THE TIME BEFORE THE PEOPLE
or so many would have us believe
to 12,001 B.C.
INDIAN HISTORY 12000 - 8001 B.C.
INDIAN HISTORY Return to MAIN Pre-History INDEX
INDIAN INDEX Return to Main INDIAN INDEX
DIRECTORY Return to MAIN HISTORY INDEX
GENETIC EVIDENCE SUGGESTS AMERICA WAS POPULATED BEFORE 35,000 B.C.
If, as modern conservative theory suggests, the first American people crossed the Bering Strait 12,000 years ago, then who built the alleged twenty to forty thousand years old sites in South America? The 400 Pedra Furada sites dating to 50,000 B.C. These sites scattered from Old Crow and Bluefish Caves of the Yukon to Monte Verde near the tip of Chile or Pedra in Brazil. Known sites compose some five hundred in all.
The American conservatives will reply that the dating of these sites is not conclusive and will adhere to an elaborate ice-free corridor that stretches the imagination very near the realm of science fiction. The French and south American archeologists however claim America has been people from before 50,000 B.C. The conservatives contend man followed the Mackenzie River but the river didn't flow south at this time. There is not a shred of proof to support this popular hypothesis. The truth is that science just doesn’t know and are making educated guesses. Historically such educated guesses have proven incorrect and reality usually exceeds our wildest imagination.
To understand this complex pre-history, science has classified some of the early Canadian periods and stages as follows:
128,000 – 118,000 B.C. Eemian Interglacial period
50,000 - 25,000 B.C. Pre-Projectile-point stage, South America is peopled
50,000 - 40,000 B.C. First land bridge Asia/America
35,000 – 25,000 B.C. Interglacial period
25,000 - 14,000 B.C. Second land bridge Asia/America
25,000 - 10,000 B.C. Paleolithic people stage
10,000 - 9,000 B.C. Clovis point people
9,000 - 8,000 B.C. Folsom point people
9,000 - 6,000 B.C. Pro-Archic stage
9,000 - 5,000 B.C. Disappearance of large animals
9,000 - 4,500 B.C. Pro-Archic plains stage
8,000 - 6,000 B.C. Plano point people
7,000 - 1,500 B.C. Agricultural development period
6,000 - 1,000 B.C. Archiac (forging) stage
300 - 700 A.D. Hopewell cultural period
500 - 1,000 A.D. Adena cultural period
1,450 - 1,850 A.D. Little ice age
More current evidence suggests the transition from ice age to warmer periods may have been only a few decades suggesting these stages are overly simplified. It’s also possible the reverse could happen and ice ages appearing within decades. Land bridges are also theoretically possible for short periods of time during the warm periods. The hypothesis of the twentieth century is that the first Homo Sapiens to America is confined to land travel. That they migrated to America from Siberia and that it had to be during one of the two land bridge windows.
The theory requires a land bridge between Asia and America. It also requires there be an ice-free corridor through Alberta or British Columbia. There also had to be adequate game and plant growth to sustain the migrating animals and people. If any of these assumptions does not hold true then the land bridge theory is in error.
The whole theory based upon the assumption that the first Americans are terrestrial hunters and gathers, has no basis in fact, and are a very misleading assumption. I recall during my lifetime, the solid earth theory that would not allow for 'Continental Drift' aka 'Plate Tectonics' or mountain building. The evidence of the late 1800’s provided irrefutable proof of continental drift, for most people. The scientific community however held to their solid earth theory well into the 1960’s, a form of professional amnesia. A sea route through British Columbia appears much more likely than a land bridge theory with an ice free corroder through Alberta..
It is equally plausible that the Caucasoid originated in the Americas and migrated to Asia and Europe via land bridges in 50,000 B.C. or by water 35,000 B.C. The native peoples claim they migrated from the south and were always in the Americas. To-date no one has taken the Indian's position seriously. The Pedra Furada finds may well support this native belief.
An important point to remember is that prior to about 16,000 B.C. the carbon dating of artifacts can be understated as much as 8,000 years. Therefore an item presently dated 20,000 B.C. could in fact be dated to 28,000 B.C. Carbon dating is based on a false assumption that the percentage of carbon has been constant over the years but it is known that carbon was more prevalent 20,000 to 45, 000 B.C. and varies from year to year. Some suggest that current radio carbon dating now has an accuracy of ± 700 years but have all the old discoveries been re-carbon dated and their associated assumptions corrected? Some dating assumes a constant rate of erosion or a gradual coming and going of glaciations, these are also false assumptions. It is noteworthy that many scientists are human, they tend to see what they want to see and disregard the rest.
13,900,000,000 B.C. years ago is latest estimate (2013) when the universe was created with the Big Bang Theory, the most popular theory, but not the only one. Earth well be formed in the Pisces-Cetus Supercluster complex the second largest in the universe. We are second to the Sloan Great Wall about one billion miles away. We are actually in the outskirts of the Virgo Supercluster which contains 100 galaxy clusters and was first discovered in the late 1770's. Within the Virgo Cluster we reside in the Local Group Cluster with 30 galaxies and Dwarf Galaxies which includes our own Milky Way.
The age of the universe is estimated as 13.7 billion years old. This is called the Big Bang Theory. Our universe is thought to have begun as an infinitesimally small, infinitely hot, infinitely dense, something - a singularity. Where did it come from? We don't know. Why did it appear? We don't know. Prior to the singularity, nothing existed, not space, time, matter, or energy - nothing. So where and in what did the singularity appear if not in space? We don't know. We don't know where it came from, why it's here, or even where it is. All we really know is that we are inside of it and at one time it didn't exist and neither did we. The Big Bang Theory is not the only model consistent with the current understanding of evidences? It's just the most popular one.
The first star is believed to have ignited 13.5 billion years ago.
13,400,000,000 B.C. Atoms formed of the lighter elements like hydrogen and helium and clustered into stars. Heavy elements were not formed until Supernova began. Supernova created the heavy elements and Supernova continue into more recent times.
4,600,000,000 B.C. Our solar system (our planets) are created. Some believe the planets are the left over material in the creation of our sun. The earth rotated in 6 hrs rather than 24 hrs. The earths rotation slowed over time. The earth has traveled 450,000 light years relative to the son since its formation or 45 billion orbits around the son, the earth is traveling at 110,000 km/h.
The Earth is believed to have existed for 4.5 billion years. It is believed the first atmosphere is lost, most likely during a major collision between Earth and another object.
Our moon is created. The moon stabilized the orbital tilt from extremes of 90% to a more stable tilt of 22.1% to 24.5% on a cycle of 41 thousand years. Current tilt is 23.4% and it was about 24.2 in 8,000 B.C. and is expected to be 22.5% by 10,000 A.D.
Diamonds are found in the Jack Hills of Australia dating to this period.
A rock outcrop in Baffin Island, Canada is dated to the creation of the earth.
4,400,000,000 B.C. Water vapor is in the atmosphere
Others suggest the oldest rock on Earth is believed to date to this time.
3,900,000,000 B.C. Mars has oceans and an atmosphere much like modern Earth but earth at this time is too hot for life or oceans. Some speculate that Mars is cooling faster than the Earth and that caused it's loss of atmosphere and water. Another option is that some cataclysmic event stripped Mars of it's atmosphere causing loss of water and drop in temperature. Another hypothesis is that the Asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter may have once been a planet. The remains are estimated at 4% of our moon with differing chemical composition, which some say rules this possibility out. However a collision by another body could explain the differing chemical composition. Some of the remains could be absorbed by Jupiter and the sun. Venus could also be part of the remains and could have had a near encounter with Mars and the Earth as believed by Immanuel Velikosky (1895-1979).
Liquid oceans began to appear on earth, some say as a result of millions of years of smaller collisions. Others the cooling of the planet allowed the atmosphere to liquefy.
2,800,000,000 B.C. The earth was a rich carbon dioxide CO2 environment. C4 photosynthesis began to produce oxygen.
The Canadian shield is believed dated to this time.
Bacterial life begins and starts producing oxygen. Primative life forms begin to use oxygen.
Continental Drift was first identified in the 1800's but was rejected by geologists as impossible. The geologists came to agree and named it Plate Tectonics in the 1960's. Few speculated on how or when it started. One hypothesis is that about this time the earth was struck in several places by comets and asteroids causing large amounts of molten magma. This set off subduction causing one continental plate to slide beneath another.
Free oxygen was scarce in the earths atmosphere until about this time.
2,300,000,000 B.C. Was the first known Ice Age. Prior to this time the earth was too hot for a ice age.
The modern atmosphere is in place. Mostly consisting of oxygen and nitrogen.
A rock from the Acasta River, Northwest Territories, Canada is dated as the oldest rock yet found in America.
A meteorite struck Vredefort in South Africa creating a
hole 300 km wide and is believed to be the biggest discovered. The second
biggest occurred about the same time in the Sudbury basin in northern Ontario
leaving a 250 km hole.
The oldest known fossil, stromatolites is discovered on Lake Superior near Schreiber, Ontario, Canada. Lake Superior is known by the Algonquin as K-Che-Gu-Mme (also known as Gitche-Gumee), meaning all-powerful lake.
Between 1.5 to 2.5 billion years the Canadian shield trapped an ancient aquifer. Water samples suggest these waters were isolated from this period. It is completely isolated from the surface but contains oxygen, salt and isotopes of xenon gas. Some lighter xenon isotopes that are not produced in radioactive decay and must have come from a relatively xenon-rich atmosphere before the water was isolated.
believe life on earth began about this time.
