1800 - 1824
Indian women outnumber the men more than two to one,
this has a profound impact on the culture
INDIAN HISTORY 1825 - 1849
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The Beothuk are driven to extinction by the British
they never killed a single woman or child
nor launched indiscriminate war.
Some time prior to this date the Skookum language originated in the coastal communities of the North West. It evolved as a trading language between the west coast tribes (Nations). They quickly absorbed French, Michif and English to become know as Chinook Jargon. By the late 1800's it was believed 100,000 to 250,000 spoke the language from Northern California to Southern Alaska (Columbia District).
A Micmac (Mi'kmaq or Mi'Kmaq) legend, about this time, says that the People have lived here since the world began. The Micmac (Mi'kmaq or Mi'Kmaq) began to migrate to Newfoundland and intermarried with the Beothuk.
By the Early 1800's the Illini (Illinois) People are nearly extinct.
The Indians of Alberta have long recognized the value of the oil sands value in waterproofing their canoes.
Many Prairie bison (buffalo) hunter rejected the European gun because it is cumbersome, difficult to re-load and the noise caused the herds to stamped. The gun however is well suited to woods hunting especially the moose.
The Blackfoot confederacy dominated central and southern Alberta as well as northern Montana. The Milk River ridge was a favorite hunting camp site. The Twin River Bison Jump on the west side of the south fork of the Milk River was an ancient Indian site. This bison (buffalo) jump was first recorded by L. Halmrast and A. Blair but it has since slumped and eroded into the Milk River. The Blackfoot word for Frenchmen is "real White Men". I suspect they were referring to French Metis rather than French or English men.
The Ojibwa Mide Ceremony that is a part of the Medewewin or Grand Medicine Society recorded their migration from Eastern Canada, the great Salt Sea, through the Great Lakes to the Prairies. They departed their Great Town on the Salt Sea because of sickness and death. They first moved to Moneaung (Montreal). After a long period they moved to Lake Huron. Again after a great period they moved to Boweting (Sault Ste Marie). Then after much time they moved (some say in 1490) to the Island of La Pointe (Wisconsin). This great migration of the people is recorded on birch bark pictography, glyph stones, wooden slabs and hide is also sometimes used. These sacred records are not shown to the black Robes for fear of their ridicule. (I)-Alexander Mackenzie (1763-1820) also believed the Algonkin originated on the Atlantic coast. It is noteworthy that the Proto-Ojibwa originally lived in this region and further north before their trek to the St. Lawrence Valley.
A vast amount of evidence can be adduced to prove that force has tended to brutalize rather than ennoble the human race. The Ojibwa believe that the more a man is treated as a brother, the less demand is for law. The less law there is, the more will people be honored. In times of gladness all partook of the joy, and when suffering came all alike suffered. The aboriginal custom is that man should not as brutes be whipped into duty but that they would as men be persuaded to the right. Of late years, law has borne with it very many evils. You can judge for yourself, prisons, penitentiaries and poor houses are all bad signs. The Ojibwa from Red Lake and La Pointe are trading along the Red River, Pembina River and Saskatchewan River systems.
John McKay of Osnabursh said the giving of credit is the loss of many good people. The goods are merely taken by them to distribute away in presents among their relations. He also noted that the natives think more of their meat than a man at Red River thinks of his furs.
The Munsee (Delaware) a member of the Algonquian Nation being 240 in number settled among the Ojibwa this season. The Ojibwa being 378 in number on the river Thames in the Township of Caradoc, district of London. The Ojibwa are cultivating farms of 20 acres each. They occupy 76 log houses; six tents and have 25 barns. The total acres under cultivation are 450. Their stock consists of 600 head. They have a fanning mill, blacksmith shop and a moderate supply of agricultural tools.
The Chickasaw of southeastern U.S.A. were considered one of the five Civilized Nations because they farmed, and operated cotton plantations with the labor of one thousand African slaves.
During the next 50 years Sault St. Louis (Caughnawaga) (Lachine) Quebec near Montreal supply a large number of Mohawk speaking Iroquois to the North West and Columbia fir trade. They went as free traders, with NWC, HBC and Pacific fur Company. Their contribution to opening of the west is understated.
Indian maps convey much information where European documents fail. The People draw maps in scale to travel time rather than an impractical mile scale. A difficult river route occupies more space than easy ones of the same length, because it takes more time to travel. French Canadian travel distance is calculated in night’s sleep where as the Metis, Coureurs de Bois, and Voyagers modified this system as pipes smoked. The Ojibwa of Rainy Lake have a thriving business in the sale of wild rice to the fur trade. Daniel Williams Harmon (1778-1845) reported the Indians pray to the Great Spirit, they pay him no sacrifice, since he is a Good Spirit and is not disposed to do them injury.
