued an edict that no Huguenot or foreigner be allowed into New France. The charter obligated the Company to send 4,000 colonists before 1643. This however was beyond their ability, therefore in 1645 they turned it over to the inhabitants of Kebec. Their monopoly of the fur trade, with their debts and other obligations.
It is noted that the Huron have their own religion and do not want the Black Robes amongst them. The Huron believe in the immortality of the soul, and they believe they will go to heaven when they die. This accounts for the Recollect's young servant boys' (15-16 years old) reluctance to be converted.
King Charles I of England authorized the Thomas Kirk and his brothers, Lewis, John, James and David, along with other English merchants, to take possession of Canada. Captain Michel and ten French settlers who were in the service of Caens and were expelled as Huguenots. They were determined to seek vengence.
A trading post is established on the Kennebec, not far from Casco Bay, Maine.
Isle aux Couldres, 10 leagues below Kebec is destroyed by the Kirk brothers and they captured Nicholas Pivert, his wife and niece as well as the men who took care of the cattle.
(I)-Jean Nicollet de Belleborne (1598-1642) returned to Kebec and was appointed agent and interpreter and was sent 300 leagues to the west, to 'The People of the Sea', to secure a peace treaty. He was considered by the People as Manitouiriniou or the Wonderful Man. He met with 5,000 People and concluded peace and returned to Three Rivers.
(I)-Claude La Tour, (1570-1736+) the elder, a Huguenot is captured by David Kirk and sent to England and was imprisoned. He eventually deserted his French heritage and pledged allegiance to the English. His son (II)-Charles La Tour (1595-1665) had fortified himself and gathered the Acadians in Fort La Tour near Cape Sable, Acadia. Kirk took Port Royal and captured the French fleet of 18 vessels on their way to Acadia.
(II)-Charles LaTour, (1595-1665) was captured in 1628 or 1629 and taken to England.
An English fleet moves into the St. Lawrence and is able to remain there until 1632
The first fleet sent by the Company of 100 Associates to Kebec is captured by the English.
January; (I)-Samuel Champlain (1570-1635) writes "Robert Giffard (d-1668), some time before, wished to have a young Indian woman to educate her & to marry her, but her people would not give her up to him, what ever offers he made." It was customary for Canadian women to enter into marriages for the benefit of trade, but they rarely left their own villages, preferring instead that their husband visit when he could, and remain loyal to her people; but any offspring were raised in her own community. Obviously Robert wanted to take her away, and this was rarely acceptable.
February 2; (I)-Samuel Champlain (1570-1635) officially adopted three young girls, aged 11, 12 and 15; whom he named Faith, Hope and Charity. The girls were given instruction from some of the veteran women, who taught them how to dress and behave as good French wives; But one young girl was miserable, and missed their old lives and families at Tadoussac returned home. The other two resided at Fort St Louis. Champlain wanted to take them to France for an education. When the Kirk brothers arrive things were settled. Faith, Hope and Charity were taken as prisoners, of the English, thrown into the hold and the trap door nailed shut. To make matters worse, Marsolet had taken a fancy to young Hope, but when she spurned his advances, he turned his attention to her sister Charity; who threatened to tear his heart out and eat it. Out of revenge, he told Kirke that the Montagnais wanted them back or they would wage war on the British, hoping that Kirke would then release the girls into his custody, with a promise to take them home. Instead, they were invited to dine with the captain, and after getting assurances that they would not incite war, he allowed them to remain with Guillaume Couillard, who would be staying on under British rule.
February 12: France marriage (I)-Robert Giffard (1587-1668), a physician, to
Marie Renocard, b-1659, Tanguay obviously is confused:
Remember this is the man who wanted a savage girl as a wife and was turned down by the council, so he built a cabin in the woods.
March: Jarvis Kirke, a merchant of London, outfitted three ships manned by 200 men to set sail and capture Kebec for the English. He captured the French Company of New France ships en route and the trading post at Tadoussac. David Kirke alias Kertks (1597-1654) a French Huguenot sailing for England was sent to demand the surrender of Kebec. The remaining supply ships were captured, numbering 11 ships, and 600 prisoners were taken and returned to France. David Kirke alias Kertks (1597-1654) returned to London and was confident he could return next year and finish the job. This action was the damnation of many French Canadians. The Kertks were French Huguenots who escaped French Religious persecution by fleeing to England. It is ironic how the French in their religious fanaticism breed hate that returns to pay them back.
