1640 - 1659
INDIAN HISTORY1660 - 1699
INDIAN HISTORY Return to INDIAN 1600 - 1699 INDEX
INDIAN INDEX Return to Main INDIAN INDEX
DIRECTORY Return to MAIN HISTORY INDEX
Sometimes they tore the cloths off women and
All the time the white men were laughing and making fun of them.
Do you wonder now that the people of Hotevilla
tremble when they see white people coming to our villages
Violet Pooleyama a Hopi
There is not a year goes by when several Huron are not captured or killed and the same applies equally to the Hiroquois. Large scale killing is not very common even in these troubled times.
The Jesuit noted that the Savages (People) are wanderers who must be brought to a sedentary life, if we wish to have control of their children.
The Jesuit Rene Menard (1604/-05-1661) was ordained 1624 and arrived Quebec this year. He was assigned to work the Heron and worked out of Three Rivers. In 1661 he went to Black River, Wisconsin with the Outaouas and somr Frenchmen who deserted him except one and was lost or killed most likely by the Scioux.
Oneka (1640-1710) a Mohegan would have a son named Mahomet.
Charles Jacques Hault de Montmagny Governor of New France took trade action against the Huron (Wendat) to punish them for bad treatment of the Black Robes. A smallpox epidemic swept through the St. Lawrence Valley in the summer, and so many Algonquian died they could not bury the dead. The Algonquian again stated that the Black Robes carried the epidemic to the Great Lakes. The Jesuit Fathers recorded the term Omisagai (Missisauga) naming the Ojibwa band near Missisauga River on the North Western shore of Lake Huron. Both the French and later the English applied this name to all the Algonquian settling on the north shores of Lake Ontario. Missisauga is derived from Michi or Missi meaning much or many and Saki or Saga meaning outlet or a river with many outlets.
The Black Robes are located at Cahiague a village of Huron on Lake Ontario that they called St. John the Baptist. The Jesuits this year first mentioned the existence of the Assiniboine (nako'ta). They speak a Siouan language and were once part of the Yanktonai, a branch of of the Dakota Sioux. It is noteworthy that the Assiniboine traded to northern Lake Superior and Lake Nipigon. They were located on the west side of Lake Winnipeg. But originally were semi-agriculturists living about the headwaters of the Mississippi River inn Minnesota.
The Jesuit say; we must promise the Huron Savages, for that is what they call the People, that baptism will give them prosperity and long life, which they knew was a lie. They noted that the People call the Jesuit, Black Gowns or Black Robes. The Jesuit admit they baptize a great number of dying or dead children without the knowledge of their parents, who would certainly have opposed it. The Jesuit do no see that this is tantamount to rape of a Person. Future Popes would condemn this practice of forced baptism but it would take hundreds of years to purge the practice from the Roman Church.
Joseph Chihouatenhoua, a Huron and Zealot Christian went to mission St, Joseph at Teanausteiye with Father (I)-Francois le Mercier (1604-1692) who had instructed Joseph in the Faith. Joseph said he had two objectives in visiting his former tribe and brother:
1. To counter act the evil reports circulating about himself. The brother of Joseph said the Assemblies have already plans to get rid of the French. Some will tell you a resolution to kill me is adopted or that they have already split my head. If the People spoke of me in evil terms in the past, you must indeed expect that it will be worse in the future; since what iI have done hitherto is nothing in comparison what I intend to do henceforth for God. I learned that I am nothing but I am one of the causes of the ruin of the country.
2. I intend to impart doctrine which the Jesus teach. The French have taught me the secret, and that I am past master in the matter of spells. Those who call themselves as sorcerers (medicine men), have only support from the Devil (evil spirits). The Captains are dammed and will burn in the midst of flames. Truth and reason are found only in the faith. If you are not baptism, you have no judgment than children. He speaks of the ineffable beauties of paradise. He speaks of the awful torments of hell. It is noteworthy that among the People, never has a Huron sorcerer (medicine man) been killed who had given more occasion for it than the Jesuit.
In the Village of St. Joseph at Teanausteiye (I)-Francois le Mercier (1604-1692) the Jesuit is pelted with stones, blows given with clubs, blood is shed, the crosses are felled and torn away, every day we suffer a thousand insolences. The Jesuit is openly condemned as malefactors, and the greatest sorcerers in the land, the Jesuit cabin must be demolished and razed to the ground. The People noted that 70 children under age 7 have died after baptism.
The Grand Council again debated the death penalty or banishment for the Black Robe witches. It is said that Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) told of his vision of the Hiroquois crucifying the Huron (Wendat). He lied when claiming one thousand converts when less then thirty are known, most being traders who discovered those who are baptized got higher prices for their furs. It is true the Mohawk had depleted their beaver and is threatening to move north into Huron (Wendat) territory. The French however had promised to come to their defense if attacked. The Black Robe Nuns are working to wean the girls from their religion and even their mothers, their very heritage, at St. Joseph de Sillery. Is this not a sign of their great evil. Again the Grand Council decided to do nothing to preserve the alliance. During this gathering the Jesuit had attend having been called by the High Council to defend themselves against these most serious allegations.
The Hiroquois has exhausted their supplies of furs in their own country about this time. The Iroquois however are developing their Grand Plan, at Onondaga, using their democratic process, for the extermination of the French. The Hiroquois did not fear the French but did fear the Algonquian Alliance. The decision is to establish a line of fighting posts along the river from Three Rivers to a point near the Waterfall of the Chaudiere on the Ottawa. This would cut the French from their Wendat (Huron) and Algonquian Allies. The Wendat (Huron) could then be destroyed so that no trace could be found of these people. The Hiroquois believed the Algonquian will not go to war over the Wendat (Huron) due to previous grievances. The Hiroquois divided their forces into ten groups. Two units are stationed at the Chaudiere to prevent any sorties across the blockade by the Wendat (Huron). Four divisions are stationed around Montreal Island, one unit at Lake Saint Pierre, one unit on the St. Lawrence near Sorel, one unit near Three Rivers and the last and most formidable unit reserved for Quebec. The strategy is to pick off French parties and gradually reduce the French strength in readiness for the day of the major attack.
The Huron said; that when Echon, the Jesuit (the Peoples name for Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649)) set foot in the Huron Country, he had said: "I shall be here so many years, during which I shall cause many to die, and then I shall go elsewhere to do the same, until I ruined the whole land." The fact that the Jesuit Relations allowed this to be printed, suggests the Jesuit hierarchy support this genocide policy and biological warfare. The Huron were aware of this Jesuit policy and informed the Neutral People that the Black Robes were sorcerers and imposters who come to take possession of their country.
The Huron say at the funeral of Joseph Chiwatenhwa, Echon, the Jesuit turned in the direction of the Sonontwehronons (Iroquois) who had killed him. and said aloud "Sonontwehronon, it is all over with thee, thou art dead." Immediately Echon, the Jesuit proceeded to the Neutral Nation, that he might carry the dreaded disease to them. Reports suggest that small pox was raging fiercely among the Neutrals during Echon's visit.
Other Huron relate that Echon, the Jesuit, visited the Iroquois Nation to instigate their coming to completely ruin like the Huron Nation.
Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) with (I)-Pierre Joseph Marie Chaumonot (Chaumonnot, Calvonotti) (1611-1693), a Huron guide, two domestics, one of whom had smallpox, to act as merchants, as without trade the doors would be shut to them, journeyed to the Neutral Nation. The party reached the village of Kandoucho (Lake Medad, Halton County, Ontario) where the Hiroquois called Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) 'Echon' who is considered the most famous Black Robe sorcerer or demon, and as predicted caused the doors of the cabins every where were closed. Echon however was correct, the pretext of trade opened the doors for trade and disease. Brebeuf and Chaumonot would spend 5 months in Neutral territory.