The Omaha a main tribe of the Siouan Nation are almost wiped out by smallpox reducing their numbers to less than 300. They had moved west from Ohio following the rivers thereby gaining their name which means against the current or wind. Their homes were constructed of earth and sod. Skin tents however were used when they traveled. It was Dene territory.
(I)-Duncan Cameron (1764-1848) of the North West Company commented that the area north west of Lake Superior, the Nipigon Country, is now impoverished since beaver is getting very scarce. The Ojibwa held the belief that the lands are made for use of man and therefore everyone had an equal right to partake of the produce. What they didn't appreciate is that Europe had an insatiable appetite for the produce of the land.
The NWC built a trading post at Liidli Koe aka Fort of the Forks or Fort Simpson when the HBC took over. The Fort of the Forks is where the Mackenzie and the Liard Rivers meet.
Peter Grant (1764-1848) a Northwest trader at Lac La Pluie wrote it is customary in winter for the tribes to break up into single family units. This is a precaution necessary to their very existence. They choose a particular hunting district and no other person will encroach upon it without a special invitation. If they discover a beaver lodge they mark the situation and no other person would attempt to destroy it without permission. In case of famine any one may abandon his district and seek a better hunt on his neighbor’s territory without incurring the least ill will or reproach. The Indians say the lands are made for the use of man, therefore every one has an equal right to partake of the produce.
Shakehand a spokesperson for the Yankton Sioux encountered the Lewis and Clark expedition at Yankton, South Dakota.
Meriwether Lewis (1774-1809) and William Clark (1770-1838) better known as the Lewis and Clark expedition spent two weeks with the Nez Perce in Idaho. The Nez Perce allowed the expedition to take a Country Woman during their stay.
The Ojibwa from Lake Superior to Lake Winnipegosis are engaged in the harvesting of wild rice and the manufacture of maple sugar. Alexander Henry conducted a census that is completed in 1806 showing a major surplus of women to men. He reported 16,995 women and only 7,502 men. This census excluded the Athabasca and the South West Territory. To compensate for this imbalance, marriage of their women to the Europeans is encouraged and many men are forced to take two or three wives, normally the sisters of the first wife. The Northern Ojibwa reports the first indications of the decline of the beaver north of Lake Superior this year.
The Avoyelles meaning the vipers belonged to the Caddoan group are terminated by this date, only three women remain.
Lewis and Clark noted the Kalispel People (ear drop People) in northern Idaho. They also visited the Kamiah People whom they called the Chopunnish People that numbered 800. They are in fact a group of Nez Perce People. The Klikitat a Shahaptian tribe who originally lived in Washington along the Lewis and White Rivers were noted by Lewis and Clark as living on the Yakima and Klickitat Rivers. Lewis and Clark met the Klumaitumsh People who originally lived in Grays Harbor, Washington. The town of Lahanna is located on both sides of the Columbia River as reported by Lewis and Clark. They also visited the Paloos People a Shahaptian tribe in Idaho. They also encountered the Nez Perces People.
The Shoshoni People (aka Grass People) who lived in Wyoming, Nevada and parts of Idaho were visited by Lewis and Clark on the Missouri River and in Montana.
March: Lewis and Clark noted that the Minnitarees a.k.a. Gros Ventre Indians had set all the neighboring grass ablaze to obtain an early 'crop' for their horses and also to attract the bison (buffalo) and other wildlife to the area.
August 8: The Assiniboine, Cree and Blackfoot join forces to wage war on the Rapid Indians (Dakota Sioux). An argument over a horse broke the alliance resulting in 25 dead Blackfoot and 3 Assiniboine. An Ojibwa the son-in-law of Le Grande Noir kills a trader named Hughes at Red Lake. The North West Company had a trading post at the East End of Red Lake.
A 200 Ojibwa war party and their families are roving the Pembina River area.
For 20 years the Blackfoot dominated the Nez Perce and Shoshone because of their trade for guns and ammunition with the Canadian traders.