From this time forward Ice Ages occurred with some regulatory.
800,000,000 B.C. to 600 million B.C. the equator was glaciated within 5% of the equator and some suggest the poles were ice free. Some scientists speculate this was caused by the earth being tilted over 54° rather than the present 23°. Others have speculated this was a violent change and has occurred more than once. Immanuel Velikovcky (1895-1979) suggested, in 'Worlds in Collision' (1950), it has happened in relatively modern times. He speculated a near collision with the planet Venus caused the last one.
550,000,000 B.C. The earths atmosphere reaches 13% oxygen.
530,000,000 B.C. to 520,000,000 B.C.
A burst of evolution known as the Cambrian explosion began about this time. It is believed the entire earth had just come out of a world wide ice age.
500,000,000 B.C. The earths oceans contain fish.
Researchers have confirmed the out of Africa Continental Drift Theory that originated in the late 1800's. Alfred Wegenar (1880-1830) and Frank Taylor were the first professional geologists to publish the Continental Drift theory that had been circulating in the 19th century. They calculated that in 200 million a super-continent existed called Panaego (Pangaea) that began to break up. Sailors had remarked for years of the common rock types, fossils and fauna found on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, New England, the Carolinas, British Islands, France and Spain share these common identifiers of Pangaea aka Gondwana.
488 to 443 million B.C. During the Ordovician period carbon dioxide concentrations were twelve times what they are in 2010, and the temperature was lower. Increases in carbon dioxide follow increases in temperature by about 800 years, not precede them.
Burgess Shale high in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, near Kicking Horse Pass, contains an animal called Pikaia Gracilens (Phylum Chordata). It is believed to be the oldest known human ancestor. It’s a worm-like sea creature, that lived 505 million B.C.
not only had a notochord, which evolved into the backbone in all vertebrates, but also a vascular system, including blood vessels, as well as blocks of skeletal muscle tissue known as myomeres.
It is believed by some that the earth was hit with a gamma ray burst from a collapsing star destroying much of life on earth.
British Columbia and Alberta straddled the equator about this time.
400,000,000 B.C. The earth starts to contain animals. A year lasted 410 days, meaning that days were 21 hrs long. When the earth first formed a day was 6 hrs.
Ellesmire Island, Northern Canada: A Tiktaalik or Tiktaauk meaning big shallow water fish, (fishapod) with foot like fins, believed to be an example of the first tripods was discovered in 2004 A.D. it was three meters long.
The second of five great mass extinctions hit the earth.
Norton, New Brunswick is the site of the oldest known fossil forest in Canada. Nearly 700 trees are in this stand that were growing when Canada was on the equator.
About 95% of all animal and plant like was destroyed by climate change. The Canadian Pangea coast line of British Columbia, Alberta and the Arctic was the saving grace for about 5% of the animals and plants.
Global warming caused by volcanic activity began in the Siberian traps of Pangaea. Others suggest as noted above.
This is called the 'Great Dying' were 90% of ocean dwellers and 70% of plants, animal and even insect life is destroyed in this third mass extinction. This extinction lasted 100,s of 1,000 of years.
250,000,000 B.C. to 200 B.C. Pangea one supercontinent begins to separate causing the contents to be formed. The earth is hit by massive lava flows and elevated CO2 levels. It is estimated that 70% of life is destroyed. The speculation that continents might have 'drifted' was first put forward by Abraham Ortelius in 1596 and Contentinental Drift was very popular by many people by the late 1800's and one scientist recognized it in 1915 but the theory was not generally accepted until 1963 and they named it Plate Tectonics (or, as it was initially called "New Global Tectonics"). Continental Drift continues to modern times.
San Juan Province, Argentina has some of the oldest dinosaur remains in the world. Some believe the dinosaur originated here.
This is known as the fourth great extinction that lasted 100's of 1,000 of years.
Most of Alaska and British Columbia didn't exist.
The oldest dinosaur bones in Canada are dated to this time and were found in Nova Scotia at the Bay of Fundy.
100,000,000 B.C. We need to keep in mind we need carbon dioxide (CO2) for life on earth. The earth has experienced carbon dioxide (CO2) starvation at least 5 times in the last 100 million years. Is it possible carbon dioxide (CO2) starvation killed the dinosaurs food supply?
About 300 km N.E. of Winnipeg roamed a six meter long crocodile.
North America was split by the Western Interior Seaway that covered the Prairies.
There was a burst of mammal diversity after the dinosaurs became extinct. The roots of the mammal's however extends back to 100,000,000 B.C. but likely was very precarious. It was always thought that dinosaurs were cold blooded but research in 2011 suggest there were warm blooded running between 96.8 to 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit.
It is noteworthy that the Lare Meteorite, comet or asteroid created the Silverpit crater off the coast of northeast England about this time. This would have a profound impact on all living things.
A meteorite struck the Yucatan Peninsula to create what the Mayans called the Cenotes. The Mayan word was Dzonot meaning the abyss or a series of underground caves. The epicenter was not far from the village of Chicxulub, Yucatan, Mexico. The radius of the meteorite crater is over 40 miles. Some believe this triggered the mass extinction of many species including dinosaurs. About half of all living species were killed.
65,000,000 B.C. it is believed the earth is hit by a massive asteroid destroying most of earths life, others don't agree. A 10-kilometer asteroid strikes north of the Yucatan Peninsula, causes a global firestorm, then a cold snap and finally a Global Warming that some believe extinguishes the dinosaurs.
A Sauropod bone from New Mexico/Colorado dated to this time forces a rethink of the demise of the dinosaurs witch was beloved to be extinct by 66-65.5 Million B.C. by a catastrophic meteorite strike.
Columbia; The largest snake (Titanoboa Cerrjonensis) measured 13 meters and weighed about 1135 kilograms. It is believed the temperature was 6° C. greater than modern temperatures of 30-35° C. to support this gigantic growth.
feet tall, 600 pound and capable of running 40 miles an hour Giant Birds stalked
the plains of South America, These birds had the family name
of phorusrhacidae. They are believed to have died out about this
time. It is believed a smaller version survived until 2 million
B.C. They are believed to be meat eaters.
Vancouver Island and the Queen Charlotte Island composed of volcanic and sedimentary rock was scraped off the ancient Kula plate and became known by some as Wrangilla and plastered against the Continental margin and subducted under the North American plate.
appeared to have evolved about this time.
Between 50 and 38 million Ellesmere Island in the Arctic was in the same proximity to the North Pole as today but was tropical. It was teeming with a diverse array of plants, trees and animal life. It included hippopotamus like animals, and turtles.
The horse began evolving in America.
An nickel-iron meteorite about 54 yards wide struck 35 miles east of Flagstaff, Arizona or 20 miles west of Winslow, Arizona. The resulting crater 570 feet deep (some say 700 feet originally), 4,000 foot diameter, is called Meteor Crater alias Canyon Diablo and Barringer crater. The climate at the time was much cooler and damper than modern times. It would have equaled a thermonuclear explosion about 150 times greater than the Hiroshima bomb. It's impressive! Researchers in 1902/05 concluded it was an impact creator but many geologists didn't believe a meteor struck until the 1950's. Only about 3% of meteorite strikes leave a crater.
Giant penguins Icadyptes salasi, roamed prehistoric Peru. They are believed to be five feet tall and had a spear-shaped beak
Antarctica was a greenhouse and changed into a icehouse. Scientists believe a rapid drop in carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere caused a worldwide cooling resulting in Antarctica. An international team of researchers led by University of Hong Kong geologist Zhonghui Liu studied deep sea-cores from 11 locations around the world, the largest core sample size so far.
Yellowstone erupted 600,000 B.C. ejecting 1,000 Km3. Yellowstone previously erupted in 2.2 million B.C. ejecting 2,500 Km3 and is considered the second largest eruption in the known history of the earth. Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia is the location of the largest eruption in know history of the world. Eruptions occurred in 840,000 B.C., 700,000 B.C and 75,000 B.C. The 75,000 eruption ejected 2,800 Km3. By comparison the eruption of Mt. St. Helens ejected only 1 Km3. Others suggest Fish Canyon Tufe in Colorado. about this time, was the largest ejecting 5,000 Km3.
An under ocean volcanism likely in the Carbbean region sent massive amounts of CO2 into the oceans that stimulated plankton growth and depleted the oxygen content thereby wiping out most ocean life. This period lasted thousands of years and is believed the source of off shore oil. Also global warming occurred and palm trees grew in Alaska.
On the California coast lived the albatross-like Osteodontornis orri the worlds largest seabird so far discovered. It had a 20 foot wingspan and unique toothlike projections on its beak, which may have helped it capture soft-bodied prey like squid.
10,000,000 B.C. Mountain ranges began appearing causing global cooling
The epicyon the size of a large wolf roamed the Great Plains of America. These epicyon migrated into Asia and evolved to become the gray wolf (canis lupus) that returned to America about 700,000 B.C.. The lineage of dogs actually goes back 37 million years to the Hesperocyon. In America it goes back to at least 8 million B.C.
The bone crushing dog existed 8,000,000 B.C. to 1,500,000 B.C. in America.
7,000,000 B.C. (8 to 3 million B.C.) grasses using C4 photosynthesis began to appear around the globe and primates are basically living in trees.
Argentavis magnificens flew over the Argentinean Andes with a wingspan of 23 feet, weighing 155 pounds and was about the size of a Cessna 152 airplane. Some believe it was a glider rather than a true flying bird.