April 27: Kebec, the plow is first used in Canada by (I)-Guillaume Couillard Lespinacy (1591-1663), son-in-law of (I)-Louis Herbert (1575-1727). France had no desire for Canada to go to agriculture.
April 29: (I)-Guillaume Couillard Lespinacy (1591-1663), (I)-Louis Hebert's son-in-law, is the first recorded person to use the plow in Canada.
May 6: The Council of the State of France gave the One Hundred Associates full seigniorial ownership, a perpetual fur monopoly and a 15 year trade monopoly in New France, Acadia and Newfoundland. The company is to nominate a governor to be appointed by the king, and settle 4,000 colonists by 1643.
July 10: The Company of Kirkes captured Tadoussac, Miscou, and Cap Tourmente and seized the 1st supply ship of the Hundred Associates before it reached Kebec. They demanded that (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) surrender. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) refused, and the Company of Kirkes assumed he did so from a position of strength so they withdrew. It is noteworthy that (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) would likely not be aware that the company he worked for had been replaced by the Hundred Associates. About 20 French Huguenots led by Desdames landed Kebec in a small boat and entered on friendly terms but soon began to pillage and burn, killing the cattle.
July 18: Returning to England, the Company of Kirkes encountered the French supply fleet off Gaspe. They engaged the fleet under command of Claude Roquemont de Brison (1570-1636) and captured the four ships. Roquemont and associates are taken to England as prisoners.
October 29: The third Huguenot war ended with the surrender of La Rochelle, France.
Population of Kebec 76 French + 600 English + 1 marriage + 1 birth
When the Kirk brothers controlled New France only five women are noted: the widow of Hebert, who had a house full of Metis and Native children, who was married to Guillaume Hubon, her daughter Marie Lamglois, married to Jean Juchereau, Guillemette Couillard wife of Abraham Martin and two women of lesser note, not remembered by name. They could be two of the five Indian girls married to Frenchmen before 1629. Some say the 17th century French had little detachment to people of other races or cultures that carried into the 18th century. Some religious took exception to these relationships especially the country marriages which they refused to record or their offspring.
The deportees to France were mostly Metis families. When they returned in the 1630's they lost their Metis identification. Most would be baptized before returning to New France.
Folks are split some suggest (I)-Abraham Martin dit L'Ecossais and family was sent to France, during the English occupation, the other camp suggest they remained in New France. I would suggest that (I)-Abraham was sent to France and his wife and four children remained in New France. (II)-Helen was born 1627 and (II)-Marie born 1635 and no children born 1628-1634. The wife was most likely savage and therefore returned to her people, during the occupation.
The inhabitants of Kebec are forced to sign an allegiance to England, thereby renouncing their allegiance to France. Among those signing are the Herberts, Couillards and Piverts. The only ones who did not sign were those who escaped to live among the Indians and those others who were deported. Those French and Metis who escaped to live among the Huron were called Coureurs des Boise, by the Jesuits, meaning runners of the woods and were considered next to the savages. Now these escapees married Huron women and raised a family. However they could have their children baptized unless the parents were married, and baptized. some of these men likely abandoned their wives and family who were deported to England and France so couldn't enter into a second marriage. It was a catch 22 situation. The Jesuits didn't consider country marriages as valid marriages. Eventually Cannon Law and Civil Courts would consider country marriages as valid based on the argument the marriage was between a man and a woman and God. This didn't go down well with some Jesuits.
(I)-Le Baillif, a native of Amiens, France defected to the English. He ill-treated the French who remained in Kebec. He plundered the French stores of 3,500 to 4,000 beaver skins.
Breton a ships captain was in Canada this year and Kebec 1630
(II)-William Alexander's son brought 70 settlers to Port Royal and built Charles Fort, New Scotlande.
(II)-Louis Couillard, Metis, b-1629 Kebec, son (I)-Guillaume Concillard and (II)-Guillemette Hebert, Metis b-1606; married 1653, Kebec, (II)-Genevieve Despres, b-1639, died May 11, 1706.
Sieur (I)-Jean Paul Godefroy (Godfroy) (1608-1681) returned to France with
Champlain. He was back at Trois Rivieres in 1636.