July: Meriweather Lewis met with the Blackfoot and made it very clear that the Americans came to establish peace between Indian tribes. He stated the Americans intended to trade guns and ammunitions with the Shoshones and Nez Perces, mortal enemies of the Blackfoot. Lewis and Reuben Field each killed a Blackfoot warrior. This caused the Americans to be classed among the enemy of the Blackfoot, resulting in a 30 year standoff with much blood shed. Most Americans don't appreciate the significant of this statement, it's like saying the Russians want to bring peace to the world by installing long range nuclear missiles in Cuba. It's ironic that three of the expedition would eventually be killed by the Blackfoot. The Lewis and Clarke Expedition and therefore Americans, was noted as being stingy. The various Indian tribes offered the expedition food, horses, canoes and guides. The expedition was determined to deny the Indians even cast off items. Lewis ordered the canoes, poles and paddles burned demonstrating great disrespect .
A 42 man American Expedition into northwestern Montana is killed to the last man by the Blackfoot People.
A trading post is built at the junction of the Yellowstone and Big Horn Rivers by Manuel Lisa a Spaniard from St. Louis. He traded guns and ammunition with the Crow who were at war with the Blackfoot. Lisa retired in 1811 to the lower Missouri River area, founding the Missouri Fur Co..
November 17: Detroit, territory Michigan Treaty with the Indians north west of the river Ohio. The Ottoway, Chippeway, Wyandotte, and Pottawatami nations.
Mamaushegauta or Big Legs
Poquaquet or the Ball
Quitchonequit or big Cloud
Puckenese or the Spark of Fire
Negig or the Otter
Nacquettequet or little Bear
Nemekas or Little Thunder
Sawanabenase, Pechegabua or Grand Blanc
Meuetugesheck or the Little Cedar
Miere or Walk in the Water
George McDoughall, Chief Judge
C. Rush, Atorney General
Jacob Visgar, Associate Judge
Joseph Watson, Secretary of Legislature Michigan
Anijah Hull Surveyor
Harris H. Hickman, council at law
Abraham Fuller Hull, council at law
William Walker, interpreter.
June 14: At Cayoosh Flat (Lillooet, B.C.) the St'at'imc Nation debated to kill the (II)-Simon Frazer Party or to meet them in peace. A consensus was finally reached for peace. They welcomed the party into camp and provided them supplies.
A party of 200 Ojibwa under command of Flat Mouth, war leader of Leech Lake, Minnesota attacked the village of Long Prairie. Long Prairie numbered forty lodges of Dakota Sioux and all are killed except six men. The Ojibwa captured many horses but are unable to manage them. It is reported they killed and ate them. About the same time, the Black Duck of Red Lake, Minnesota is surrounded. They destroyed a camp of forty Dakota Sioux and they are killed to a man.
This year is remembered as the decline of the moose in Ojibwa Country some say as a result of over killing for the fur trade. An Ojibwa band north of Lake Superior began to diminish in size. By 1829 they are down to singular families that is better able to sustain themselves with small game. Records of starvation among the People began to appear after this date.
The bison (buffalo) were exterminated east of the Mississippi and only their trails they had made walking in single file remained as a reminder.
Sir Thomas Duckworth issued a law prohibiting the further killing of the Beothuk, Red Natives of Newfoundland. He believed they are an endangered species. An expedition in 1827 however failed to find a single surviving Beothuk. It is noteworthy that the Beothuk unlike the British from 1613 to 1810 never killed a single woman or child nor launched indiscriminate massacres. The British settlers were vindictive, callous and uncaring in their genocidal campaign against these gentle peoples.
Quelcaya, Peru during the 1810's is the coldest period in the last 500 years but the 1820's is the warmest period.
Tecumseh, (1768-1813) the Shawnee war leader has no love for the British but he despises the Americans and is in open war with the Americans. He convinces the other tribes to join the British to combat American territorial ambitions more effectively.. He is a gallant General being instrumental in taking Forts Michilimackinac, Brownstone and Detroit.
The battle of Beaver Dam on Twenty Mile Creek is summarized as follows; the Cognauga fought the battle, the Mohawk got the plunder and Lieutenant Fitzgibbon and De Haren who arrived with the regulars after the day had been won, claimed the credit. The American General Peter B. Porter wrote disgustedly; the truth is we have had an army at Fort George for two months, this army lays panic-struck, shut up and held in by a few hundred miserable savages, leaving the whole of this frontier exposed to the inroads and depredations of the enemy.
General Hull reported that after the surrender of Michilimackie every tribe and nation like a hive came swarming down in every direction. The Western Natives had been conditioned by Great Britain never to let the ancient covenant ‘chain of friendship’ grow brown with rust.