The horse equus began to migrate from America to Asia until about 3.4 million B.C. This included the horse, zebras and donkeys.
3,400,000 B.C. Found on Ellesmere Island between 2006 and 2010, a bone belonged to the tibia of a camel. It is the first evidence that ancestors of today’s desert dwellers roamed the Canadian high Arctic at least 3.4 million years ago, during a time known as the mid-Pliocene warm period. Ellesmere Island show that the far north was a whopping 14 to 22 degrees warmer than it is now. Climate scientists thought the Arctic to have only been two or three degrees warmer during that time. The region was covered in forests of larch and cedar, peat bogs and fens at the time. Camels originated in North America and then crossed over into Asia by 7 million B.C. via the land bridge connecting Alaska and Siberia.
3,300,000 B.C. -- A meteorite impact in Argentina precedes numerous extinctions and a global cooling trend. It is believed to have caused the extinction of 36 local animals.
Toca de Esperanca, Brazil excavation suggests pre-Neanderthal man existed in the Americas 300,000 B.C.. Others suggest man predates these findings to 3,000,000 B.C. Most do not embrace these findings.
2,600,000 B.C. Early humanoids began to appear
A bird of the pelagornithidae family with a wing span of 6 meters fished the Peru coast from about 50 million B.C. to 2.5 million B.C. It is believed to have become extinct as a result of cool dry climate from a warm rainy climate.
Yellowstone erupted ejecting 2,500 Km3 and is the second largest eruption in the known history of the earth. Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia is the location of the largest eruption in know history of the world. Eruptions occurred in 840,000 B.C., 700,000 B.C and 75,000 B.C. The 75,000 eruption ejected 2,800 Km3.
A meteorite struck Lake St. Martin, north of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. You can still find traces of fluorides and other chemicals in the ground water in 2008.
Titanis walleri a giant bird, weighed up to 350 pounds and stood 6 1/2 feet tall. It lived in Texas and Florida and died out about this time.
This is the arbitrary start of the age of humanity. This assumption is highly dependent on our definition of 'The People'. It is also the time that the Earth's magnetic field had a polarity reversal and this could have caused an environmental or genetic mutation. There is general agreement that Homo Habilis is the probable ancestor of later human species, Homo Erectus and Homo Sapiens. It is generally believed that Homo Erectus first evolved in tropical Africa possibly from East Turkana in Kenya. Others suggest it originated in China. Native tradition suggests 'The People' originated in the Americas. More likely future evidence will suggest a more world wide evolution or mutation had occurred. I also believe we greatly underestimate the rapid mobility of early man and animals.
The Edwards wolf is evident in Florida.
and 1,470,000 B.C.
Valles or Jemez Caldera caused by two super volcanoes which created caldera 12 mile wide in the Jenez Mountains of Northern New Mexico. It is rated as the #4 largest volcano in the world. Smaller eruptions occurred in 60,000 and 50,000 B.C. Humans occupied the Caldera about 9,000 B.C.
Mammuthus Meridionalis (mammoth) migrated from Asia to America. The two continents are likely linked at this time. The origin of the mammoth is controversial and not resolved.
In the gravel's of the Solo River near Trinil in central Java scientists uncovered remains of Homo Erectus. They are potassium argon dated to about this time.
Mankind begins to control fire
The gray wolf an ancestor of the American epicyon is believed to have migrated from Asia to America about this time.
Global warming occurred from 800,00 to 450,000 B.C. when Greenland was covered with forests which are now covered with 2-3 km of ice. Temperatures were 10 degrees C. in summer and -17 degrees C. in winter.
The magnetic pole last reversed at this time (the south pole became the present north pole). Normally the pole reverses its self every 300,000 years, so a reversal is long overdue. The pole also wanders slowly over time, in 2006 it was moving faster than normal at a speed of 25 miles per year.
The Long Valley Caldera, in east-central California unleashed 2,000 to 3,000 times as much lava and ash as Mount St Helens in 1980. It was believed to be the third largest Super Valcano in the world. The caldera is believed to be the largest in the world measuring 20 miles long and 11 miles wide. After the explosion the caldera floor dropped about a MILE
The Earth's magnetic field reverted to present polarity. The evolution of man may have again mutated during this period. Some believe that Homo Erectus began extensive migration into Europe and Asia shortly after this time. Others suggest early man may have emerged in Asia and migrated to Africa and Europe.
Homo Erectus is detected in Italy, Thailand, Indonesia and China. It is noteworthy that intriguing similarities between the Choukoutien Erectus skulls and those of modern Mongoloids and Native Americans. There can be little doubt that Choukoutien Erectus genetically contributed to Chinese Homo Erectus and Native American Homo Sapiens or possibly Homo Erectus.
The Gray Wolf is established in America and would interbreed with other wolves and coyote to produce new species. The word coyote comes to us from the Aztec People.
The Super volcano in Yellowstone is believed to be the second largest in the world, the eruption ejected 8,000 times the ash of Mount St. Helens in 1980, causing a global climate change and leaving a 60 mile wide creator. This hot spot was created about 70 million B.C. and had three super volcano's first in 2.1 million B.C., 2nd in 1.3 million B.C. and finally 640,000 B.C. The latest more minor volcano occurred in 70,000 B.C.
Yellowstone erupted ejecting 1,000 Km3. Yellowstone previously erupted in 2.2 million B.C. ejecting 2,500 Km3 and is the second largest eruption in the known history of the earth. Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia is the location of the largest eruption in know history of the world. Eruptions occurred in 840,000 B.C., 700,000 B.C., and 75,000 B.C. The 75,000 eruption ejected 2,800 Km3. By comparison the eruption of Mt. St. Helens ejected is only 1 Km3. Some scientist predict a super eruption in Yellowstone is due in our lifetime.
A World Wonder is created about this time called the Crystal Cave aka Crystal Forest, 1,000 feet below surface in the Chihuahua Desert, Mexico. It was discovered in 1985 when the naica and silver mine was drained of water and found to contains 170 giant, luminous obelisks, the biggest is 37.4 feet long and the temperature of the cave is 112° F with a humidity of 90-100%.
The mammoth migrated from Siberia to Canada between 500,000 to 400,000 B.C. and then died out in Asia some have suggested..
Homo Erectus occupies the Zhoukoudien Caves of China at this time.
Homo Sapiens, Neanderthal is in Europe, Asia and Africa. Some believe they are not our ancestors.
A Homo Sapiens, Sapiens, skull dating to this period discovered in China casts doubts that modern man originated in Africa. There is no reason these people couldn't have traveled the Americas during this period of 400,000 - 300,000 B.C. No evidence exists to support such a possibility and 54,000 B.C. still appears to be the earliest date for the peopling of America.
Toca de Esperanca, Brazil excavation suggests pre-Neanderthal man existed in the Americas at this time. Others suggest man predates these findings to 3,000,000 B.C. Most do not embrace these findings.
There is a small group of serious archaeologists and anthropologists who believe the first migration of man into American occurred between 250,000 B.C. and 100,000 B.C.
The ice dome at Summit, the center of the Greenland ice cap, was about this age at its bedrock.
The Sandia Cave, New Mexico suggests a human occupation dated to this time period, but the results are problematic.
Most people believe that Homo Sapiens, Sapiens, or modern man originated in Africa about this time. Some claim stone tools are discovered in California dating to this time, others dispute this interpretation.
Some of the People believe the Aboriginal People of the Americas began about this time, traveling all across the Americas even into the lands of foreign Nations. The Akmul Auauthm (Pima People) of Arizona and southeastern California tell of a creation story of the Great Mystery, who takes light and hurls it into the void and creates the stars, the Woman Moon, and the Man Sun. It is said that the Great Mystery then creates Coyote, who is composed of laughter and mischief. It is noteworthy that mischief and laughter appears to be a common cultural tenant among the Peoples of North America. Arizona was named after a Pima word meaning little spring place.
Some suggest the Calico Hills, California site contained evidence of man at this time period.
Neanderthal Man is believed to have mutated about this time and DNA studies confirm they possessed the genes necessary for communicating orally. They are also fair skinned and possible had freckles and red or ginger hair. More importantly they had blood type 0 which is an American blood type. Is it possible the Indian legend that they were always in American and did not migrate from Asia??? On the other hand blood type O can be found throughout the world and blood type A which developed in Europe about 20,000 B.C. and blood type B which developed in Asia about 10,000 B.C. didn't greatly impact America.
Modern man about this time genetically developed the ability to communicate orally. Before this time humanoids didn't have the ability for complex communication
It is noteworthy that South America is dominated by blood type '0' with virtually no type 'A', 'B' or 'AB'. This lends credibility to the aboriginal claims of having originated in America or not being greatly impacted by type A or B blooded persons..
The Micro-blade tradition is believed by some to have existed at this time in China and Japan. They suggest this cultural tradition could be the basis of the American tradition.
The Dire Wolf is believed to have evolved 130,000 B.C. to 16,000 B.C. as uncovered in Florida.
128,000 B.C. to 118,000 B.C.
This is an interglacial period, when the world is much warmer, by one to three degrees Celsius than today and sea levels are twenty feet higher than at present. Others suggest it is only 5 meters or 16 feet above modern levels.
Greenland was 5 degrees C. greater than 2008 A.D. and was relatively ice free and the global sea-levels were only 4-5 meters higher. It is estimated this would have taken 20,000 years of global warming to cause this condition.