The Huron Awenhokwi with another Huron visited the villages of the Neutral Nation at the same time as Echon, the Jesuit, warning the People of their impending doom. The Huron were hoping the Neutrals would execute Echon with no reflection on the Huron Nation. Oentara, a Huron also ventured to the Neutral Country to verify the evils of Echon. Many other Huron arrived to verify the evils of Echon. As a result the Neutrals rejected the gifts of Echon, the Jesuit ((I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649), absolutely. One significant implication of the gift rejection is the removal of safe conduct in the region.
The Neutral said; "we know what you are here to do, and the danger which you are and in which you are putting the country. Echon, the Jesuit and his party were forced to withdraw as he could not deny that he was spreading disease among the People, because his very own words were repeated to the People.
All the villages cried; "These are the Agwa who are coming." Echon was classified as Agwa, their greatest enemies and all doors were closed to the Black Robes. Echon was considered a Great Sorcerer who carried death and misfortune everywhere he went.
All the letters written by Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649), the Jesuit, during this campaign to the Neutral Territory were either lost or deliberately thrown away, by the Huron carriers, so Kebec had no knowledge of his progress.
Poningo is a Siwanoy village located at Rye, New York.
The Wappinger a clan of Algonquian living along the Hudson River in New York fought the Dutch until 1645.
The Huron women are so revered that a man will willingly give up his life to save hers. The old are also willingly give up their lives to protect the young. No greater love, than a man, gives up his life, for another, yet the Jesuit will attempt to change this fundamental Principle, because they believe women are evil incarnate, and to spare the rod, is to spoil the child.
The Huron Christian women are warned that hereafter they must obey their husbands; one of them run away, is caught, the chiefs ask the father if she would not better be chained by one foot and whether four days of fasting would be sufficient penance for her fault. This is a major shift of an American Principle to an European Principle. The value and dignity of women who are equal members of a culture is being changed to a Roman Church Principle that women are chattel of man and therefore subordinate to man. This every evil Church tradition can be traced to the Iraq culture, the same source of the Devil concept.
At Sillery, a young man is severely punished for having married an un-baptized girl; two boys who came late for prayers in the morning, were punished by having a handful of hot cinders thrown upon their heads, with threats of greater chastisement in case the offense were repeated.
Everywhere the Black Robes (Jesuit) go the People say, famine and disease are coming; Some women flee, others hide their children from us; almost all refuse us the hospitality which they grant even to the most unknown tribes. Their host has to position a guard at the door so that no one splits their head. The Jesuit say they know why they are being rejected at every village. They say it is because they forbid the diabolical ceremonies. The prime reason is the Black Robes are deliberately spreading disease among the People in their attempt to baptize dead and dying children.
No one in the villages of Saint Pierre and Saint Paul would open their door to the Black-Robes. One woman cried aloud; "where are those who said, if these Black-Robed men returned, they would split their heads." The adults prevent the Black Robes from entering the Neutral Villages, threatening to kill and eat us, as they do with their most cruel enemies.
The Jesuit say; nearly all the Barbarians (Huron, Algonquian and Iroquois) desire the Jesuit death, as passionately as they crave the preservation of their own lives; in their speech, they talk of nothing but slaughtering us, that was an ordinary theme of their Councils.
The Jesuit say; When we visit these poor People, if they do not arrive in time to close the door to our noses, they stop their ears and cover their faces.
The Huron have held several Assemblies, to consider means of compelling the Jesuit to leave the country. Many Captains have voted the Jesuit death, but not one has dared to become the executioner. The Jesuit used the term 'executioner' which implies they are aware that serious violation of the laws of the country and that due judicial process was followed. During the winter we were expecting every day to learn the death of someone of our missionaries.
The Christian Huron are introduced to a semi-secret voting system with only the Jesuit knowing who voted for which Captain. Women were not allowed to vote because the women are accused of causing all the misfortune, of being the demon among the People. The woman are accused of being lazy about coming to prayer, when they pass the cross, they never salute it; they wish to be independent. We now know, you will obey your husband, the young people will obey the parents and captains. All will obey the Jesuit. These Jesuit attempt to impose standards of conduct that the French would not endure. It was noted that the French trifling with girls, caressing and kissing them yet our young people, who are more chase than the French, can't even talk, because of the risk of offending God is to great.
The Assiniboine are first recorded this year living on the west side of Lake Winnipeg. The Assiniboine who call themselves Nako'ta were a semi-agricultural community living above the head waters of the Mississippi River in Minnesota.
The Dutch Governor of Manhattan declared a Thanksgiving feast offering thanks for the first Indian scalp bounty. The Thanksgiving feast was expanded to include a bounty for natives fit to be sold into slavery. The Dutch and Puritans then joined forces to exterminate all Native Savages.
The Iroquois formally declared war against the French. The Dutch man Kiefj offered bounties for the heads or scalps of hostile Indians. This followed the practice of the French and the L'nu'k ( Micmac) against the Beothuk. These European practices would be attributed to a growing legend encouraged by Governments, Religious groups and Hollywood, that scalping is predominantly an Indian practice. It is noteworthy that scalping was first noted by Herodotus (485-425 B.C.).
The Jesuit (I)-Isaac Jogues (1607-1646) a Frenchman worked with the Wendat on Lake Michigan and Lake George until 1646. In 1642 a Fort is built on St. Ignace Island. The Huron ( Wendat) against the objections of the Jesuit invited the Chippewa (Ojibwa) of Lake Superior to Georgian Bay to celebrate the feast of the dead and two thousand attended. 1,500 to 2,000 Ojibwa gathered for a few weeks this summer. Sault Ste. Marie provided bountiful fishing during this summer breaks that is a tradition since ancient times. Under questioning the Ojibwa informed the Society of Jesus missionaries that the Dakotas lived eighteen days journey farther to the southwest.
A Hiroquois mission by Father (I)-Charles Garnier (1605-1649) and Father (I)-Pierre Pijart (1608-1676) is held among the Kionontatehronon or Tobacco Nation and even pushed as far as the Attiouendaronk or Neutral Nation.
Only two Jesuit can speak the barbarian Algonquian language, as they called it, Father (I)-Claude Pisart (1600-1683) and Father (I)-Charles Raymbaut (Raimbaut, Raymbault) (1602-1642). These French followed the Algonquin back to their country in the spring of 1641. These Algonquian People are slow to anger and very tolerant of other people opinion. These Black Robes or so obnoxious, barbaric and lacking in manners and their lives are threatened.
The Christian Huron are taught to have a fear of God and the fires of hell. This strange philosophy contradicts over 5,000 years of history when The Great Spirit (God) was loved, and no one was in fear, as the People were convinced, God would never cause hurt to his People. Demons were called Ascwandics or familiar Spirits but evil Spirits as the Jesuit professed. The People had no Devil concept.
A mission is established in the Neutral Country, that contains 40 villages, by Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) and Father (I)-Pierre Joseph Marie Chaumonot (Chaumonnot, Calvonotti) (1611-1693).
William Kieft of New Netherlands offered bounties for the heads or scalps of Indians. The following year he marched his troops through the Indian villages to instigate problems.
Massachusetts explicity permits slavery of Indians, Whites and Negroes in its "Body of Liberities".
January 12: James Town, Virginia passed a law that if any Indian commits a crime, the first Indian apprehended must pay the penalty, with his life if necessary.
May 16: The Jesuit take great pride in the fact that the Savage girls have been weaned from Savage Religion and Customs, and even from their own mothers, by the Ursulines. Some of the Zealot Christians eventually placed the Church and pray above their own children and parents and the Jesuit considered this a good thing.
August 20: So as not to lose perspective, the Huron Christian Church only contained 60 zealots.