James Spence noted that the Cree believed England had been depopulated as they are now sending dwarf Orkney men to Canada. The last of the taller Orkney those being over 5 feet 5 inches arrived allowing only shorter men in future years.
Thomas Jefferson a Virginian believes in a peaceful eradication of the Indian culture through education of their children, and by emphasizing agriculture to confine the men to the land
John McIntosh discovered a Indian fruit tree in Dundela, Ontario and replanted it on his own land. Over the years through grafting he developed the 'McIntosh Apple'.
Henry Marie Brackenride ascended the Missouri River with the Missouri Fur Company under the leadership of Manuel Lisa. Wilson Price Hunt led the Pacific Fur Company bound for Astoria, Oregon was on the river at the same time and they traveled together for a while. The Lisa group consisted of 25 men including 20 oars men who were mostly Canadians and Creoles. They were of the opinion that Americans were not considered up to the task. They claimed that Touissant Charbonneau and Sacajawea (1784 or 1787 - 1812 or 1884) of the Louis and Clark expedition were their guides. Each village we visited the People would present the Metis offspring of the Louis and Clarke expedition.
The Mandan People called God 'The Master of Life', the Manitou. The Sioux call him 'The Father of Life'. The Mandan wonder if the White People have any women because they are so fond of our women. The Mandan women far out number the Mandan men at this time.
An earth quake measuring 8 on the Richter Scale struck New Madrid near the Mississippi River and tremors were recorded at Detroit, Pittsburgh, Cleveland and Charleston. In Boston the ground shook so hard the church bells rang. Louis Bringer witnessed the surface sinking, the ground soil rolled like a sea. New Madrid had fallen 15 feet when it was all over. Sand blows covered nearly 1,000 square miles making much of the ground infertile. Earthquakes have occurred in the past in this area and will occur again.
A spokesperson of the Pillager band of Chippewa (Ojibwa) said he did not wish to mingle among quarrels between white men, nor did he intend ever to be guilty of breaking the window glass of the white man's dwelling.
The Dakota Nation pledged their alliance to the British in return for their solemn oaths of perpetual obligation. Perpetual obligation ended in 1814 when the British signed the treaty of Ghent abandoning their native allies as a terms of peace.
The Potawatomi attacked a United States garrison at Fort Dearborn (Chicago, Illinois) killing the troups.
Tecumseh d-1813 helped win the war of 1812 to stop the invasion of Canada by the Americans. Four exceptionally strong earth quakes in Missouri rallied the Indians. The Shawnee chief told his people "He (Great Spirit) speaks in thunder and the earth swallows up villages" as a sign. These quakes were caused by global warming that resulted in glaciers having melted and the earth was springing back to former positions.
July: Oshkosh (hoot or toe) born 1795 a Menominee of the Owasse clan helped capture Fort Mackinaw from the Americans
George Budge at Moose Lake continued to encourage the killing of moose and deer as a source of meat and fur wrappers knowing there is a serious decreasing number of moose. The Hudson Bay Company had placed a high demand for moose hide as it is used as fur wrappers. This developing shortage of moose not only threatened winter starvation among the Ojibwa but their source of clothing and thong for snowshoe. Inadequate snow shoe makes travel nearly impossible leading to starvation.
The Native style of forest warfare is very different from the European line and siege type of warfare. The Natives shamed Colonel Proctor into making a stand at Moravian Town on October 5, 1813. Tecumseh and his men did the fighting and not Proctor and his Red Coats as claimed by some historians. General Tecumseh, (1768-1813) the Shawnee war chief gave his life; Proctor saved his by flight. This shameful action by the Red Coats discouraged the Peoples resistance in the Michigan and Lake Erie Region. Resistance however continued in the upper reaches of Lake Huron and in Wisconsin.
John Clarke, a hot tempered Astorian trader murdered one of a group of Nez Perce and Palouse People, by hanging. The Nez Perce did not retaliate but tensions ran high between Americans and the People.
August 30: The Creek People attacked Fort Mims, Albama killing 500 defending whites.
October 19: Colonel Dyer burned Littefutchi (former Upper Creek Town) at the head of Canoe Creek in St. Clair County, Alabama.
The treaty of Ghent maintained the status quo with the Americans agreeing to restore all possessions, rights and privileges to the People. The demand for clearly defined Indian Territory however is again frustrated.
The Bannock People destroyed John Reid's Trading Post (established 1813) on the lower Boise River, Idaho.