Bone shards and ash deposits suggest humans, Homo Erectus, may have inhabited Old Crow America. Many people do not share this belief.
The ocean levels are 5 meters or 16 feet above and 5 meters below modern levels, for a short period, and the only other time ocean levels reached current levels was 200,000 B.C..
The world entered a long glaciations period called Wisconsin in North America and by 115,000 B.C. the sea levels fell two hundred and thirty feet below present levels. Some believe that any Canadian archaeological evidence of man would be destroyed by glaciations.
Others suggest the ocean levels are 65 meters or 213 feet below modern levels. The ocean levels fell 70 meters or 230 feet since 120,000 B.C. Others suggest they were in fact near modern day norm and dropped to 50 meters below modern day norm by 115, 000 B.C.
It is believed a mega-tsunami generated by a landslide in the Canary Islands swept America. A normal tsunami as a result of earth quakes creates a wave usually no more than 10 meters (33 feet) but a mega-tsunami as a result of land slides causes a wave of 520 meters (1,706 feet). This would destroy every city on the east coast of America for a distance of 12 miles inland. This theory was verified in July 9, 1958 in Lituta Bay, Alaska when a land slide created a mega-tsunami of 500 meters (1,640 feet) the highest wave ever measured.
A very brief warmer period engulfed the world.
Mobile man has evolved and begins spreading out over the planet.
The ocean levels are 15 meters or 50 feet below modern levels. This is the highest ocean levels until about 6,000 B.C.
Homo Sapiens is located at Dali, Shanxi Province of China. Musk oxen crossed the Bering straight from Asia to Canada then on to Greenland. There is no indication that man followed the musk oxen but this is surely a possibility.
The modern Domestic Dog species is believed to have evolved between 100,00 B.C. and 50,000 B.C. It is believed that more than evolution occurred during this time period.
The Muskoxen migrated from Asia to America about this time.
Mammuthus Columbi is only found in America and is a likely a descendent of Mammuthus Meridionalis (mammoth).
Mammuthus Primigenius (mammoth) migrated from Asia to America. This would imply the continents are linked. It is interesting that Mammuthus Columbi did not migrate from America to Asia.
More modern researchers are now willing to accept the migration of man between Asia and America likely occurred over the next 50,000 years. Migration was likely both ways.
It is noteworthy that South America is dominated by blood type '0' with virtually no type 'A', 'B' or 'AB'. This lends credibility to the aboriginal claims of having originated in America. Neanderthal man had type 0 blood, very interesting!
The Musk ox that migrated from Asia to America survived to modern times through at least three ice ages.
The ocean levels are 38 meters or 125 feet below modern levels and dropping.
A second very brief warmer period covered the earth.
Twenty-five bone fragments believed altered by man are discovered in Old Crow. Many scientists are skeptical. Early man is however learning to cope with northern climates by producing fire at will, fabricating tents and winter clothing. He is hunting and following large animals such as the mammoth. During the next 70,000 years, deer, modern bear, beaver, reindeer and caribou migrated from Asia to America. Cows, horses, antelope and camels moved from America to Asia and Europe. This general migration must surely have included early man. Some believe this is the earliest possible migration date of man from Asia to America or visa a versa.
Drilling 400 feet below Mexico City area turned up corn pollen. Modern or domestic corn is dated to 7,000 B.C. in this same area. The transition of a grass to a corn cob must have taken thousands of years.
The ocean levels are 20 meters or 66 feet below modern levels. They will quickly drop over the next 10,000 years to about 40 meters.
Some believe that black Africans arrived America about this time. Most believe this is just speculation.
Sea levels were 1 meter higher than 2010 and carbon levels were lower
The ocean levels are 90 meters or 295 feet below modern levels.
Many believe that evidence suggests oceangoing boats were in use.
It is believed that the first people to settle Australia crossed 80 miles of open water to reach their goal. The oldest dated Australian skull is dated to this time. It is equally feasible that the People could cross the Bering Straits at any time they desired. Some speculate the Americas were settled by the Polynesian People about this time.
Some scientists believe 'The People' (Paleo Peoples) began arriving in Canada via a coastal migration establishing colonies along the Pacific Coast. Others contend they could move south from Alaska and Yukon via ice-free corridors after being isolated from Asia due to the glacial retreat. Most however contend the theoretical corridor, if it existed, was impassable being biologically barren. Queen Charlotte Islands, Brooks Peninsula on Vancouver Island and other areas of Alaska and British Columbia remained forested during the ice ages. Some believe the 'The People' originated near the Lena River in Siberia. The People however believe they originated in south America at this time.
Most people believe American natives originated from Mongolian Asians. The Mongoloid people have a high frequency (11-25%) of type B blood. If this current theory is true then this genetic imprint must be found in the Americas. Central and South American people are exclusively type 'O' blood. Only the Eskimos of America have this Mongolian signature. Others argue that the Mongoloid people replaced an earlier culture whose remnants are the Ainu of Japan, Australian aborigines and the American People. The Ainu People have 32% type 'B' blood and this marker is not evident in the Americas.
The ocean levels are 35 meters or 115 feet below modern levels.
This began a period of glacial retreat and sea levels rose, severing Asia and Alaska that would last until 20,000 B.C. This is not true, in fact ocean levels continued to drop during this period. During part of this temporary warming period most of North America is free of glacial barriers and world temperatures are warmer than today. Some dental studies, genetic and molecular biology research suggests that man probably immigrated to America as early as 60,000 B.C. The first people are believed to be the Amerind speaking family of languages, the Paleo-People. This first migration is likely composed of numerous sub-migration groups. Some believe the Blackfoot, blood and Peican were among the earliest migration. Blood type 'A' is the highest (82%) in the world among these Peoples. However Type A didn't mutate until 20,000 B.C. in Central Europe. The Lapps of northern Europe (Finland, Norway and Sweden etc.) have the next highest (63%) incidents of Type 'A' blood type. Hawaiians have 61% type 'A' blood type. It is noteworthy that Europe has a high incident of type 'A' blood. We should not discount the possibility that the Blackfoot ancestors migrated to Europe carrying their type 'A' blood to that region.
The Aleut-Eskimo speaking peoples came as a second major group. The third migration wave consisted of the Na-Dene family of languages. These included Chipewyan, Slave, Yellowknife, Sarsee, Navajo, Pericu and Apachie. That numerous migrations occurred is not in dispute, but little research has been done to trace the obvious migration from America to Asia. However the Navajo and Japanese/Chinese are linked by a unique virus in their systems and this was verified by DNA research. The Navajo, Chamorro and Flathead People have a unique type of retrovirus gene, JCV, found only in China and Japan The possibilities are #1 they crossed the land bridge but didn't interbreed with other tribes on their migration to southern U.S.A.. #2 they arrived south via boat. #3 Chinese or Japanese arrived southern U.S.A. via boat and interbred with these tribes.. The Pericu used watercraft with double bladed paddles. They are the only Indians on the California cost to use watercraft other than rafts. They consumed 50% of their diet from the sea.
One perplexing enigma is the Pericu Indians appear to be related to the Navajo, (8,000 B.C.), Australians (50,000 B.C), Papua-Newguineaus & Bismark Archipelago (a culture ranging from Madagascar to Hawaii) (30,000 B.C.) and the Fuegians (Chile and Argentina) down to the tip of South America (10,000 B.C.). DNA studies suggest they split from the Navajo very early (they didn't provide a date). The southern Baja California Peninsula where the Pericu reside, to the north are the Guaycura people, then the Monqui people and then the Cochimi people. The Cochimi and more northly Indians (Kiliwa, Paipal, Cocopa, Kummeyaay) have no genetic match to the Pericu people. They believe the Guaycura and Monqui may have some intermarriage but that's speculation at this date. They are trying to make a DNA match to modern day Navajo without success. The only logical answer is the Proto-Pericu split from the Navajo in Asia, one clan going to America one to south west Asia. The Pericu coming to America had boats and were fishermen and likely preceded the Na-Dene along the coast to California and then must have again split with some going to South America. This of course is pure speculation, my feeble attempt to understand this enigma. The other possibility is the various studies are in error and will be sorted out in the future.
A DNA study reported April 2009 suggest , in general, North Americans are more closely related to each other than to any other existing Asian populations, except those that live at the very edge of the Bering Strait, the Koryak People on the Asian side, which is likely a migration from America. The DNA a unique variant (an allele) dubbed the "9 repeat Allele, common to all sampled peoples in North and South America. This variant was not found in 54 Eurasian, African and Oceanian groups sampled. This would suggest the variant mutated in the Americas rather than else ware. The researchers concluded this supports a single Bering strait migration to America that requires these first migration people would have to be isolated in Eurasia for thousands of years before migration to America. This is a highly improbable scenario. This research is wanting.
Pedra Furada, Brazil contains a rock shelter with a hearth dating to this time period or earlier. There is little doubt these dating are accurate. Some critics will accept 50,000 B.C., others 40,000 B.C. and the ultra conservatives as 30,000 B.C. Future discovers are most likely to push the occupation of the Americas further back. Some People of North America contend they migrated from the south to the north, others contend they were always in the Americas.
The ocean levels are 80 meters or 262 feet below modern levels.
Pendejo Cave aka Rough Cave in South Central New Mexico was occupied by man from 50,000 B.C. to as late as 10,000 B.C. It includes not only extinct animal remains, basketry, a pendant, apparent crude stone and bone tools and possibly even human hair, but astonishingly, clay-lined fire pits with apparent human finger and palm prints still impressed in the hardened clay. Naturally these findings have caused a storm of controversy as it implies early introduction of Palo-Indians into the south.