September: Two thousand Algonquin gathered 20 leagues from the land of the Huron on the Bay of the Great Lake for the Feast of the Dead. Each Nation arrived stating the reason for attending and scatter gifts on the water for the young people. Gifts are also distributed to the host of the feast. A ballet is performed by 40 People to the sound of drums and voices. Eventually many more join the ballet including the women. The Sault Nation from one hundred to one hundred thirty leagues away also joined the ballet. During the feast is the election of the Nipissirinien chiefs. The women gather in a large 100 foot by 100 foot lodge with the bones of those who died in the past year, as women are more inclined to deeper feelings of mourning. The Algonquin confederates meet separately from the Huron guests. The Jesuits are assigned to the Huron assembly. The Jesuits could hardly believe that in the midst of the so called barbarians, so much respect did they pay to one another, even while contending for victory in sports. The Sault Nation invited the Jesuit to visit their Nation.
December 1: Massachusetts became the 1st colony to give statutory recognition to slavery. It was followed by Connecticut in 1650 and Virginia in 1661.
The Jesuit Relations is edited in Kebec by the Superior of the Order and then edited by the Provincial of the Order in Paris before being published. The barbarian beliefs, values and actions of the Jesuit in New France, as recorded in these records, were supported or at least tolerated by the hierarchy of the Jesuit Order. The Jesuit Order would be banned in America and Europe because of their evil activities. The perversion of the Huron Peoples in New France is a classic example of evil in action.
The evil spirits of Europe, lawsuits, ambition, avarice, lust, and the desire for revenge, are rarely seen in New France yet the People are considered Savage and Barbarian.
The Jesuits are pleased that the savages at Saint Joseph, Sillery, Quebec are now inflicting punishments on delinquents to the Jesuit Faith. The Christian Savages at St. Joseph, Sillery, Quebec are given penance three times as severe as I would have given to a Frenchman for the same offence so says Father (I)-Jacques Buteux (1600-1652), a Jesuit, who supports self-flagellation and self-mutilation.
A young woman talks with a pagan suitor, contrary to her parents' prohibition. The Jesuit say a Christian can only marry a Christian. A family council tries her case; one thinks her worthy of death; but she is sentenced to be flogged at Quebec. This treatment of a woman is unheard of among the People of America. The sentence is carried out and the young woman is flogged in public as a warning to other Christian girls that the same or even more severe, fate awaits them if they be not obedient. The young man in the case fumes with rage, seeing himself deprived of a wife who was publicly humiliated and swore to kill the Jesuit. The barbarian father of the girl say if he attacks the French he himself is attacked.
A young woman had fled Sillery and was captured, bound and placed in a canoe, to take her to Kebec and prison. Some young Huron observed this violence, of which the People have a horror, declaring they would kill anyone who laid a hand on the woman. The Christians said they would endure anything to ensure obedience to the Jesuit God. The judge and executor of justice in Kebec is resolved to continue to flog native young girls if they are not obedient. Those who know the freedom and independence of these People, and the horror they have of restraint or bondage. These proceedings were approved by those who love prayer, the Christians but the non-baptized could not brook them, and accused the Neophytes of cruelty. Monsieur the Chevalier (I)-Charles Hault de Montmagny (1583-1653), our Governor, was set to intervene but was advised not to make any attempt against the Christians. He therefore sided with the Christian Huron. The non-baptized Peoples of Three Rivers in contempt withdrew from the area exposing the region to Hiroquois attack. Father (I)-Jacques Buteau (1600-1652) verified this by writing; "we have had but few families this winter."
The Algonquin reject the Christians of Sillery to embrace the faith of the French Jesuits. This faith takes away not only the head but the mind. A small party of neophytes, wishing to show that the faith does not deprive of courage those who embrace it, resolved to go to war against the Hiroquois. The Algonquin had no desire for war and went on a hunt. The Huron went on to kill a party of Hiroquois taking no prisoners.
The Jesuit condoned the Sillery Christians who resolved to take no prisoners alive. They kill the enemies, and bring home the spoils and scalps.
The Jesuit say one young man desire to obtain baptism, almost by force, so as to enter heaven by violence.
The Jesuit admit this year that their beliefs are viewed with suspicion and fear, an evil among the People.
The Savages abandon their hunting and fishing to attend Sunday mass risking the food supply of their village. The Jesuit' say such brave deeds are very pleasing to God. However during years of famine the good Fathers will not see a cause and effect relationship.
The Jesuit attempt to humiliate the Nipissing Algonkins religious beliefs, calling them superstitious and licentious in their beliefs arousing much opposition and even threatened him with physical harm. This is significant as these People are known to be slow to anger and very tolerant of other opinions.
The Jesuit say the Peoples dance is paying homage to the Devil. They say an infidel, by their vary nature, is possessed by the Devil. It is noteworthy that the Indians had no concept of a Devil until the Jesuits introduced this European belief.
The Algonquin again accuse the Jesuit of destroying the country by which they mean a cultural genocide. Some of the People are openly saying the Jesuits must be all killed, others that they should be driven out.
The Jesuit teach that Faith is to love God, to work hard, to suffer much, and to consider oneself as very useless.
The Jesuit say to be Christian is to give up all the Peoples medicines that have been given to them by God. How quickly the Jesuit forget that this medical knowledge saved the early French colony.
The Jesuit know that feasts are the chief pleasure of the country, proclaim they are to be banished.
To be a Captain is to unite fire and water. The Captain must obey the Devil, reside over hellish ceremonies, to exhort young People to dance, like the French, to feast, like the Romans, to nudity, like the Greeks and to most infamous lewdness.
If you (Jesuit) wish to speak to me of hell, (which was not known to his ancestors), go out of my cabin at once. Such thoughts disturb my rest, and cause me uneasiness amid my pleasures. We will not listen to what the Jesuit preach to us of hell, because these imposters, who have no other defense in this country than the fear of an imaginary fire of hell, to intimidate us by such penalties, in order to save their own lives, and to arrest the blow that we would have struck, had we any resolution. One woman threw live coals in the face of one Jesuit, because he was driving her crazy with his talk. One man was restrained when he tried to kill another Jesuit, who entered his cabin uninvited.
An Algonquin forbid Father (I)-Rene Menard (1605-1661), the Jesuit from entering his cabin. When he was away Menard entered his cabin but his wife refused baptism of their sick child but the Jesuit defied both husband and wife and secretly baptized the child. The Roman Church would later consider this a serious sin.
The Neutral Nation is at war with the Nation of Fire that is far removed from the French. They attacked last summer with 2,000 warriors and siege their town for ten days. The captured the town and burned 70 of the best warriors and took 800 prisoners, men, women and children. The Nation of Fire speak Algonquin and is more numerous than the Neutral Nation, the Huron Nation and all the Iroquois Nations combined.
The Jesuits (I)-Jean de Breabeuf (1593-1749) and Joseph Marie Chaumont visited the Neutral people who it is said were bribed to dispatch these evil men by the Wendat (Huron). The Neutral however treated the Missionaries with less respect than the Wendat but refused to kill these Frenchmen. The Neutrals are not trading directly with the French at this time.
Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) visited the Neutral Nation (Attiouendaronk) and on the way entered into a secret treaty with the Iroquois. Nearly the whole country is incensed against the Black Robes. He was denounced as a traitor full of treachery, on all sides. He denied that he did but others presented evidence that he was lying. The Jesuit Order fearing for his life recalled him to Kebec until things cooled down. Evidence surfaced to support the Huron ( Wendat) contention that Brebeuf was a traitor. The Jesuit went on to conduct a mission among the Kionontatehronen (Tobacco (Petun) Nation). The Jesuit admit that at this time they know little if anything about the Algonquin Nation.
The Algonquin Nation called a great general assembly of nations. The People of the Sault (Ojibwa) from 120 leagues to the west of the Wendat attended. Father Charles Raymbaut journied 17 days on the Great Lakes to arrive at the land of the Sault (Ojibwa). He reports there were some 2,000 people at this location. They planted corn and tobacco and about 18 more days travel to the west or northwest are the Nadouessis people.