Protestant sects in the throes of Evangelical and Revivalist movements stressed the need to Christianize all men in the European Custom. They are instrumental in shifting the American Indian Policy from protectionism to civilization and the oppressive assimilation objectives. Most Northern Ojibwa are receiving credit as individuals rather than bands and are now tied for necessities to the trading posts. By 1821 the Hudson Bay Company would claim that their total dependency would be complete. The Hudson Bay Mission is to make all Natives into servants of the Company. Some members of the Company begin to question the wisdom of this policy.
The traders at Mackinac discovered how Maple Syrup is stored for later use. The Ottawa made miniature barrels out of one piece of wood, sides and ends one piece, the interior being burnt out through the bung hole. If the barrels are buried three feet deep it will keep a year or so.
March 27: General Jackson killed 500 Creek People at the fortified village of Tohopeka on the Tallapoosa River in Alabama.
This is recorded as the year without a summer.
At San Francisco 300 Indians are dying annually from measles, cholera, smallpox and the Spanish disease of syphilis.
The Rush-Bagot Convention is the real end to the wars of 1812 that demilitarized the Great Lakes. The Indian Nations are no longer needed as allies and military partners. The treaty of July 18 at Red River between the so called Savage Chippewa or Saulteaux, the Killistine or Cree is attended by the following Chiefs:
Machewheoeab, Le Sonnant,
Mechkadewikonair, La Robe Noir,
Kayajieskebinoa, L'Homme Inoir,
The People would later make two important claims, the treaty is a friendship treaty, not a land treaty and furthermore that payment is never received and the treaty is violated and therefore never concluded.
The scarcity of moose and caribou in Northwest Ontario forced the Ojibwa to buy clothing and snowshoe from the trading post. These are items that they had previously manufactured and sold to the Hudson Bay Company.
John Ross a Metis born October 3, 1790 of a Scottish father and a Cherokee mother died August 1, 1866. He worked on the Cherokee Council this year to settle which lands the Cherokee would or would not have. Later he himself was forced to a reservation,
November 27: US soldiers attacked a Florida Indian village and started the first Seminole war. Andrew Jackson invaded Florida with 3,000 men forcing Spain to cede the land to the United States. The next stage was to drive the Seminole from Florida to make room for the Americans.
A new Indian Territory, West of the Mississippi is defined this year. The Ojibwa who possessed the Home and Gore Districts are forced onto certain small tracts of land at the Credit River and at Sixteen and Twenty Mile Creeks. The Wesleyan Methodists considered them too old to learn to read and write but are capable of being saved from their former evil state of ignorance and vagrancy.
March: Governor Sir Charles Hamilton appointed (II)-John Peyton (1793-1879) as justice of the peace for northern Newfoundland. John Peyton Jr. with 10 heavily armed English men were offered 100 British pound reward to capture a Beothuk slave. (II)-John Peyton Sr. (1749-1829) the butcher of the Beothuk was part of the party. Nonosbawsut chief of the Beothuk and husband of Demasouit (1796-1820) unarmed with a peace branch came to the defense of his wife who was taken. Nonosbawsut recognized the butcher (I)-John Peyton who had previously killed many of his people and attacked him. While chocking him he was stabbed in the back and shot. Nonosbawsut's brother fled the area and is shot in the back. (II)-John Peyton Jr. (1793-1879) gained the infamous repretation of his father because he was in command. He lied at the enquiry and failed to disclose relevant facts.
April 18: A regiment of Indians and African-Americans was defeated at the battle of Suwanna in Florida ending the first Seminole War.
September 18: Maguaga a former village of the Huron located 14 miles south west of Detroit, Michigan is ceded to the United States in treaty at St. Mary's. Ohio
The Ojibwa (Saulteaux) chief also known as William King born Sault Ste Marie 1774, died Red River September 28, 1864 and his children adopted the name Prince. He defended the Selkirk settlers into Red River, showed them how to subsist in this country and later assisted the survivors after the seven oaks incident. In gratitude the Selkirk settlers trespassed on his lands and violated the 1817 treaty with Selkirk..
The pirate Jean Lafitte on Galveston Island, Texas kidnapped a Karankawa woman and 300 warriors were sent to rescue her. Lafitte's 200 pirates, armed with large-bore cannon and flinklock muskets decimated the Karankawa.
September 24: Saginaw, Territory of Michigan, Treaty with the Chippewa Nation.