Prehistoric people at least as early as the Australian colonists some 50,000 years ago had boats capable of open-sea navigation. Science is finally seriously looking at earlier American migrations. Coastal routes are openly debated, however ocean levels were 100's of feet below present and camp sites were long destroyed..
During this period there is a major migration from temperate zones to more northerly zones. There is major migration into Europe, Northern Asia and some believe into America. This is also the period of the migration into Australia. Others suggest it was 10,000 years earlier. The Australian Genyornis became extinct and it is believed humans caused this extinction.
The Topper site along the Savannah River, in Allendale county, South Carolina, USA in a chert quarry contains human-chipped stone flakes and charred plants possibly from a hearth. Carbon testing dates the finds to this period. Others say this is heresy. Few archaeological site were dug below the Clovis Levels 13,000 B.C. because every one knows American man first arrived with Clovas Point.
The Blackfoot, Blood and Peigan People of Alberta contain the highest incidents of type 'A' blood in the world. It is noteworthy that Europe is also high in type 'A' blood type. This may suggest these Peoples are the decedents of the same Caucasian People's who migrated to Europe from the Middle East about this time until 25,000 B.C. However it is believed type A blood mutated in central Europe about 20,000 B.C.
Some archaeologists believe that Native Peoples occupied the Great Lakes Basin about 50,000 to 40,000 B.C. It is noteworthy that the Ojibwa of the Great Lakes and Atlantic coast contain mtDNA genetic markers of an European source that originated in the Caucasus Mountains in 23,000 B.C.. Others suggest the Ojibwa originated in California area. It is believed the Wisconsin Ice Age depopulated this area.
The first indication of tool making
peoples in America appeared in the Yukon and Brazil about this time.
It is assumed they migrated from Northern Asia, some dispute these arrivals
date. If the dating from Brazil is correct then tool making is likely
much earlier than this period. The bison (buffalo) are thought to have migrated
from Asia to America about this time.
This period until 25,000 B.C. is considered the pre-projectile point stage, as there is no indication of the people using stone points on their spears.
This is considered the C14 barrier as Carbon 14 dating prior to this time contains insufficient C14 to allow dating. Samples from acid soils can't be dated with this method and charcoal samples is the most accurate. C14 assumes the carbon content is static, which is a poor assumption.
Stone tools and charcoal at Serra da Capivara, in northeastern Brazil suggest human habitation. Naturally this conclusion is challenged.
Pedra Furada, Brazil contains 400 prehistory sites including 340 stone walls filled with ancient paintings. Of these only two have been excavated suggesting this date. New remains are being found at the rate of 40 per year. American archeologists reject these claims but French and South American archeologists, after studying the findings, concluded the site clearly establishes human presence to this date. It is interesting to note that some North American archeologists will concede the ruins they likely date to 32,000 B.C. This site basically kicks the chair out from under long held beliefs of the archeologist community. Some archeologists suggest the American archeologists should write less and excavate more.
R.S. Sotty MacNeish found evidence of human occupation in the Pemejo Cave, in south central New Mexico. It contained extinct animal remains, basketry, a pendant, apparent crude stone and bone tools, clay-lined fire pits with human finger and palm prints in the clay. The cave appears to have been occupied 50,000 B.C. plus to 11,000 B.C.
Some archeologists suggest the finds at Calico Hills in California predates 50,000 B.C. but this was totally rejected by the American archeology community.
Some contend the Pendeto Cave of south central New Mexico is occupied on and off to 11,000 B.C. The giant sloth, mastodons, mammoths, long horned bison and horse roamed this region during this timeframe
Some archeologists suggest the finds in Southern Carolina below the Clovis Point levels suggests humanoids are here 50,000 to 40,000 B.C., this is rejected because it disputes the out of Africa theory.
The Canadian polar bear is believed to be a decendent of an Irish grizzly and a European brown bear. Grizzly and polar bears have been mating over the years.
Charcoal from camp fires in the Pedra Faruda site of Piaui state, Brazil, were carbon dated in 1987 to this time.
In May 2004 archeologists claimed to have found evidence of human habitation (stone tools) at a site along the Savannah River in Allendale County, South Carolina. If this stands the test of time it's very significant.
Evidence at Pedro Ferado (Furada) in North East Brazil establishes Pre-Clovis man in this area giving support to those academics who support the arrival of man before 50,000 B.C. Pedro Furada also has rock art dating to this period making it the oldest art in the Americas. The People's legends suggest that man has always lived in the Americas and migrated from the south to the north.
The ocean levels are 42 meters or 138 feet below present sea levels. however over the next 2,500 years levels dropped to 61 meters or 200 feet below modern levels.
The ocean levels are 42 meters or 138 feet below present sea levels of 208.
DNA evidence indicated that 4 distinct population lineages entered the New World across the Bering Sea during this period of 40,000BC-20,000BC.
The Canadian mammoth migrated to and from Asia about this time. The original Asian mammoth had previously became extinct.
Richard Morlan discovered worked bone fragments that are radio carbon dated to this period and that suggests man is living near the Old Crow basin.
The Old Crow Basin in the Canadian Yukon Territory is an important fossils and
artifact deposit of early Peoples of the Americas. Processed animal bones
suggest People are present in this area until 25,000 B.C. The bones
include the extinct mammoth, giant beavers, ground sloth, camels, several kinds
of horses, giant bison, short-faced bears, American lions, short faced skunk and
many more. Others continue to contend this evidence is still not conclusive because it was not found
in-place (in situ). It is also noteworthy that the accuracy of radiocarbon dating
becomes less reliable by this date. Refer to 23,000 B.C. for 'in situ'
Polished stone axes are found in New Guinea, a skull is found in a cave at Niah, Borneo but no indications this people is closely related to the Americans. Some contend Asian people use the sailing raft and this is sufficient technology for a one way trip across the Pacific Ocean from this time forward.
Linguistic analysis by Johanna Nichols of Berkley suggests that the Native American language Amerind to have evolved into its' 155 families of languages in America would have to be introduced 35,000 to 40,000 B.C. They speculate modern language originated 100,000 B.C. in Africa only spreading to Southeast Asia about 50,000 B.C. Modern man however is in Asia at 100,000 B.C. in contradiction to this theory.
Excavations at Santa Rosa Island, California suggests humanoids occupied this area at this time.
Some 30,000–42,000 years ago,
Salar de Uyuni (or Salar de Tunupa) is the world's largest salt flat at 10,582 square kilometers (4,086 sq mi). It is located in southwest Bolivia, near the crest of the Andies, and is elevated 3,656 meters (11,995 ft) above the mean sea level. The Salar was formed as a result of transformations between several prehistoric lakes, some 30,000–42,000 years ago formed during uplift of the Andes mountains. It is covered by a 10 to 120 meters of salt crust, which has an extraordinary flatness with the average altitude variations within one meter over the entire area of the Salar. The crust serves as a source of salt and covers a pool of brine, which is exceptionally rich in Lithium. It contains 50 to 70% of the world's lithium reserves. When rain hits the Salar it’s the world’s largest mirror.
Some believe the 'Paleo-Indian' People likely entered Canada bringing with them fire making skills. This will likely prove an error as man is believed to have been in America since before 50,000 B.C. Clay fireplaces suggest the People had fire before this date.
Some contend Australia is being peopled at this time from Asia. The people must travel 90 kilometers of open water about the same distance as Asia to Alaska. A basic assumption is that the land itself didn't rise or fall. It is noteworthy that about 3,000 B.C. the coast of Peru rose and fell some sixty feet within one season. Wall paintings in Brazil have been dated to this period suggesting human habitation.
Human footprints, preserved in volcanic ash, are made in Valsequillo Basin, near Puebla in central Mexico.
In 2003 British scientists found 40,000-year-old human footprints in central Mexico, shattering theories that mankind arrived in the Americas tens of thousands of years later from Asia. The footprints were found in an abandoned quarry close to the Cerro Toluquilla volcano and were subsequently studied and dated by a multinational team of scientists.
Old Crow Basin, Yukon has signs of human habitation.
Genetic anthropology suggests the first migration of people from Siberia to Alaska occurred about this time. They assumed these people stayed in this region for the next 15,000 years. I would suspect if the Bering Strait was blocked the British Columbia coast would be warmer and folks would naturally move south. The Bering Strait didn't reopen until about 8,000 to 9.000 B.C.
A frozen mammoth is analyzed and they concluded the internal organs do not differ significantly from modern elephants. The origin of the mammoth is controversial in itself.
One group of wooly mammoths died off in North America about this time for unknown reasons. The demise of a 2nd group took place about 10,900BC.
A study published September 2008 says DNA study suggests the last of the woolly mammoth that existed (38,000 to 2,000 B.C.) originated in North America as the American Columbian woolly mammoth. The Bering Land Bridges were rare events so it kept the American species separated from the Asian species. The Siberian haplotypes woolly mammoths had become extinct to be replaced by the American woolly mammoth. This study also suggests bones and teeth are not always sensitive genes. I suspect we haven't hear the last word on this subject.
China Lake, California is claimed to be one of the earliest site of human habitation.
One famous Projectile-Point site is Lewisville, Texas where early human remains have been found estimated to be 38,000 years old. It is assumed that earlier man is a pre-projectile point technology. This is a poor assumption because stone tools are difficult to date. The style of points manufactured suggest the technology is developed in America and not from Asia. Some dispute this carbon dating as within the hearths are choppers and a Clovis point suggesting a much later date unless the Clovis point is a later addition.