Since the neophytes proclaimed their faith they have been visited by extraordinary misfortunes, pestilence, famine and war. The Christian neophytes say "you tell us that God is full of goodness; and then we give, ourselves up to him, he massacres us. The Iroquois do not believe in God, they are more wicked than demons; and yet they prosper." The Jesuit say: God uses the Iroquois as a whip, in order to correct you. The People say then why did he not begin with the Iroquois? Why did he not try to give them sense first? The Jesuit say few persons go to paradise without passing through the fire of purgatory. Francois Kokweribabougouz commented that those who join the French faith die within three years. The Jesuit refuted this man's utterance as wicked and scandalous.
Self flagellation is being encouraged by the Jesuit at Sillery, Quebec for the Christian People.
The drum is banned among the Christian People at Sillery, Quebec as they represent forbidden superstitions. The Jesuit say by giving up the drum they renounce the Devil.
The Agneronons live between Three Rivers and the Upper Hiroquois who comprise 700 to 800 men of arms. They trade with the Dutch and have acquired 300 arquebuses (harquebus). They prey on the Huron who have not a single aquebuses (harquebus) because the Jesuit will not allow their trade to the Huron infidels. The beaver obtained from raids on the Huron is used to buy more powder, shot and guns. The Dutch have been encouraging the Hiroquois to drive the French from the New World.
Mayhew and Eliot established the first Protestant mission in Massachusetts and prior to this time the missions were dominated by the Roman Catholics of Spain and France. After this time every denomination invaded the New World.
The Sioux and Heron only farmed tobacco and some Maize. They both however harvested wild oats in the marshes. Wild oats was actually wild rice.
February 25: Dutch settlers slaughtered lower Hudson Valley Indians in New Netherland, North America, who sought refuge from Mohawk attackers. Dutch soldiers under the leadership of Governor Willem Kieft (1597-1647) and Sergen Rudolph massacre Walwaskik Wappinger People who had come to live in peace among the Dutch in what is now northern New Jersey. More than 120 men, women and children asleep in their homes are murdered brutally during the night. Nayonets are run through the stomachs of babies, men's hands are cut off, women are cut open with swords. The Dutch barbarians then torched the entire village. There are no survivors among the Walwaskik Wapponger. The infamous Governor Willem Kieft (1597-1647) had started the Kieft's war of (1643-1645) with the American Indians. Kieft was fired and returned to the Netherlands but died in transit.
September: Father (I)-Charles Raymbaut (Raimbaut, Raymbault) (1602-1642) and Father (I)-Isaac Joguses (1607-1746) are chosen to visit the Sault. At the Sault are 2,000 people and the Nadouessis are located 18 days journey west of the Sault. These People till the soil in the manner of the Hurons. They fortify their large villages against the Kiristinons, the Irinions and other great nations. Their language differs from the Algonquin and the Hurons. The Pouteatami are living among the Sault to avoid the Hiroquois. The disposition of Sergen Rudolph is not known.
At Lake Saint Pierre forty Mohawk attack a party of Wendat with Father Jogues and two Frenchmen. Many are killed as a result of the attack but the Frenchmen and some Huron ( Wendat) are taken as prisoners. Goupil a Frenchman is tortured and killed but Guillaume Courture is eventually accepted into the tribe and the Huron ( Wendat) are burned at the stake. The slave named Father Jogues is tortured and later sold to a Dutch trader down the Hudson. This action sends a clear message to the Dutch that the Iroquois had learned their lesson. Jogues would later return against strong objection and be killed in 1646 for witchcraft by the Mohawk who claimed he spread the French smallpox epidemic that year.
Father Gabriel Dreuillettes (1610-1681) a Jesuit arrived Kabec 1643. He joined the wondering Algomlin tribes on the St. Lawrence and Abenaki tribes of Maine.
Eight years ago one could see 80-100 cabins, now we see barely 5-6, a captain had 800 warriors, now 30 or 40, a fleet of 300 to 400 canoes, now we see 20 or 30, the remnants of the Huron Nation now consists almost entirely of women, widows and girls, who cannot find lawful husbands.
William Kieft of New Netherlands allowed the Mohawks to attack the Wappinger People who had fled to New Amsterdam for protection that they paid for in taxes. The Mohawk killed 70 men and taken others as slaves. William Kieft then sent his Dutch soldiers to finish off the remaining refugees some 80 people including the women and children. They returned with 80 heads and 30 prisoners. The heads were used as decorations and kick balls. Scalping and head taking attracted a bounty price.
The Wappinger reported that Kiefj of New Amsterdam using Dutch soldiers conducted the slaughter of innocent Wappinger men, women and children. They raped and tortured to death all night the prisoners as entertainment, doing this, they said as an example for the Mohawk. This horrific European practice is often attributed to the aboriginal People.
Enraged by the massacre the People rose up and drove all traders and settlers into New Amsterdam that they didn't kill. The uprising lasted a full year with New Amsterdam being under constant siege.
Nesaquake is an Indian town located near Smithtown, Long Island, New York.
The Wappinger Confederacy of what is now eastern New York is defeated in war against the Dutch. More than 1,500 People of a population of 5,000 die during the war.
February: Pavonia, New Jersey the Dutch attacked killing most of the People. The People under the direction of Oratamin who died 1667 arose to avenge this outrage.
February 25: Soldiers of Dutch Governor Willem Kieft massacred a friendly village of 120 harmless, unsuspecting Wecquaesgeek men, women, and children near the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam (later to become New York City's borough of Manhattan) with bayonets while they slept. According to an eyewitness named DeVries, a most revolting atrocity involved a male straggler, about twenty-five years of age, who'd had his left hand and leg hacked off, and was found alive the next morning "supporting his protruding entrails with his other hand." It became known as the Pavonia Massacre. The Dutch soldiers killed not only the warriors, but all the Indians in the camp, including women and children. After they were beheaded, the Dutch soldiers played kickball with the severed heads.
September 23: This past winter, many tongues speak out against the Christian Peoples, they mock them, they threaten to kill them, or at least to drive them from the villages; They rarely invite them to the feast. So writes Father (I)-Charles Garnier (1605-1649). The Jesuit have achieved a division of the Huron Nation and culture. The Christian Hurons have become fanatics, masochistic and European in nature.
The Jesuit believed the People need to have implanted in them the faith through numerous miracles, gift of cures, gift of tongues, gift of prophecies and everything that can astonish nature. This faith is not natural to the People. The People consider it jiggery pokier based on sorcery.
Father Ignace, a Jesuit responsible for the Mission at Tadoussac, represents the most infamous of the Black Robes. He believed that guided by the Holy Ghost, flagellation and whipping, as a penance, is to be inflected upon the People. The good Father provided the whip and the little children are stripped naked, before the alter of God, to receive up to twenty five blows for their transgressions. Some children were still at the breast. Some mothers used their rosaries to beat the children. The Jesuit considered this perverted practice as a Holy Ceremony. It is noteworthy that before the Jesuit arrived an Indian never raised a hand to any child, for any reason and the men offered themselves, for punishment, threatened against a French boy. This perverted European practice is surely the work of the Devil and a clear indication that the Jesuit walk in the Darkness. It is noteworthy that a religious Nun in 2002 in Canada received 8 months in prison for doing the same things as Father Ignace.
Opechancanough of the Pamunkey People again attacked Jamestown killing more than 500 colonists. The colonial expansion was gobbling Powhatan lands.
Captain John Underhill with an army of Dutch and English began a persistent and deadly campaign throughout New Netherlands, tracking down and killing 100's of Indians, burning villages and crops. The army only stopped the genocide campaign short of total extermination because of pressure from traders and farmers who wanted economic stability or who thought the merciless slaughter of women and children was immoral and unchristian.