Conditions of Treaty:
John Riley son Menawcumegoqua, a Chippewa Woman 640 acres above the mouth Saginaw River on the east side
Peter Riley son Menawcumegoqua, a Chippewa Woman 640 acres above the mouth Saginaw River on the west side
James Riley son Menawcumegoqua, a Chippewa Woman 640 acres above the mouth Saginaw River on the east side nearly opposite the Campeau trading house.
Kawkawiskou or the Crow, 640 acres east side Saginaw River at Menitegow, including the Island.
Nowokeshik, Metawanene, Mokitchenoqua, Nondashemau, Petabonaqua, Messawwakut, Checbalk, Kitchegeequa, Sagosequa, Annoketoqua, and Tawcumegoqua, 640 acres each to be determined near the grand traverse of the Flint River.
Bokowtonden 640 acres on the Kawkawling River.
The Chippewa who signed numbered 112, the government signed 23 people.
The Ojibwa reported the moose had been exterminated in Northern Ojibwa Country being North of Lake Superior. They also reported that caribou are very rare. One must remember that in 1670, 2,400 moose are reported killed in one winter on Manitoulin Island alone. Concern is growing among the Ojibwa that their dependency is growing on the European. They are nearly dependent for guns, hatchets, knives, twine, leather and clothing; the old ways are being lost. Robert Cummins of Trout Lake said in summary, the rabbit skin parka so important in later years does not appear to have been of major importance in earlier times.
In 1818 the American Government established the Michigan Territory without consulting the Residents of the area. The first Governor Lewis Cass and Henry Rowe Schoolcraft (1793-1864) arrived Sault Ste Marie in 1820 to claim the Chippewa (Ojibwa) region based on previous claims of the French. The Ojibwa stated there was no such official grant made by their forefathers to the French. Both side threatened war but Schoolcraft convinced the futility of the Ojibwa position. In other words 'might is right'. Chief Shingwauk (The Little Pine) who fought the British in the war of 1812 moved from the south side of St. Mary's River to the Canadian north side. He is forced to sign the treaty but he used a fictitious name Lavoine Bart in contempt. Chief Sassaba refused to sign and walked around Sault Ste Marie naked in contempt wearing only a wolf skin hanging from his shoulder.
An Ojibwa in Mississauga said to the English "you came as a wind blowing across the Great Lake. The wind wafted you to our shores. We planted you, we nursed you, we protected you till you became a mighty tree that spread through our hunting land, with its branches you now lash us."
Sassaba died 1822 an Ojibwa chief attended the treaty signing of Sault Ste Marie, Michigan but disliked the Americans intensely and argued against selling any land to them.
The Kwakiuti Indians of the North Pacific Coast numbered some 10,700 People. They are a sea going people who lived on the northeast corner of Vancouver Island from Johnson Strait to Cape Cook and along the coast of the mainland of British Columbia from Douglas Channel to Bute Inlet, except a small portion occupied by the Bella Coola. Linguistically there were three groups, the Haisla, the Heiltsuk and the Kwakiutl. The People practiced the potlatch. Warfare was not a prominent part of their culture.
Quelcaya, Peru during the 1810's is the coldest period in the last 500 years but the 1820's is the warmest period.
The Treaty of Sault Ste Marie of 1820 was signed at Sault Ste Marie by the Chippeway tribe.
The tomato cultivated by the Native People of central America is first eaten by Europeans.
The Rev. John West d-1845 opened a residential school in Red River.
The Ojibwa called the French, Wemitigoshis,
and referred to the time before this as the good old days. Before
the European came the Ojibwa are stronger in faith, more pious in religion.
They were healthier and lived longer and became very old. They could
fast longer, ten days or more and had stronger and more accurate dreams.
The Wemitigoshis came and their gifts are good, wholesome food, fresh pork,
stout knives, lasting guns and good cloths. They married our daughters
and became our brothers. Then the English brought much firewater
more than the French and then the good times ended. Many
Ojibwa at this time maintained a written genealogy of up to nine generations of ancestors that he could recite along with their good deeds. Even the best of the old style Ojibwa had to come in for supplies every three years and there is a growing concern that many are becoming totally dependent on the European. The Ojibwa of Red Lake and Pembina are determined not to become entrapped in the Hudson Bay net.
Sequoyah introduced a system for writing the Cherokee language and went on to teach his people to read and write.
August 29: Chicago, in the State of Illinois, Treaty with the Ottawa, Chippewa and Pottawatamie Nations.
Village Mangachqua on River Peble, 6 sq miles.
Village Mickkesawbe, 6 sq miles
Village Natowasepe, 4 sq miles.