At Orogrande Cave, in southern New Mexico, stone tools suggest human occupation.
A woolly mammoth died on the Texas Gulf Coast. It was unearthed in 2004 and tentatively dated to this time.
35,000 B.C. to 25,000 B.C.
Some genetic researchers suggest the first arrival of People to America was 35,000 to 20,000 B.C. More and more researchers suggest America was peopled likely before 50,000 B.C.
An interglacial period when the world is warmer than today and the sea levels are twenty feet lower than today. Many believe this is an ideal period for the colonization of America. Linguists agreed by saying it would be most likely that this is the Early Migration to America based on language variations in America.
Others suggest the ocean levels are 68 meters or 223 feet below modern levels.
Others suggest adverse climatic and environmental changes drove the ancient bison, sabre-toothed cats and mammoths to extinction.
Yuri Mochanov found a Dyukhtai site
on the Aldan River, Siberia that could be the ancestors of the North American
aboriginal people but the dating is suspect. It is believed these
people would have had to range widely over a huge territory, camping near
their kills for a few days and then moving on.
Some suggest that stone flaked tools from this period at Monte Verde, Chile provide evidence of human occupation.
The Chauvet Caves in southern France contain paintings, engravings and drawings of a sophisticated nature not radically improved for the next 10,000 years. This has caused a radical rethinking of the beginnings of art. The caves contain 420 animal figures some of extinct species.
Ocean levels are about 60 meters or 190 feet lower than present 2008
Monte Verde, Chile shows human habitation between 33,000 to 31,000 B.C.
Conservative archeologists as a result of the Pedra Furada, Brazil discoveries will concede that man was in the Americas by this date.
Genetic markers arrived 32,000 to 10,000 B.C. from Europe to Central America. These markers do not exist in Asia.
Monte Verde, Chile, stone hearths suggest human occupation at this time, maybe earlier. Even the conservatives are having difficulty discounting this claim. They wonder why few evidence supports early occupation of North America.
Most scholars will agree that humans arrived Canada between 30,000 B.C. to 20,000 B.C. most likely via boats down the British Columbia coastline. Others suggest humans arrived central and south American 50,000 to 30,000 B.C. maybe earlier. Some of these explorers must have passed through Canadian waters but their camp sites are long covered with water.
South America, Monte Verde, Chile is inhabited based upon carbon 14 dating however they didn't use BI-facial stone points or delicately fashioned tools. Alaska, Yukon and Mexico areas indicated use of simple tools made of stone and animal bone including projectile points, cleavers and scrapers.
A child's skull is discovered in 1961 near Taber, Alberta, is carbon dated to 30,000 years and is believed one of the oldest found in North America. Some suggest it is closer to 60,000 B.C. while others suggest 18,000 B.C. Still others, who ten years later, tested the skull, placed the dating of the Taber skull as 3,500 to 10,000 years old. The geological context suggested about 25,000 B.C. however comparable strata nearby dated 30,000 to 47,000 B.C. Carbon dating of fire pits points to this date for habitation. Very confusing!
Boqueirauda Pedre Furada, Brazil, hearths suggest human occupation.
Australia is again being peopled at this time and the inhabitants had to travel eighty-eight kilometers over the ocean even at the height of the glaciations period. The generally accepted belief is that most peoples of this period are terrestrial hunters and gathers and that has no basis in fact.
Evidence suggests the world was struck by cosmic rays and debris from an exploding star that was world wide but its epicenter of destruction was the Hudson Bay. Evidence exists in Alberta and Manitoba. Evidence suggests a later supernova struck earth in 11,000 B.C. It is believed these altered the path of human evolution causing climate change, destruction of mega-faun species and the sudden appearance of A & B type blood. This theory has yet to be published and subjected to scientific scrutiny.
DNA evidence suggest from this period or earlier at least five migrations existed between the old and new worlds before the arrival of the Viking. There are four major lineages between native Americans and Siberia and north-east Asia, notably in Baikal and Altai-Sayan. A fifth migration exists between Europe and North America with no lineage to Asia. This early haplogroup X lineages (based on Mitochodrial DNA) occurs most among the Algonkian-speaking groups especially the Ojibwa, and has been detected in two pre-Colombian north American populations. Haplogroup X (based on Mitochodrial DNA) is found in two to four percent of Europeans and in the Middle East, particularly in Israel. It is noteworthy that DNA evidence shows up in America, Europe and Central Asia but not in Siberia. Some call this marker the Solutrean People or pre-Ojibwa Peoples. This may strongly suggest a direct move from Europe to America as no trace is found in Eastern Asia. This genetic clan, believed to have originated in 23,000 B.C., identified by mtDNA, lived in the Caucasus Mountains of Europe and then spread across Europe, and even reached America where a rare European lineage is also found among the northern Americans such as the Ojibwa and Sioux nations. It is more likely this genetic code which is very rare was incorporated into the Ojibwa in middle America.
Some suggest there was no ice free corridor from now until 12,000 B.C. and to complicate matters there was no one in Siberia to migrate to America until 23,000 B.C.. These researchers consider the land bridge ice free corridor as a fable with no scientific supporting evidence. They consider it a hypothesis not a theory. This is not true as ocean levels are about 52 meters or 170 feet below current sea levels. By 16,000 B.C. it will drop to 142 meters or 466 feet below current levels.
Some suggest Black Africans
Some suggest Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas are occupied by the People over the next 20,000 years.
Ocean levels are about 48 meters (157 feet) below current ocean levels.
This is the height of the warming trend called an interglacial period but the last ice age has not completed its process of forming Canada including the Great Lakes. Eurasia peoples are believed still immigrating into Canada. Artwork carbon dated 26,000 to 22,000 B.C. is discovered at Piaui, Brazil and skin scrapers are discovered in the Yukon carbon dated to 25,000 B.C. Later dating would place the Yukon find at year one B.C. The People's artifacts are discovered in the Crowsnest Pass, Alberta dated 23,000 B.C. There are indications that the Yucatan culture in Mexico began from 30,000 B.C.
Monte Verde, Chile site dates human occupation to this period. A village in Monte Verde, Chile was identified to be this old by a team of anthropologists between 10,800BC-10,300BC. A later report that new excavations revealed evidence that human bones and tools may date back to about 28,000BC.
The New Mexico climate changed from being wet and cold to warm and dry similar to present day conditions.
Ocean levels are about 50 meters (164 feet) lower than present 2008, Other suggest the ocean levels are 134 meters lower than present levels.
A site of human habitation in Peru was dated to about 9,600 B.C. Later excavations indicated complex stone tools that appeared to date back to at least 28,000BC.
Orogrande Cave, New Mexico, a fireplace is uncovered suggesting habitation.
A frozen horse remains is found at Chance Creek, Yukon which was an ice free grasslands at this time.
Conservative archaeology places this as the most likely earliest possible appearance of man in America. Old Crow River, Yukon provided some material dated to this period. A bone scraper is found very similar to one used today. Old Crow Basin is an 8,300 square kilometer area located 160 kilometers from the Arctic Circle. Ice conditions from this date to about 15,000 B.C. makes it highly unlikely that land migration could have taken place from Asia. If this is true then the ancestors of North American peoples would have to be traced to the Mal'ta-Afontova a simple, edge-trimmed tool culture and or more probably the Dyukhtai stone knife and spear point that is flaked on both sides, both cultures are of eastern Siberia that existed until about 8,000 B.C.
A DNA study in the Altal region of Siberia Russia was a meeting place of Kazakhstan, China and Mongolia showed an affinity to North American Peoples. The study of the Y chromosomes suggest that Altaians and North American people share a common ancestor not long before 14,000 B.C. By not long before means 15,000 to 25,000 B.C.
The Mal'ta lived in long houses and hunted both Arctic and plain's game. Their tools included scrapers, burins and edge-trimmed points and they are expert bone-workers who carved female and bird figurines. Their earliest appearance is about 18,000 B.C. that is the maximum glaciations. Unfortunately the land bridge advocates have provided no linking proof to this Asian peoples.
The Sandia culture in the Sandia Mountains of New Mexico is believed by some to have existed from this date to about 10,000 B.C. The Sandia used lanceolate points, two to four inches long, having rounded bases on one side, others used Clovis points.
It is believed the Algonquian and Athabascan speaking Peoples occupy the Columbia and Fraser rivers Plateau about this time before being driven south to Northwest California by the advancing ice about 22,000 B.C.
Genetic research suggests the Ojibwa and Sioux arrived American about this time.
San Francisco and the Bay Area were home to mammoths indicating cold temperatures of an Ice Age. In 1934 a 10-pound mammoth tooth from this time was found by engineers working on the new Bay Bridge.
Some speculate that the European culture called Solutrean may have used water craft similar to Eskimo boats to navigate to North America. This speculation is based on similarities of Clovas points. It is noteworthy that the Solutrean culture either changed their tools or migrated before 19,000 B.C.
Orogrande Cave, New Mexico, a toe bone of a horse with a spear point embedded is discovered.
Genetic profiling places some of the first North Americans as coming from Asia.
Lake Bonneville crested and covered some 20,000 sq. miles over what is now Utah, Nevada, and Idaho.
One of seven genetic clan identified by mtDNA lived in the Caucasus Mountains of Europe and then spread across Europe, and even reached America where a rare European lineage is also found among the northern Americans such as the Ojibwa and Sioux nations.