The Dutch destroyed the Wecquaesgeeks village called Alipconk near Tarrytown, New York.
The Dutch attacked the Maspeth Algonquian village near Queens on Long Island, New York.
A band of 100 Huron (Wendat) attacked the Hiroquois on the frontiers. They met 700-800 Hiroquois and fighting went on the whole evening and the whole night, the Huron were all killed.
English mercenary John Underhill, along with two companies of 120 volunteers and Mohegan scouts, hired by Governor Willem Kieft for 25,000 guilders, killed over 120 Indian men, women and children at their fort (Fort Neck) near today's Massapequa.
The Chickahominy Nation and the Powhatan Confederacy attacked Jamestown settlement, in Virginia, killing more than 500 colonists.
The Huron and Algonkian attack the Iroquois near the mouth of the Richelieu River, Quebec.
March: English and Dutch colonists destroyed Canarsee, Massapequa and Merrick villages on western Long Island. Governor Willem Kieft declared a day of thanksgiving after his forces killed 500 Indians.
April 18: Powhatan Confederacy leader 99-year-old Opechancanough and his forces attacked the English along the Pamunkey and York rivers. This was 22 years after his first attack at Jamestown. His followers killed almost 400 Virginia colonists
The Algonquian Piskiart who lived on the Ottawa single-handed terrorized the Mohawk killing many in their own lodges. Guillaume Couture who had been living with the Iroquois had acquired much influence among them returned to Three Rivers after a three-year absence. His associates had assumed he had died with Father Jogues. The Iroquois held peace talks at Three Rivers to provide themselves a chance to rest and restore their supplies and strength. This would last about a year.
The next step of the Grand Plan is to exterminate the Huron ( Wendat) so that
not even the ashes of a hunting party would be left where that ancient
related turncoat tribe had lived. Sixty canoe loads of fur is shipped
down the St. Lawrence River in trade.
1646 Half of the fur traders who use Three Rivers is baptized because the French merchants are not allowed to sell guns to un-baptized traders. As a result of this conversion trade is increased by 30% to eighty canoe loads of fur, this represents some 32,000 pounds of beaver pelts. The Jesuit also ordered any baptized Person is not to participate in public in any Huron ( Wendat) religious service. The Peoples religion at this time is an integral part of every day cultural life and this anti-social edict caused some wives and mothers to expel those men from the long houses. The People are amazed that the Jesuit would encourage and relish in the breakup of family units.
Jean Bourdon and Black Robe Isaac Jogues (1607-1646) in May attempted to enter into treaty with the Mohawk to assure a dwelling place for the French among their People. The treaty is unsuccessful as the Mohawk accuse the French Jesuit Isaac Jogues (1607-1646) of spreading disease and corn worms in the country. Many see the Black Robes as a liability to the French trade objectives.
The Jesuits wrote the savages not having writing or pictures were subject to falsehood and untruth. They actually did have writing and pictures but didnít show them to the Jesuits because they belittled the Indian beliefs especially about God the holy Spirit. Some Indians could recite 4-5 generations by their deeds. The Spanish also believed the savages were incapable of chronological calculations beyond a manís life time. This was entirely untrue as they calculated past and present for thousands of years even to the 21 century. European mathematics would not catch up to the Indians until the 20th century.
The Iroquois said: Go and kill that dog; the Dutch told us that what the Jesuit does is of no account; that act (a sacred sign of the cross) will cause some harm to my grandson. The champion of Father Isaac Jogues (1607-1646 is killed for using the sacred sign on his grandson.
October 18: Father (I)-Isaac Joguse (1607-1646) is killed by the Mohawks at Ossernenon, near Auriesville, New York.
band of Onnotaeronnons (Iroquois) who appeared on the frontiers were pursued by
the Huron and killed or captured. The prisoners were burned by the Huron,
in the manner of the Christian fires of hell. The Infidel Annenraes was
May 26: A new law banned Catholic priests from the colony of Massachusetts. The punishment was banishment but for a second offence it was death.
July: About 800 Onnotaeronnons (Iroquois) are preparing for war against the Huron for the defeat earlier this year. The Infidel Annenraes who was freed by the French pleaded for peace among the People.
There are 42 French among all the Infidel Nations, spread among 10 missions, of which 18 are of the Jesuit Society.
A Huron Infidel, says to the Jesuit, that your God has no pity on the Huron, because disease, poverty, misfortune and death visit the Christians and Infidels equally.
The Huron believe that our soul makes natural desires known by means of dreams. If these natural desires are not achieved, the soul does not give the body the good and happiness that it wishes, it often revolts against the body, causing various diseases and even death.
The Huron believe that during dreaming, the soul issues forth from the body and proceeds to distance places. This is much like the modern belief in 'astral projection'. The Jesuit believe such wanderings and long journeys are impossible.
Some dreams are hidden requiring a Medicine Man (the Jesuit call them Jugglers to discredit them), assist in discovering the meaning of hidden dreams. Some use a basin of water, such as the famous prophet used, Michel de Nostradamus (1503-1566) son Jacques Nostradamus and Reyniere de St. Remy.
The Huron believe in three kinds of disease, some are natural and cured with natural herbs and remedies; others are caused by a sickness of the soul and cured by obtaining for the soul what it desires; the other diseases are caused by spells that some sorcerer (medicine man) has cast upon a person and is cured by withdrawing from the patients body the spell cast. The Jesuit believed this was superstition and paganism. The French use of holy water and blood letting suggests they had similar beliefs. Exorcism as practiced by the French assumed an evil spirit has infected a person. The concept of witchcraft is inherent in the Jesuit belief system and failure to teach it is a grave sin.
The Huron keep oky and haskouandy (charms or amulets) much the same as the Europeans.
The Fresh-Water Sea, the Great Lake of the Huron to the eastern and northern shore are inhabited by the Algonquin tribes; Outaouakamigouek, Sakahiganiriouik, Aouasanik, Atchougue, Amikouek, Achirigouans, Nikikouek, Mighsagiek, and Paoutagoung, all of which have been visited by the French. The people further to the west are called the Nation of the Sault, who live near the shore of this Superior Lake, that extends to the northwest. Another lake is to the southwest called The Lake of The Puants. The Ondatouatandy and Ouinipegong who form part of the Nation of The Puants have not been visited. The Ouchaouanag who live on the eastern end of the Lake Huron have also not been visited.
Moral decay spread throughout the Wendat Nation. Some accused the Jesuit Jerome Lalemant and his associates of dividing the Nation against itself. They forbid Christian leaders to preside over what they considered pagan ceremonies. They preached that Christian bonds must be stronger than family or clan bonds thereby destroying clan harmony. The People are taunted and expelled from the houses of their family. The people are told that giving away ones possessions at pagan feasts are not Christian and a pagan practice. These Jesuits reject the principle of sharing and introduced the European principle of acquisitiveness that was previously unknown to the People. Many Wendat pleaded for a return to the Great Spirit and the faith of the elders before all the old ways are lost. The Christian Wendat called themselves the Bear tribe and opposed any peace treaty with the Iroquois. The Great Spirit Huron ( Wendat) called themselves the Rock tribe argued for peace talks and negotiations with the Iroquois. The Rock People are also openly anti-French and pleaded in Council to cancel the alliance with the French before it is too late.
Father Daniel attempts to rally the Huron to defend against the attacking Iroquois at the Mission Village of St. Joseph (Teanaustaye) but about 700 Huron are killed or made captive including the death of Father Daniel.
One thousand two hundred Iroquois are assembled at the Ottawa to winter around Lake Nipissing. Fur trade down the Ottawa River by the Huron ( Wendat) is suspended as it is estimated that the Iroquois have acquired five hundred guns from the Dutch and English. The Huron ( Wendat) at this time only had one hundred and twenty guns from the French. Having been divided be Christianity, the Huron ( Wendat) ceased to respond to the urge for war, by the priests.