Village Prairie Ronde, 3 sq miles
Village Matchebenarbshewish at the head of the Kekalamazoo River.
John Burnet, 2 sections of land.
James Burnt, Abraham Burnet, Rebecca Burnet and Nancy Burnet, children of Kawkeeme, sister of Topnibe, of the Potawatamie Nation, a section of land each on the north bank of the river St. Joseph, about two miles from the mouth.
John B. La Lime, son of Nokenoqua, 1/2 section above the previous grant.
Jean Baptiste Chandonai son of Chippewaqua, one section of land adjoing the tract granted to John B. La Lime.
Joseph Daze, son Chippewaqua, a section of land above and adjoing the tract granted to Jean Baptiste Chadonai
Monguago 1/2 section at Mishshewakokink
Pierre Moran or Peeresh, a Potawatamie Chief, a section of land and to his children two sections of land at the mouth of the Elkland River.
Pierre Le Clerc, son Moiqua a section of land on the Elkheart River above and adjoining the Moran grant above.
The section of land granted by Treaty of St. Mary's in 1818 to Peeresh or Perig shall be granted to Jean Baptiste Cicot, son of Pesayquot, sister of said Peerish.
Osheakkebe or Benac, 1/2 section land north side Elkheart River where the road from Chicago to Fort Wayne first crosses the said river.
Menawche a Potawatamine woman 1/2 section on the east bank of the St. Joseph River where the road from Chicago to Fort Wayne first crosses the said river.
Theresa Chandler or Toeakqui a Potawatamine woman and her daughter Betsey Fisher a section of land on the south side of the Grand River, opposite the Spruce Swamp.
Charles Beaubien and Medart Beaubien, son Mannabenaqua, each 1/3 section near the Village Kewigoshkeem on the Washtenaw River.
Antoine Roland, son of Igatpatawatamiequa 1/2 section adjoing and below grant to Pierre Moran.
William Knaggs or Waseskukson, son Chesqua 1/2 section adjoining and below the grant to Antoine Roland.
Madeline Bertrand, wife Joseph Bertrand, a Potawatamie woman, section land at the Parc and Vaches, on the north side of the St. Joseph River.
Joseph Bertrand, junior, Benjamin Bertrand, Laurent Bertrand, Theresa Bertrand and Amable Bertrand, children of Madeline Bertrand, each 1/2 section land at portage of the Kankakee River.
John Riley son Menawcumegoquoi a section of land at the mouth of the river Au Foin on the Grand River and extending up the said river.
Peter Riley, son Menawcumegoquoi a section of land at the mouth of the river Au Foin on the Grand River and extending down the said river.
Jean Baptiste Le Clerc, son Moiqua 1/2 section land above and adjoining the grant to Pierre Le Clerc.
Joseph La Framboise, son Shawwenoqua section land on the south side of river St. Joseph and adjoining on the upper side of the land cede to the United States.
The signors include:
Ottawas were 8 in number
Chippewas were 2 in number
Pattiwatimas were 55 in number
The government included 16 in number.
The Ojibwa Shingwahkoonce spoke of the war of 1822, the storming of Mackinaw and the battle of Chippewa. He spoke of the Ojibwa who lived on the English side of Sault Ste Marie and their forced removal to Manetowahning, on the north shore of Lake Huron. Francis Broadhead, the snake, attempted to remove the Ojibwa of Sault Ste Marie to a barren island where soil is not good enough to raise potatoes or any other vegetable for their support. The island they say is composed mostly of large rocks and stones.
Shawnadithit a Beothuk slave was captured by William Cull an employee of (I)-John Peyton Sr (1749-1829) and was forced to serve as servant to the killer of the Beothuk people until John's death in 1829, some suggest it might have been 1827?
The infamous (II)-John Peyton (1793-1879) Jr. married Eleanor Machaney and they moved from Exploits to Twillingate, Newfoundland in 1836. There he was made magistrate. Their son (III)-Thomas Peyton was a member of Newfoundland's House of Assembly, and a magistrate and justice of the peace.
Despite the Hudson Bay Company edict to restrict Company men from entering into marriage with Indian women, both Cree and Ojibwa inter cultural unions increased. The People had a surplus of women and continued to cultivate intimacy between their daughters and the Company men.
The Reverend Bridges only married 187 couples out of 16,000 among Jamaica slaves (African and Indian peoples). John Riland provided the answer; sensible slaves understood that white people, both in Jamaica and England, were as bad afterwards with sexual promiscuity, concubine and rape of slaves as before marriage. The concept of total submission to a husbands authority also violates the equal status of women of African culture or native American culture. The Christian marriage contract gives the husband authority to beat and ill-treat women as they do in England. In the African culture this is reason for instant divorce.