Oliver Le Jeune from Madagascar was the first recorded slave in New France. He arrived with a British convey. It is noteworthy that to help overcome its severe shortage of servants and laborers, King Louis XIV granted New France's petition to import black slaves from West Africa. While slavery was prohibited in France. New France soon established its own 'Code Noir,' defining the control and management of slaves
(I)-Nicolas Marsolet De St. Agnan arrived Kebec 1613 and worked as interpreter until the Kirk brothers arrived this year.
(I)-Francois Marguerie from Normandy arrived Kebec 1627 as interpreter to the Algonkins, and during the English occupation he lived with the Algonkins.
The Jesuits say Jacques Michel, a Huguenot led the English to Kebec.
(I)-Jacques Hertel d-1651, some say died August 10, 1651, an interpreter, took refuge among the Savages when the Kirke Brothers captured Kebec. (I)-Etienne Brule (1592-1632), an interpreter, also took refuge among the Indians as did (I)-Nicolas Marsolet (1587-1677), an interpreter at Tadoussac. Of the 13 known Frenchmen who remained in New France, 7 were interpreters. All these people likely had Metis families. (I)-Etienne Brule (1592-1632) and (I)-Nicolas Marsolet (1587-1677) refused to return to France not wanting to desert their Country wives and Metis families. It was also very clear that if they returned to France they would be hung because of false reports of the Recollets and (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635).
(I)-Jean Nicolet de Belleborne born 1598 and died October 9, 1642, Sillery; 1st known marriage about 1629 (or earlier) Nipissirinienne sauvagesse, b-1610 and one daughter resulted from this union, Madeleine Euphrosine Nicolet, Metis; 2nd marriage 1737, Quebec, (II)-Marguerite Couillard Metis, (1626-1705), daughter (I)-Guillaume Couillard Lespinacy (1591-1663) (died March 4, 1663 Kabec) and (II)-Guillaume Herbert (1606-1684), epouse November 12, 1646, Quebec (I)-Nicolas Macard dit Champagne died October 5, 1659, Quebec, Quebec. (I)-Jean and his family stayed in New France during the English occupation. He returned to Quebec 1632.
(I)-Samuel Champlain (1570-1635) took two of his girls, Esperance Montagnais, b-1616 and Charity Montagnais, b-1613 to Tadoussac for a trip to France but the Kirke Brothers refused to let them embark. The Kirkes had them placed in the care of (I)-Guillaume Couillard Lespindcy (1591-1663) who arrived 1617 (son-in-law of (I)-Louis Hebert, (1575-1627)). No further mention is made of these girls. Others suggest: (I)-William Couillard (Coullart) who arrived 1613 and who Champlain said, he was one of the earliest settlers in Kebec. It was him who Champlain trusted the care of his two savage girls, who he considered his daughters, with a promise they would become foster parents until his return, him being sent to France by the English. It is said (I)-William is a son-in-law to Madame Hebert. Some say Louise Couillard b-1625 is his daughter. It is also interesting that (II)-Louise Couillard, (1625-1641) who married 1637, (I)-Oliver LeTardif, (1601-1665) and sister (II)-Marguerite Couillard, (1626-1705) who married 1637, (I)-Jean Nicolet (1598-1642) are believed by some to be the daughters of (I)-William?. See 1635 list of women in Kebec.
Father Francois Ragueneau, a Jesuit & Father (I)-Charles Lalemant (1587-1674) were sent back to France with Champlain.
London, authorized by Charles I, declared war on the Jesuits.
Mynheer Wouter Van Twiller is appointed Governor of the Providence of Nieuw Nederlandts (New Netherlands).
The Company of Adventurers to Canada captured the French party sent to meet the supply ships from France.
The Huguenots in France revolted against the French Crown.
Plans were made in 1626 to establish a college at Kebec by Rene de Rohault and his father but was interrupted by the Kirk Brothers.
(I)-Oliver le Jeune is believed to be the first slave to have been transported directly from Africa to Canada and sold this year. About 1,000 black people were bought from New England or the West Indies as slaves for New France to 1760. This, however, is misleading, as by 1759, there was 3,604 slaves in New France, including 1,132 of African origin. The Loyalists would bring another 2,000 black slaves.