The French (Governor Montmagny) adopted the Indian practice of offering regular gifts to native trading partners and allies. They would become known as "Presents du Roy" and are not to be confused with compensation paid to war and guiding parties or the fees offered to seal alliances, to to cross hunting territory boundaries, permission to build forts, trading posts or missionary stations.
Mosilian a Delawares village is located along the Delaware River near Trenton, New Jersey.
Summer: The Peoples Great God Manitou is called the Devil by the Jesuit. The Algonquin are so infuriated they almost killed the evil Black Robes. He was knocked down and dragged by the feet through the coals and ashes.
Ivanovitch Dezhnev sailed around the northeastern tip of Siberia this year with seven ships, proving America is separate from Asia. Only 2 ships returned and no ships logs or maps survived.
July 4: At St. Joseph mission north west of Lake Simcoe that usually had a population of two thousand people is attacked by the Iroquois who take seven hundred prisoners and killed the rest. The town is set on fire and for a day and night it burned. They attacked a second village and dragged into captivity the women and children.
July 22: The Huron are reported to have killed or captured 30 or 35 Yroquois (Iroquois).
July 25: York County court upheld the authority of colonists to kill on sight any free Indian they saw in a settled area.
The Huron (Wendat) burned many of their own villages as they retreated. The Jesuit's headquarters and stronghold is at Saint Marie near the mouth of the Wye River. This stronghold included over sixty Europeans of which twenty-three are priests. The Jesuits again attempted to stir the Huron (Wendat) to improve their defenses but years of religious conditioning left the Wendat in a state of apathy.
The Christian Huron (Wendat) finally realized the French would not or could not provide protection and they became despondent and lost faith. Many of these Christian Huron ( Wendat) reverted to cannibalism to survive and some 5,000 perished this winter. Most of the surviving Huron ( Wendat) scattered in fear that the Iroquois would return. Some went to the Algonquian Petun country, others went west to join the previously displaced Wyandotte who are with the Tobacco (Petun) people. Others migrated south to merge with the Neutral and Erie peoples. A large group of Christians went to an island off the northern tip of Nottawasaga Bay (Nahdoway meaning outlet of the river that the Iroquois warriors used) and built a fort called Ste. Marie II and they burnt the old fort, houses and crops. The remnants of this group eventually moved to Mackinac Island that means turtle island. On December 7 the Iroquois attacked St. Jean and the Petun (Tobacco) tribe of the Algonquian on the north shore of Georgian Bay and all inhabitants are slaughtered. The Huron ( Wendat) would never again draw themselves together as a nation. The Petun (Tobacco) having had enough of violence withdrew to the west and eventually settled in Oklahoma calling themselves Wayandot a form of their original name.
Twenty-two years of religious indoctrination had destroyed this merchant tribe of twenty thousand peoples thereby clearing the trade routes for the Iroquois. The Huron ( Wendat) held their last council at French River, Lake Huron and decided to see whether the Ojibwa peoples would forgive them their wrongs they had done them and admit them as their allies. They arrived in the autumn at the most easterly village of the Ojibwa at Round Point, a bay also called French Aunce Bay and is also known as Kewaonon, near Detroit. They presented themselves in their decrepit position and the Ojibwa yielded to pity and compassion. Wahboogeeg made it very clear they are received with pity and compassion because of their innocent children and that the two children should sport together and the Ojibwa war club shall protect both peoples. They settled at Huron River, Michigan not far from the Ojibwa village. After the destruction of the Huron ( Wendat) Nation and when the remnants of the people had been absorbed into the Algonquian and Dakota Sioux speaking peoples, Father Claude Dablon (1618-1697) conducted a mission at Ste. Marie du Sault (Sault Ste. Marie) and at the eastern end of Lake Superior. (This is not likely as he arrived Quebec 1655). It should be noted that the Ojibwa Nation to this time had only very minor problems with the Iroquois Nation.
The Huron ( Wendat) Nation had abandoned the teachings of the Great Spirit and the faith of their elders and lost their nation and culture. Those who fled to the Ojibwa stronghold of La Pointe entrenched the message that the Black Robes bring great evil and are effectively banned from the Lake Superior area until the 19th century.
A young Jesuit priest Jacques Marquette (1637-1675) had charge of La Pointe at the mission of St. Esprit that included the pathetic remnants of the Huron ( Wendat) and some members of the Ottawa (Odahwaug) who had escaped the Iroquois. The Ojibwa told the Black Robe that they already acknowledged the Great Spirit who included in himself Heaven and Earth and they had little interest in the Black Robe Christian teachings. Under no circumstances would they abandon the faith of their Elders.
Ekaentoton is the ancient home of the Ottawa located on Manitoulin, Island.
Robert le Coq. a Jesuit Donnes d-1650, is at Sillery, Quebec.
Iroquois attacks and starvation decimated the Huron nation from some 12,000 to a few hundred who fled to Quebec or the Ojibwa of Lake Superior for protection..
March 16: One thousand Mohawk attack St. Ignace and Seneca who then go on to attack St. Louis. The people are nearly all slain or captured. Three hundred Huron ( Wendat) from Ossossane (Christian Bear people) retaliated at St. Louis and all but thirty of the Bear Christians are killed. The Iroquois withdrew with their prisoner fearing more reprisals might be coming however the forty Frenchmen in Fort Ste. Marie did not venture out to assist their Huron ( Wendat) allies. The Iroquois immediately proceeded to Ste. Marie. They quickly take this village killing many and taking the balance prisoners. Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) and Father Gabriel Lalemant (L'Alemant) are among the captured. Both are killed the same day. Brebeuf was regarded as a traitor of great treachery by the People.
March 16: Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649), a Jesuit, was executed March 16, 1649, and was canonized June 29, 1930, but was ruled by the Algonquin, Huron and Iroquois as a sorcerer, who deliberately spread disease and misfortunate among the People. He is considered Agwa, the closest thing to the Devil, as the most evil man in New France history.
December 7: Father (I)-Charles Garnier (1605-1649) is killed by the Hiroquois at the Petun village of St. Jean not far from Osprey, Grey County, Ontario.
The period from 1300 A.D. to 1650 A.D. is a period of 'Global Cooling' that is called the 'The Little Ice Age'. About 1645 to 1715 sunspot activity was near zero and was called Maunder Minimum could this be responsible for pulling us out of the ice age?
The Jesuit said that the Huron must be humbled, before they can be saved.
The Iroquois waged war with the Neutral (Cat
and Erie) peoples north of Lake Erie driving them into the woods where
most died from starvation. All the peoples of the Eastern Seaboard
at this time paid tribute to the Iroquois. Several hundred Wendat
Christians and the sixty French fled to the safety of Quebec and the Christian
Huron ( Wendat) settled on the Island of Orleans. Six thousand other Christian
Huron ( Wendat) crowded onto the Christian Island and is reduced to cannibalism
to survive. By spring only three hundred are left on the island.
The Jesuits preached that those Indians not baptized go strait to hell.
Many natives on their deathbed refused to be baptized as they wished to
be reunited with their dead children and ancestors.
Some believe the Cree is migrating from north of Lake Superior and west of Lake Winnipeg to Rainy Lake and Lake of the Woods around this time.
As many as sixty Europeans have been living among the Huron in the past sixteen years that a mission has been established, many of whom are of a very feeble constitution. No one has died of natural causes, not withstanding the great inconveniences and sufferings.
The Jesuit consider polygamy a great evil, as like the Jews, the People take a brothers or cousins wife as his own, upon their death. The environment, especially in the north, is not conducive to a strict code of monogamy. This was especially true in areas where agriculture is not possible.