The Sandia Cave in New Mexico provided human shelter back to this period of 23,000 to 10,000 B.C. and was excavated by archeologist Frank Hibben in the 1930s after it was discovered by Boy Scouts.
Jacques Cinq Mars concluded that Mammoth bones from a cave at Cinq-Mars near Bluefish River confirms there are people in the northwestern Yukon at this time. Bone tools are radiocarbon dated to 23,000 B.C. Mars believes the Bluefish Caves were used until 8,000 B.C. This claim is hard to disprove as the find is 'in situ'.
Shan Hai Ching (Classic of the Mountains and Rivers) is sited as evidence of the Chinese visit to the Americas. Others suggest it is mythological and not geographical. Some believe the Shan Hai Ching represents a geographical survey conducted by Ta-Chang and Shu-Hai during the reign of the Emperior Yao about 23,000 B.C. Others suggest it was rewritten about 202 B.C. to 9 A.D. and half the writings are missing.
The Bluefish caves of the Yukon are believed occupied at this time.
This marks approximately the Solutrian cultural period 22,000 to 18,000 B.C. . Researcher in 1999 proposed that people of this culture crossed the Atlantic from the Iberian peninsula and settled on the eastern American seaboard.
Tlapacoya, Mexico site carbon dates to this period but some discount the finds suggesting the charcoal is not necessarily man made and the blades found could be intrusive from a much later period.
Many conservatives suggest this timeframe or earlier is classified as the Early Migration to America likely down the coastal route. This is a 10,000 year addition to their old bench mark now called the Late Migration of 12,000 B.C. Linguists however say this is not early enough to create the various languages. They suggest the Early Migration is likely 35,000 B.C.
It is believed that this is the coldest period of the Ice Age that officially ended 18,000 B.C.
In 2008 researchers reported that DNA evidence indicated that 95% of native Americans had descended from 6 women of this period. It was believed that the women had lived in Beringia, a land bridge that stretched from Asia to North America during this time.
According to long held scientific theory, Alberta is covered with continent sized ice sheets from glaciations. This is not supported by facts. Gravel pits near Edmonton, Alberta reveal that during this time the area is teeming with wildlife. One gravel pit yielded 900 bones. An extinct giant bear, a North American lion, mastodon, wolves, giant bison, cow sized ground sloth, camel and herds of horses. Some believe the ice age didn't affect this area until after 20,000 B.C. based on the analysis of these bones.
Genetic evidence suggests a second migration of People from Asia to America occurred between 20,000 to 18,000 B.C. The first migration occurred 35,000 B.C. or earlier. Some suggest that between 20,000 to 17,000 B.C. even the coastal route for migration was blocked by glaciers. They conclude and migration had to be via sea.
Some scientists believe that ancient people from Siberia crossed the Bering land bridge about this time and began their southward migration into the Americas. In 2001 skull measurements indicated that members of the Jomon-Ainu of Japan made the first crossings.
Some believe the ancestors of the Myan people arrived central America about this time.
The ultra conservatives suggest the Eskimo and the People's cultures began to differentiate in Siberia about this time having started from a common Mongoloid stock. A jawbone of a domesticated dog and one of an 11 year old child is discovered in Old Crow, Yukon. Some scientists suggest the only glaciations period in Alberta began about this time and peaked by 18,000 B.C. The Hueyatlaco site near Puebla, Mexico carbon dates to this period. The local geology dates to 200,000 B.C. so some discount this site.
There were giant icebergs in the ocean as far south as Mexico City. The furthest south in recent times was northern Florida in June 2, 1934. It is noteworthy that during most of the worlds history the North and South Poles were free of ice.
The boat was in use in Japan making a sea migration to America more plausible.
Large Ice Age animals still roamed Colorado
such as mammoths, gomphothedes and mastodons.
The Alaskan cave lion that is about one hundred pounds heavier than modern species is believed extinct about this time. He had roamed from Alaska, Yukon to California.
The Savannah River in rural Allendale County (Topper site) under a layer of Clovis Points was discovered 500 to 600 "bend break tools" dating 19,000 to 15,000 B.C.. Skeptics suggest these alleged tools are geofacts produced by natural fracturing and stream transport. Deeper excavation pushed back occupation to 50,000 B.C. This is out right rejected by skeptics as it centers around a possible hearth.
Dyukhtai people had settlements in Siberia and northeast Asia and some speculate these are the ancestors of the first man in America. Some claim that no human finds in North America data before this time. Old Crow they claim with carbon dating to 29,000 B.C. is not found in their original geological context thus their data is suspect. Other archaeologists suggest that Meadowcroft in North America and Pikimachay in Peru are occupied at this time thereby challenging the Dyukhtai theory.
Pleistocene Man or Minnesota Man from Pelican Rapids is actually a young girl, well-preserved and estimated to be from this time period.
Chipmunks survived and are living during the Wisconson and Illinois glaciation's period.
Meadowcroft Rockshelter near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania shows signs of human occupancy.
Evidence of the use of human altered tools is uncovered at Saskatoon in 1968. The Kutenai canoe used by the peoples of Creston British Columbia is only found in the Amur River region of Russia.
Chiachula stone tool artifacts associated with glacial till deposited 21K to 18K B.C. discovered in Calgary, Alberta are date to about this time. Naturally others challenge this early dating.
Artifacts developed by a southwestern European culture called Solutrean are sometimes strikingly similar to Clovis tools. There appears to be a stronger connection from America to Europe tools than a America to Asia connection.
Lassen Park in Northern California experienced volcanic activity between 28,000 B.C. and 18,000 B.C.
Research in the Yucatan Cenotes (underground caves), Mexico found animals fossils like camelid, giant armadillo, an extinct horse dated to this time and to 8,000 B.C. Some believe the Yucatan Peninsula was covered with dry grasslands at this time.
The Clovis points in North America are similar in style to Solutrean culture (18,000-14,000 B.C.) from Spain and southwestern France. Archaeologists are skeptical but they have been totally wrong about their hypotheses concerning the origins of Clovis point technology in the past.
Researchers in 1999 proposed that Solutrean people crossed the Atlantic from the Iberian peninsula and settled on the eastern American seaboard.
DNA models suggest the Americas was populated about this time and rapidly spread throughout North and South America in only 1,500 years. Archaeological studies dispute these claims.
Ocean levels are 100 meters (328 feet) below present, in 2008
The sandstone cliffs of southwestern Pennsylvania have uncovered a basket of bark dated to this period.
Meadowcroft Rock Shelter, thirty miles southwest of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania suggests it is occupied periodically from this time until 1,200 A.D. Some suggest these findings are based upon false association of materials and carbon contamination and push the dating to 11,000 B.C. Others suggest 15,000 B.C. is more likely making it the earliest relatively acceptable appearance in the Americas at that time. Their diet included walnuts, hickory nuts, acorns, black cherries and other nuts and fruits. The basket fragments suggests a date of 17,600 B.C. is more accurate.
The Cactus Hill site, 45 miles south of Richmond, Virginia., was reported in 2000 to contain evidence of human settlers from this period of 17,000 to 15,000 B.C.
A site at Meadowcroft ,Pennsylvania., has been carbon dated for human habitation to this age..
An Inca genesis story recorded by Juan de Betanzos (1551) and Cristobal de Molina (1553) says two pre-human cultures were destroyed at Lake Titicaca Bolivia/Peru. The first by fire and the second by water about this year. The physical evidence suggests the flood was by sea water leaving a 6' silt deposit with sea shells now at 13,300 feet above sea level. I think the timing is speculative and may not be accurate. The Chinese record a similar event where the ocean waters swept over the mountains to flood the lands.
Maximum glaciations and sea levels are about four hundred and twenty-five feet (129 meters) below present levels and maximum glaciations in America as far south as thirty-nine degrees north. The Great Lakes are completely covered with ice. Barren polar deserts covered the dry northern latitudes of Siberia and Alaska. Huge zones of desert occupied more than half the earth's surface between latitudes thirty degrees north and south.
On Manhattan Island the ice was a half-mile thick. In western North America, the ice covered parts of Washington, Idaho, Montana, and all of Western Canada. In Europe it buried Scandinavia and Scotland, most of Great Britain, Denmark, France, Germany, much of Poland and much of the Soviet Union. In the Southern Hemisphere, there was ice in Australia, New Zealand, and Argentina. See levels fell by 350 feet.
Others suggest ocean levels were a staggering 140 meters (460 feet) below current ocean levels. Since 50,000 B.C. to about 6,000 B.C. ocean levels have been on average 40 meters below current levels.
Others say ocean levels reached their lowest levels in over 240,000 years to about 130 meters below present levels. I took until 3,000 B.C. for the oceans to reach current levels, and have been abnormally stable to 2008.
Genetic study suggest Cro-Magnon man likely arrived 16,000 to 19,000 B.C. in America from Spain. During this same period Caucasian genes arrived central American and can be found among the Aztec People. Cro-Magnon man is blood type 0 which is the oldest blood type and rhesus negative. This is the same as found in the Basque and Irish People. These people commonly have curly reddish brown hair and green eyes. Peru have red haired Caucasian mummies. Neanderthal Man has these characteristics.
Tools found at Cactus Hills, along southeastern Virginia's Nottaway River suggest occupation from 16,000 B.C. to 8,000 BC. Some tools clearly are layered below Clovis points suggesting that this technology was a late comer to America.