King Charles I of England declared a private war by giving permission to make prize of all French and Spanish ships and their goods, at sea or land. The Scots sent 70 men (tua weemen) to occupy (Acadia) Port Royal and Baleine on Cape Breton Island. These privateers would be shipped home in 1633 after King Charles I married the sister of France's King Louis XIII.
(I)-William Alexander (1577/80-1640) finally secured his grant to Acadia by landing 70 Scot settlers in Port Royal. They would secure this site 1629-1632 when they were forced to leave.
Tanguay suggests the following census in 1629, Kebec.
He suggests their are only 4 families but the census suggests 8 families but the other 4 are likely French/Savage families. Namely: Jonquest - Couillard - Hubou - Hebert This excludes the Martin family
Recollets = 4
Jesuits = 4
Women = 8
TOTAL 100 Other records suggest the population is only 76 French, the balance may be with the Huron in the bush?
Emery de Caen is at Tadpussac and sends Froidemouche a French envoye to deliver a message that a peace treaty was signed but the envoye only made it to La Malbaie (Quebec)
The second fleet sent by the Company of 100 Associates to Kebec is captured by the English. The English Kirke brothers seize raid up and down the St. Lawrence and seize Kebec.
(I)-Francois Grave, sieur Du Pont (Pontegrave) (1560-1629) departed Kebec with Champlain and is believed to have died on the returning ship or in France.
France was becoming more aware of the value of education. There were 150 colleges at this time and they rivaled those of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). The focus was Christian Knowledge and the education of girls was limited to religion, and responsibilities of wife, mother and homemaker. Learning a second language was frowned upon unless it was Latin.
February 4: The rival commercial interests of (I)-William Alexander (1577/80-1640) and the Company of Kirke's combined forces in support of the Calvinists under the Company of Adventurers to Canada, with a monopoly of the trade of the St Lawrence and the power to remove the French. The Kirke's alias Kertks French Huguenots included David Kirke (1597-1654), Lewis Kirke (1599-1600), Thomas Kirke, John Kirke and James Kirke who were determined to drive the French from Canada and Acadia.
March: The Kirke brothers, with Jacques Michel, a deserter from Champlain, explained the sorry state of Kebec and again acting as pilot on the river guided the Kirks in the conquest of Canada. It is noteworthy that the Kirke brothers and Jacques Michel were Huguenots and some suggest it was out of revenge for the persecution of the Huguenots by French Catholics.
April 24: The Treaty of Susa established peace between France and England. The terms of the treaty were that all territory captured after the signing would be returned. The Company of Adventurers to Canada had already sailed.
May 16: Kebec, marriage, (I)-Guillaume Hubou, died May 13, 1653, Quebec; married Marie Rollet, died May 27, 1649, Kebec, veuve de (I)-Louis Hebert (1575-1627).
May 18: Kebec, birth (II)-Louis Couillard, Metis son (I)-Guillaume Couillard, d-1663 and (II)-Guillemette Herbert, Metis (1606-1684); married April 29, 1653, Genevieve Despres (see 1602)
June 1629: Lalemant, with a party of missionaries, again attempted to return to Canada, but they were shipwrecked on the Canso rocks. Two of the adventurous Jesuits were drowned, Father Noyrot and Brother Louis Malot were drowned, another remained in the country, but Lalemant returned to France.
June 15: The nine ships of the Company of Adventurers to Canada reached the Gaspe. The invading force is under the command of David Kirke alias Kirke (1597-1654); a French Huguenot and others say a mixed blood English-French with orders to take possession of the French colony. The Calvinists, including Jacques Michel, who were expelled from New France provided the English with full details of the desperate condition of New France and the ships that would sail this year.
July 1: James Stuart, Lord Ochiltree, who had been granted a barony by (I)-William Alexander (1577/80-1640), landed 60 colonists at Baleine, Cape Breton Island. Most would depart by 1632, except for one of two families who elected to remain in Acadia ( Nova Scotia).
July: The Recollets were offered the protection of the Huron Nation to provide them shelter until such time as the French returned. The Recollets declined this offer and returned to France as English prisoners. The Recollet would later be highly criticized by their order for abandoning their missions. They however had no idea that Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis duc de Richelieu, (1585-1642) would prevent their return to New France and give 14 years of labor and all their missions to the Jesuit.