The French buried their dead with as little as possible; The People buried their dead in their finest cloth and their most prized possessions. The Christian People buried the women with their beloved rosaries. Last year this ancient tradition was changed and the rosary was no longer buried with the dead. The Jesuits considered this a holy thing because they were following a French custom. It effectively elevated the belief that possessions are more important than after life. It is noteworthy that the French knowing this Peoples custom often robbed the fresh Indian graves for their furs.
The Jesuits teach the People that they are a dog, and less than a flea before God. This destroyed the belief that with Gods help they can conquer their environment and the enemies of their tribe. This type of theology caused the down fall of the Huron Nation.
The Iroguois (Iroquois) visited the Huron with a desire to return them to the refuge among them, so that they might be one again. The Iroquois however desired to kill the Huron and were discovered and they themselves were killed.
Edward Blande of England visited Virginia and North Carolina contacting the Meherrins and Nahyssans.
Hernan Martin and Diego del Castillo of Spain visited New Mexico and Texas encountering the Tewa pueblos and Jumanos.
Bernade Cobe a Spanish priest wrote of the Inca, they practice the beastly act of venerating the bodies of the dead. This attacks a 7,000 year tradition in America. The People didn't understand that these same priests venerated a dead Jesus and other Saints of the Church and why this is not also a beastly act?
The Norsemen built a large community house in Greenland.
Europeans are believed to be fishing Baffin Bay (waters located between Greenland and Baffin Island) this year for whales, seals, walrus, cod, halibut, haddock and herring.
About 1,500 Iroquois attacked the Neutral Nation and captured a village. The Neutral fell upon the Iroquois and killed or captured 200 Iroquois. During the winter 1650/51 the Iroquois returned with 1,200 to avenge their loss.
The Ojibwa occupy the Mackinac Strait from 1650 to 1685.
The Iroquois attacked the Hurons 1650-1651 and they fled to Illinois and Quebec. The missionaries and soldiers were forced to abandon their forts among the Huron. The Iroquois remained at peace with the 'Neutral Huron' at Detroit but they compelled these people to abandon their Detroit village and relocated in Iroquois country.
March 13: The country of Canada is visited by war, famine and pestilence. So great is the famine that cannibalism prevails. The wretched Huron fled in all directions.
March 27: Monsieur de Normanville, Father Jacques Buteux (1600-1652), two Frenchmen, forty Algonquin, both adults and children journeyed to Attikamegues. A squad of soldiers escorted them for the first day. The village is two or three hundred leagues into the woods to the north of Three Rivers. Among the Attikamegues are old people 80 to 100 years old. Many of these people had visited Sillery and Three Rivers in trade. Last year the Iroquois had carried off 30 of their people.
June 10: The Jesuits abandoned Ile Saint Joseph their last mission in Huronia.
The Iroquois reached the country of the Attikamegues north of Three Rivers. They raided a house of 22 people only defended by three men. The men were killed and the 19 women and children were carried off.
May 6: About 50 Iroquois killed Big Jean and his wife within sight and sound of the fort. Jean Chicot (1630-1651) is also killed.
The Ojibwa for the past thirty-five years have been trading to Montreal with no interruption. This year the Iroquois massacred a Ojibwa trading party at French River on route to Montreal. The Ojibwa sent a message to the Iroquois to the effect if they ever perpetrated the like again, they would send a few of their warriors in pursuit, to exterminate them. The Iroquois laughed in scorn and inquired whether the Ojibwa included their women in their proposed extermination. A Council of Peace is called by the Ojibwa below Sault Ste. Marie called Massessauga. The Iroquois concluded a treaty that they did not intend to preserve. The peace prevailed during the summer but the Iroquois again attacked the traders above the falls (near Baytown) on the Ottawa River killing twenty. The Ojibwa being peaceful people are exasperated. A Grand Council is called and a delegation of negotiators went to the Nahtooway, Sahgeeny, and the principle village of the Iroquois on the easternmost shore of Lake Huron. The Ojibwa demanded as many packs of furs as traders they had slain in restitution. The Iroquois granted amid the manifest dissatisfaction of the people. The Ojibwa said the next infraction would bring the powerful Ojibwa Nation into war with the Iroquois. Trade resumed to Montreal and the treaty would remain unbroken for three years.
The Delaware People are alleged to have sold their village of Nyack (Point), New York to the Europeans.
The known environment of New France, Canada includes:
In the direction of the summer sunset is a lake of about 1,200 miles in circumference, which we call "The Fresh Water Sea". A lake 600 miles in circumference is called Lake Herie. A third lake, still greater and more beautiful is called Ontario or Beautiful Lake but the Jesuit want to call it Lake St. Louis. Further to the west, more than 300 miles distant, beyond the Sault or Cascade is a lake larger than the "Fresh Water Sea". North of this lake is the "Lake of the Stinkards" (salt water). Living around these lakes are the following known nations: Algonquin, Huron, Sault, Ondatauauat, Tobacco, Cat, Neutral, Andastogenronons of New Sweden and the Hiroquois. The Huron means Hure, having hair like the bristles of a wild boar.
March 2: Twenty eight Huron and Algonquin (including 10 women) departed Three Rivers for Montreal. The Iroquois attacked and 10 escaped but the balance were killed or captured.
May 10: Father (I)-Jacques Buteux (1600-1652) is killed by the Iroquois on the St. Maurice River, north of Three Rivers. The Jesuit were under sentence of death by the Huron who could have been the executioners.
June 2: Two Algonquin women, escaped the Iroquois, arrived Montreal, after 25 days on the road. One woman delivered 10 days on the road and named the baby Jean.
From 1653 to 1656 the Iroquois turned to war with the Erie just east of Lake Erie and wiped them from the face of the earth. It took years before the Andaste (Susquehannock) who are Iroquoian speaking, are also wiped from existence as a tribe. One hundred Iroquois attacked the Ojibwa town of Sault Ste Marie and are repelled by fifty Ojibwa using arrows and axes against muskets. An Iroquois war party of 120 is defeated on Manitoui Island, only one Iroquois escaped. One thousand six hundred Ojibwa assembled to attended a victory celebration at the Sault and plan war against the Iroquois. Many believed the English are behind these Iroquois wars. There are reports that the Black Robe Simon Le Moyne is working out of New York among the Iroquois.
An 800 party of Iroquois marched on the Outaouas (Ottawas) at Mechingan where they had constructed a fort. The Iroquois concluded the fort was impregnable. They split their forces some crossing the Bay of Puans (Green Bay) and the lake of the Illinois. The were on their way back to their country, going along the shore of Lake Huron. They were defeated by the Saulteurs (Ojibwa), Mississakis and Mikikouets. The other Iroquois went to the south west into Illinois territory but were entirely routed. Some question the accuracy of this account.
The Nikikouek (Otter) People who lived on the north shore of Lake Huron fought against the Iroquois this year.
European trade axes were not used primarily as weapons of war as has been taught to generations of children but rather like the Europeans by the women and children for making fire wood.
Two unnamed adventurous young men, connected with the fur trade, followed a party of the People in their hunting excursions for two years, penetrating the Dakota Sioux country, returning to Quebec with glowing accounts. As a result of these reports in 1656 Father Mesnard ventured to the south shore of Lake Superior in a bay called Chegoimegon where he stayed for eight months. One person accompanied him to what is called Keweena Portage where Mesnard is lost in the forest. The Dakota Sioux have a tradition that his cassock and prayer book are kept as amulets for many years in the valley of the Mississippi. The Dakota Sioux and the Ojibwa are fighting on the south shore of Lake Superior about this time and its highly possible the good father is thought to be allied with the Ojibwa.
Simon le Moyne of France visits New York.
Diego de Guadalajara and Andrew Lopez of Spain visited Texas and New Mexico, fought the Cuitoas People who they defeated.
April 26: Jews are ordered out of Brazil.