Even the most conservative archaeological scientist have to admit that modern man entered the Americas earlier than this time being positively identified in Monte Verde, south America about 12,000 B.C. and most likely arrived via coastal migration.
Genetic studies suggest Spanish people were in the gulf of Mexico about this time.
Bluefish Caves in the Yukon have evidence of human occupation including mammoth and other bones undisturbed.
A skull from Laguna Beach, California is first dated to this period. Some suggest that later test suggest an age of only 3,000 B.C. This is the optimum time if the first Americans came out of Asia either on foot or by boat following the Pacific shoreline. Research suggests they would find hospitable territory.
The Meadocroft Rock shelter in Pennsylvania dates to this period. It is suggested this is a pre-Clovis culture but others argues the site is contaminated by humic acid leaching.
A site in the Saltville Valley in southwestern Virginia is also occupied at this time and appears to predate Clovis culture.
The Ute People claim to be in
the four corners region ( This is not likely
true as they have plains Indian traditions.
This is not likely true as they have plains Indian traditions.
Pedra Furada, Brazil has human remains positively identified to this time making it the oldest verified human remains in the Americas. It also has cave paintings dated to this period. This site has be occupied since 54,000 B.C.
During the last Ice Age dams of glacial meltwater repeatedly failed and eroded land in southeastern Washington state and Oregon. This exposed petrified logs in what later became Gingko Petrified Forest State Park. An ice dam, which blocked the Clark Fork River in Montana and created lake Missoula, broke at least 40 times and caused cataclysmic floods. One Missoula flood left Portland under 400 feet of water
The Monte Verde, Chilean archeological finds suggest support for a west coast migration.
Human feces (corrolites) were found in the Paisley caves in south-central Oregon. Also found were tools, thread, cord and baskets. The feces is DNA linked to east Asia and Siberia. This find predates the Clovis peopling of America. Some suggest these people arrived before ice blocked their path.
Paleo-People are in South Carolina about this time.
Rock art was inscribed in the Coso Mountains of California about 14,000 to 10,000 BC. In 2005 the area was designated as the Coso Rock Art National Historic Landmark.
Early Peruvian civilization is believed to have started in the Andes about this time. It seems more plausible it started on the coast and moved inland.
The Lake of the Woods (Ontario) a remnant of Lake Agassiz is believed peopled about this time but evidence is not considered conclusive.
Evidence is mounting that ice-free plains existed along the British Columbia coast some 130 meters below present sea levels. Evidence collected suggests a diverse ecosystem more conducive to migration of early man than the interior route.
The Buttermilk Creek, Texas site, near Dallas has turned up thousands of stone artifacts that predate Clovis technology by 2,500 years. It provides positive proof of early human occupation. This effectively disproves the Clovis hypothesis suggesting man's first appearance in America.
Some claim the Clovis Indian culture first appeared in Canada. They claim Clovis artifacts first appeared in Clovis, New Mexico and migrated north. This is highly questionable.
Buttermilk Creek, Texas is a Palo-indian settlement dating to this period and is claimed to predate Clovis Indian arrival..
A dig at Cactus Hill, on the Nottoway River south of Petersburg dates to this period.
Evidence is mounting that the first people in America maybe of
Australo-Melanism descent. The ancestors of the natives of Australia, Fiji
and Papua New Guinea. 80 human crania from Lagoa Santa, Brazil have
Australo-Melanism characteristics, as does the Spriit Cave Man from Nevada and
Kennewick Man of Washington.
More than 80 humans from 9,000 B.C. to 5,500 B.C. have Australo Melaneslan charestics and similar DNA of people from Australia, Fiji and Papua New Guinea. Other studies suggest mitochondrial DNA suggests the Australo Melaneslan arrived America by boat by 13,000 B.C.
Pendejo Cave aka Rough Cave in South Central New Mexico was occupied by Palo-Indians from 50,000 B.C. to as late as 10,000 B.C. when they abandoned the cave to begin engaging in part time agricultural practices. .
Genetic evidence suggests a third migration of People from Asia to America occurred about this time.
Stanley J. Olsen, author of the "Origins of the Domestic Dog" (1985), posits that Paleolithic hunter-gatherers domesticated various subspecies of wolf during this time period 13,000BC-8,000BC in northern Europe, North America, the Near East and China.
Canadian historical evidence of the people is scant prior to this time due to the scouring of the ice age but many believe Canada is being repopulated about this time.
The last great glaciers have begun their withdrawal from southern Canada. Lake Agassiz (Manitoba and North Dakota), Lake Chicago (Lake Michigan) and Lake Maumee (Lake Erie) all drained into the Mississippi. This created a natural waterway that early man surely traveled to commence the re-population of Canada.
Mt. St. Helen's in Washington State erupted about this time. It left a sediment of ash in between layers of sediment from the glacial floods of Lake Missoula. This evidence indicates that there may have been as many as a hundred gigantic floods from Lake Missoula repeatedly breaking the glacial ice build-up.
The Great Lakes originated about this time
The Lake Missoula Floods occurred as recently as 15,000 years ago
Savannah River, South Carolina is occupied by primitive hunters leading some conservative archeologists to reluctantly concede that America was populated by 13 to 18 thousand B.C.
Human teeth and skull fragments from the Pedra Faruda site of Piaui state, Brazil, were carbon dated to this time. Niede Guidon began excavations at the site in 1970.
Dental studies of Native American teeth suggest a very distant relationship to the Caucasoid of Europe and suggest a separation about this time from the Northern Asian populations. This likely represents a second or third wave of immigrants from Asia.
There is seldom livable terrain in Canada that the Palaeo People failed to penetrate. New technology moved around the continent at an astonishingly wide rate and coverage. Some believe the Canadian People's culture is different from the more Southern Peoples having changed into the people of the Plains and Mountain West, Woodland people and Mongol. The Plains and Mountain West People included the Proto Waukeshan, Siouan and Algonkin. The Woodland People would become the Iroquois. These people are believed to have migrated north as the glaciers retreated. The Eskimo, and Athapascan have recently arriving from the Northwest.
The People are living at Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin about this time.
BC Merriam Creator erupted depositing ash in
the Sunset Crater area of northern Arizona, Sunset Creator would erupt 1065.
Some suggest these eruptions made the area more fertile for growing of
crops. The earliest indications of
Mount Tehema in the Lassen Park region of Northern California has experienced
eruptions between 23,000 B.C. to 13,000 B.C.
Thousands of comet fragments fell on Canada and the U.S.A. Some suggest it may have caused Younger Dayas Cooling Period. Other suggest it was caused in 11,000 B.C. by a large comet strike in Hudson Bay.
Global warming was recorded in DNA samples in Greenland of plants and insects matter suggesting a 10 degree C. temperature occurred in one year and lasted 50 years, the test areas are now 2008 under 2 km of ice.
Temperatures shot up 18° F because of natural climate-change cycles. About this time mammoths, camels, mastodons and ground sloths began to disappear.
Spear points are recorded at Monte Verde, southern Chile .
Most will now accept this date of the Monte Verde, Chile site that had many perishables like grass twine, and butchered mastodons likely killed by Basalt Points. It is noteworthy that over fifty sites are known that predate this site but are contested for one reason or another.
Human feces is found in Parsley Cave, Oregon dated to this period suggesting a ocean side migration. The sea level was about 200 feet lower at this time destroying most examples of migration. DNA linked these people to east Asia and Siberia. Also dated to this time at Monte Verde, Southern Chile are examples of seaweed used in medical compounds suggesting an ocean tradition. To compound the problem the Monte Verde, Southern Chile skulls don't represent Indian or Asian features. The ice-free corridor on the eastern flank of the Rockies did not open before 12,000 B.C. suggesting the ice free corroder hypothesis is dead.
During the period 12,500 to 11,000 B.C. The Yucatan peninsula, Mexico was warm and wet then in 11,000 B.C turned cool and dry. Yucatan contained a massive network of caves that were dry at this time. The caves however contained drinkable water when the surface was void of water. Humans occupied the dry caves until 5,600 when the caves were flooded. Some believe the water rose because of glacier melt in the north but the land could have fallen as well. Because of the water carbon dating has been compromised. They found charcoal from a campfire at a depth of 140 feet. At 160 feet they found a human skull and a bone that belonged to an elephant-like animal that was extinct by 7,000 B.C. They also found Naharon Woman dating to 11,500 B.C. plus. Another female aged 45 to 50 dated to 7,000 B.C. by carbon dating but uranium thorium dating provided a date of 8,000 to 10,000 B.C. These people who are believed to have arrived 13,000 B.C. are Australo-Melanesian descent and are different from traditional Indians who arrived later. Two others have not been dated yet. Mastodons, mammoth and gomphotheres (a 10 ton animal) bones were found together. These people are believed to have also occupied Monte Verde
About this time the Great Bonneville Flood gouged out in a matter of days most of the Snake River Canyon, Idaho near Twin Falls. Originally thought to have occurred about 28,000 B.C. and recently revised to about 12,300 B.C. The flood produced an estimated 15 million cubic feet of water per second giving a total of 380 cubic miles of water. Lake Bonneville covered much of Utah and Nevada. The flood waters reached a height of 400 feet at Portneuf narrows, a canyon 45 miles NW of Red Rock Pass. It is believed people were living in this area at this time. Prehistoric people at least as early as the Australian colonists some 50,000 years ago had boats capable of open-sea navigation
INDIAN HISTORY 12000 - 8001 B.C.