July: The Kebec settlement is near starvation; they are grubbing for roots. The English, through Basque fishermen, requested that Champlain surrender. The English interception of their supply ship at Tadoussac was the last straw. The men of the colony are fearful of the pending English attack. Some are no longer content to exist on starvation rations. Most of these colonists are convicts or indentured slaves. Some escaped into the woods during the confusion. They had little loyalty to (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) or their wives and children who remained in the Fort. They joined the bands of migrating Native hunters, which added to the growing 'Bois Brule' (burnt wood) Metis population. Most chose to live in freedom with the Natives rather than be killed or captured and returned to France via England. They chose to become free traders and explorer entrepreneurs. This would become a recurring theme in New France.
July 19: Trois Rivieres, (I)-Jean Nicollet (1598-1642) arrived with his country born daughter Madeleine Euphrosine Nicolet a Nipissing Metis. Upon hearing the Kirke Brothers had taken Kebec he fled back into the woods to avoid deportation.
July 19: Captain Louis delivered an ultimatum of surrender on July 19. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), lieutenant, had no more then sixteen men at his command at this time, including the priests of St. Charles. In reality, only one man held the Fort, the others are in the woods in search of food. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) surrendered the Fort to Captain Louis and discovered that (I)-Etienne Brule (1582-1632) and (I)-Nicolas Marsolet de Saint Aignan (1587-1677), who had been living with the Wendat and Iroquois, had led the English to Fort Kebec (Quebec). This was Champlain's account but Marsolet was living Tadoussac 1608-1635 at the time. Champlain hated Marsolet because he reported directly to the King. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) would plot (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633)'s future demise. Brule became the word to describe all those who renounced French rule to live with the Natives. (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) attempted to barter to allow his two native girls about 17 & 12 years of age to return with him to France, but is refused by the English. One girl had previously returned to her People. The English shipped all the colonists to France by way of England, including the priests. (I)-Lewis Herbert's family claimed to have escaped deportation and remained with the Indians and 7 free traders in New France. (I)- Etienne Brule (1591-1633) and (I)-Nicolas Marsolet de Saint Aignan (1587-1677) claimed they were taken by force, and they believed if they were taken to France they would be hung. This is to counter claims that they aided the Kirk Brothers. Others suggest it was Jacques Michel, who led the Kirke's to victory over (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) .
July 19 (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) recounted: "Louis Kirke landed about 150 armed men and took possession of the settlement. He came to the fort to drive me out. He planted the English flag on one of the bastions, sounded the drum, assembled his soldiers and fired the cannon to signal his joy."
July 22: David Kirke (1597-1654), Lewis Kirke (1599-1660) and Thomas Kirke stormed Fort Saint Louis built on the St Lawrence River in 1620. The Kirke's alias Kertks were French Huguenots who escaped French Catholic persecution by escaping to England.
July 24: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) left Kebec as a prisoner of the Company of Adventurers to Canada.
(I)-Nicolas Pivert and his wife Marguerite Lesage, died November 29, 1643, Kebec are still in Kebec after (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) left Kebec.
July 25: The English encountered the French ship commanded by Emery de Caen, who also surrendered.
August 1: At Tadoussac, (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) reprimanded (I)- Etienne Brule (1591-1633) and (I)- Nicolas Marsolet de Saint Aignan (1587-1677) who had gone over to the Indians. Both men had fathered Metis children. Champlain had no authority over Marsolet and this bothered him greatly. Marsolet was one of 7 interpreters who remained in Kebec during the Kirk occupation, in fact he became great friends with the English brothers. He had three savage wives by country marriage.
August 24: Father (I)-Philibert Noyrut (1592-1629) is lost in a shipwreck off Cape Breton, as is Brother (I)-Louis Malot (1592-1629).
August 29: L'Estourneau wrecked off Canso, Nova Scotia, 14 died.
September 8: Charles Daniel (d-1661) attacked Ochiltree's settlement, capturing the Fort and the colonists at Baleine, Cape Breton Island..
September 14: Most of the French settlers are deported from Kebec except for five families and 7 interpreters who are living with the Natives.
October 29: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) and the French prisoners reach England.
November 30: (I)-Claude de Saint Etienne de La Tour, (1570-1736+) a prisoner in England since 1628, is enrolled as a baronet of Acadia ( Nova Scotia) and transferred his allegiance to the English.
December: (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) is in France urging the return of Canada to French control.
FRENCH HISTORY 1630-1632
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