In the fall the Iroquois simultaneously attacked the Ojibwa at various points along the Mahahmoosebee. Runners are sent during the winter to the Ojibwa allies, the Sac, Foxes, Menominee, Kinnestenoes, Potawatomi, Wendat of Sandusky, from the extreme end of Lake Superior to the prairies of Illinois.
Father Gabriel Dreuillettes (1610-1681) a Jesuit arrive Quebec 1655 and worked among the Iroquois until 1657.
The first slave auction was held in New Amsterdam aka New York City.
A Dutch farmer killed a Delaware woman for picking a peach in his orchard, the woman's family retaliated by killing the farmer. The Delaware throughout the land upon hearing the news rose up and attacked New Amsterdam killing several Dutch and taking 150 prisoners. Peter Stuyvesant ordered out the army recovering most of the prisoners and destroyed several villages. The Esophus up river Hudson upon hearing the news rebelled against the Dutch. Stuyvesant requested a council of peace with the Esophus and when the negotiators came to Wiltwyck, the soldiers murdered them in their sleep. The Esophus in reprisal captured eight Dutch soldiers and slowly burned them alive. This war lasted for the next nine years. Peter Stuyvesant rounded up the women and children and sold them into slavery in the Caribbean so as not to raise the ire of the Dutch traders and farmers.
A Hopi Indian named Juan Cuna is accused of idolatry by Franciscan missionary Frair Salvador de Guerra and whipped until he bleeds. The holy Father then pours turpentine on Cuna, sets him on fire and burns him to death.
The Iroquois war against the Illinois (1656-1667) drove the Illinois to the Mississippi.
The Outaouas descended in a body to Three Rivers. Missionares were assigned to them, Father Garot to the Hurons, Father Mesnard with 5 Frenchmen to the Outaouas. Others suggest Father Mesnard did no go to the Outaouas until 1660.
The Onondaga (Iroquois) requested the establishment of a French settlement. They believed the Ojibwa would not attack if the French are living among them. On May 17, Zachary Du Puis, four priests and thirty to forty Frenchmen spent two months to reach the Onondaga. Their tribal location is on the Oswego River (the place where the valley widens or outpouring) to establish the mission of Ste Marie of Gannenta. The French and Jesuit were in the area of the Oswego and Seneca river system from 1656 to 1684. During this period they built a fort, later called the "Old French Fort" on the Seneca River, near Campbells Island, S.W. corner of Howland's Island, Town of Conquest, Cayuga County, New York.
The Ojibwa made a pronged attack on the Iroquois. One party routed the Iroquois on the Mahamooseebee with minor resistance as the Iroquois are greatly outnumbered. Those who had gone to the St. Claire River had a fierce battle at the mouth of the Sahgeeng River and when joined by the southern Wendat eventually overran the whole of the south of the peninsula.
The most bloody battles are fought on Lake Simcoe, at a place called Ramma, at Mud Lake, Pigeon Lake and Rice Lake. The last battle is fought at the mouth of the Trent River. The first encounter between the Mohawk and the Ojibwa is fought at a place where Orillea is situated about a quarter mile north. The Mohawk are in great numbers and resisted stoutly for three days. They finally sued for mercy that is granted. The few survivors are allowed to go to Lake Huron there they remained during the rest of the war. The second great battle is fought at Pigeon Lake where the Iroquois had made a strong fort. A great number of Ojibwa is killed before the fort is stormed and as a result few Iroquois are spared. The third battle is fought near Mud Lake about twelve miles north of Peterboro. Not a male person is spared. The next day another village at Peterboro and Smithtown is attacked and an immense number of Iroquois is slaughtered. The fourth village attacked is at the mouth of the Otonabee on Rice Lake where several hundred are slain. Panic struck the Iroquois and they assembled their remaining forces in Percy on the river Trent. Of this army of Iroquois warrior's one alone is saved. The Iroquois are entirely broken up and the country subdued. The Iroquois would never again pull themselves together against the Ojibwa for they had the whole of the Western Peoples against them. They are constantly reminded that the Ojibwa are a mighty Nation who could again send a few warriors against them if the violated the peace.
The Pamunkey People under command of Totopotomoi joined the Virginians to soundly defeat Colonel Edward Hill at the battle of Richmound, Virginia. Hill was so disgraced that he had to personally pay for the cost of the battle and was stripped of his rank. Unfortunately Totopotomoi was killed in the fighting.
The Black Indians of the Schuylkill River, New York traded with the Dutch. They acquired this name as their skin color was darker than the other Indians of the region.
Virginia (U.S.A.) declares that baptism does not free a slave from bondage.
May: The Ojibwa Nation and her allies began assembling below Sault Ste. Marie and two hundred war canoes are the first to arrive. Old Wahboojeeg sent his son in his place called Naiquod, saying go make a straight path to the lodges of the French and demands the land of the weeping Huron ( Wendat). I will sit upon the edge of this rock and await your return. The canoes of the Menominee, Potawatomi, Sack and Fox also throng the western shore of Lake Michigan. Seven hundred war canoes filled the lake.
The settlement of Saint Marie of Gannenta infuriated the Mohawk as it symbolized a deviation from the Grand Plan against the French. The Oneida and Mohawk are to the east of the Onondaga and the Seneca and Cayuga is to the west. The Onondaga are ordered to kill all the missionaries in the spring. The defeat of the Iroquois by the Ojibwa makes the French settlement redundant. Pierre Esprit Radisson devised a plan and they all escaped in the spring and returned to Quebec. The Jesuits report that the People of Cap Breton waged war with the Esquimaux of the north. The Esquimaux were surprised and some were massacred and others taken captive.
The Illinois (meaning the men) were one of the most powerful nations of New France. They had sixty villages containing 20,000 warriors. The villages contained between 100,000 to 120,000 people. This did not include the Miamis that had 8,000 warriors.
Father Gabriel Dreuillettes (1610-1681) a Jesuit left the Iroquois and went to work among the Cree about the Hudson Bay for a short perion the among the the tribes of the St. Lawrence River..
Father's Claude Jean Allouez (1622-1689), the Jesuit, arrived Quebec 1658 and spent until 1665 in the St. Lawrence Settlements.
Jesuit, Father Simon LeMoyne reported an Iroquois army of 1,200 set out to get revenge on the Ojibwa. On the north shore of Lake Huron the Ojibwa defeated the Iroquois army that broke up and returned home. This appears to be a late report of the 1656 Ojibwa wars.
Sewackenaem is the spokesperson of the Esopus People who lived along the Hudson River across from Hyde Park, New York and the present town of Esopus, New York.
The Bear Clan of the Ottawa were located at the mouth of the Green Bay and they later relocated to Mackinac.
May 18: Quebec City, the Iroquois reached the city and captured the Huron under French protection. The humiliated the French inhabitants in fron of their fort. All the Hurons were taken prisoner.
The French reported that it is a miracle that the Iroquois, although able to destroy us so easily, have not yet done so.
The Tabacco People had fled southwest of Lake Superior to avoid conflict with the Iroquois. They were welcomed to live among the Alimiwec who gave them a kind reception.
The French reported the Nadwechiwec People who numbered 5,000 punished adultery by cutting off a woman's nose. They also reported the Poualak (meaning warriors) use coal to heat their sod houses because wood is scanty.
The Dakota People who previously occupied eastern Saskatchewan, eastern
Manitoba and western Ontario are now divided into three groups. The Siouan
speaking Dakota Santee being farmers occupied semi-permanent villages along the
Mississippi. Between the Mississippi and lower Missouri River were the
Dakota Nakota (Yanktonai) also Siouan speaking semi-mobile but mainly hunting
big game. The Assiniboine and Stony of Canada speak the same Dialect of
the Yanktonia. Farthest west along the Missouri River lived the Dekota
Lakota (Teton) who where wholly mobile and followed the bison (buffalo). They were
all untied in an informal coalition called the Dakota or just allies.
INDIAN HISTORY1660 - 1699