The current bands of Turtle Mountain in northwest Dakota is as follows:
Mistowaiau - Wininiuk or Winnipeg Men
Munikamimg - Mininiuk or Bay or Portage Men
Moswatcing - Mininiuk or Moose Mountain Men
Kipaukaning - Winininuk or Qu'Appelle Men
Ninantakau - Winininuk or Cypress Hills Men
Mitigwatci - Winininuk or Cypress Hills Men
Saganatci - Winininuk or English Men?
Mostapikau - Winininuk or ?
The Men of the Snake River Expedition, battled the Piegan Indians in Lemhi Valley, Idaho.
The Seminole of Florida were given three years to vacate their Florida ancestral home lands.
Vilhjalmur Stefansson of Manitoba left a trail of bodies in his quest for polar fame. In 1913 he sent out an expedition where 11 of 25 men died. This year he sent an expedition of Lorne Knight, Milton Galle and Fred Mauer under command of Allan Crawford to claim R. Wrangel Island for Canada. They tried to hired three Eskimo (Inuit) to guide the expedition but only Ada Blackjack d-1983, an Eskimo (Inuit) woman would go. Ada Blackjack, d-1983 and emerged as the sole survivor of the expedition. Russia ignored the Canadian claims to the Island in the Siberian Arctic, so the expedition was a total failure. Ada Blackjack, d-1983, lived in poverty, poor health and rejection of her request to Vilhjalmur Stefansson for adequate compensation for her services. Vilhjalmur Stefansson gave her some composition until he got her rights to the story and then he was done with her.
Alexander McLeod entered the Nahanni region (Yukon, Canada) encountering the Kaska (Nahaa or Nahannis) People. The Nahanni River is named after these people who assembled at McDame Creek (a tributary of Dease River) to fish and trade. It was said the Nah'aa people used to go down river to terrorize the Dene People.
May 16: A party of 38 Blackfoot led by Iron Shirt encountered 32 trappers on the Jefferson River up from the Missouri River. They had been instructed by Joshua Pilcher, the new head of the Missouri Fur Company to engage in trade with the Blackfoot. Pilcher was well aware the Missouri traders had been trading with the Crow who were at war with the Blackfoot and the Blackfoot where prepared to stop the trade of guns to the Crow at any cost. The meeting was cordial, they spent the night and departed in peace.
May 31: A war party of 300-400 Blackfoot at Akali Creek aka Billings, Montana, attacked the party of 29 trapper/traders led by Michael E. Immel and Robert Jones of the Missouri Fur Company out of Fort Benton. William Gordon and a man called Keemle were among the group. Keemle led a few trappers to escape after burying seven of the dead before rafting down the Yellowstone River. The count was 7 dead, 4 wounded but all their pelts, horses and traps were confiscated. The Missouri Fur Company never again traded on the upper Missouri mountain area. General William H. Ashley and Andrew Henry who were trying to establish the Rocky Mountain Fur Company at Great Falls, Montana, upon hearing the news, General William H. Ashley quit the territory and established himself on the Snake, Platte and Green Rivers. Benjamin O'Fallon who disliked the English (HBC) speculated that the Canadian traders had incited the Blackfoot. The furs were believed to have eventually been traded to the HBC, causing an international incident.
November: Chief Pigwys (Peguis) visited the Reverend David Jones at Red River and countered a request for boys from his tribe for the mission: I have listened very much to what you say, and they are fine promises: we want our children to become like white people, to get plenty of Indian corn, wheat, and potatoes; for since you white people have got our land, we are very poor. Before that we had plenty, our rivers were full of fish, and we always conquered our enemies; but now the white people promise much and give nothing. And now you want our children.
Red Jacket a Seneca was
born 1756 Canoga, New York and died January 20, 1830 Buffalo, New York. He
spoke against the missionaries who lived among his people because they do us no
good. If they are not useful to the white people why do they send them to
us. Why do not you keep them home? These Missionaries know that we
do not understand their religion, we cannot read their books, they tell
different stories about what it contains, these black coats tell us to raise
corn and yet they do not themselves. He finally won out and had the
missionaries removed from the reservations using a recently passed law. In
1821 New York State laws were passed which forbade any residence of white men on
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INDIAN HISTORY 1825 - 1849