The Savages occupied a land so large
that the old world bears no comparison to it.
The Metis numbers would continue to grow
during this formative period of Canadian French history.
The English also begin their formative period in American history.
METIS HISTORY 1640-1664
METIS HISTORY Return to METIS 1500-1699 index
METIS HISTORY Return to MAIN METIS index
DIRECTORY Return to MAIN HISTORY index
Alonso de Posada a Franciscan Father was ordered in 1685 to write a report about the lands and peoples north of the Rio Grande. He drew on many reports now lost, he described the travels of numerous obscure Spanish explorers during the early 1600's. He described the routes to Kansas and Utah. He was the first to make mention of the Great Salt Lake in Utah that the natives called Teguayo. The Mexicans call the lake Copalla. The Aztec ancient tradition suggests the Natives of Mexico, Guatemala and Peru originated at Lake Copalla. The State name Utah is derived from the Ute People's word Eutaw meaning in the mountain tops or high up.
It was noted that Europeans were ill at ease in the interior of America and very slow to learn the necessities of life, like how to use canoes, snowshoes and basic survival skills. It is noteworthy that thousands of Europeans had spent a 100 years on the shores of America and only the Spanish had penetrated into the interior of the continents. Based on the experience of the French there must have been hundreds if not thousands of Europeans who became runners of the woods during this period of time.
Juan de Onate (1550-1630) met the Kansa People in Kansas who were hunting the bison (buffalo).
In these times, four linguistic groups of people occupied the Canadian River Valley (St. Lawrence River) and Great Lakes area of Canada. These people are the Algonquian, Wendat (Iroquois speaking Huron), Dakota (Sioux) and a few French. Current research confirms the Garneau's relationship to the Algonquian, Iroquois, and French cultures and suggests a strong possibility of a Dakota (Sioux) heritage. The primary locations of the Iroquois and Dakota are in areas that will eventually become the United States. Many Iroquois would become immigrants to Canada, fleeing persecution from their American brothers.
The Algonquian Nation dominated Canada and is considered a peaceful and accommodating culture. However, they loved freedom, especially a free trading environment above many other of their beliefs. The Iroquois and Dakota (Sioux) are considered aggressive and war like in nature. Evidence suggests the Dutch and later the English and French instigated trouble between the Iroquois, Wendat, Dakota and Algonquian. They labeled all American people savages, meaning not civilized. Europeans whose basic assumption is that all people are fundamentally evil, impose this Savage cultural classification of Indians. They believe they are born evil because they are conceived in original sin. Most Church records, even to modern times, reinforced this erroneous perception by referring to Indians as a dirty, pagan and savage people. The Church is central in classifying all Native people as Savages. This persistent European belief has little bases in Aboriginal tradition or early records of European contact. All historical records tend to support the contention that most Europeans are the dirty, pagan and savage culture. Let there be no doubt that the Spanish, Dutch, French and English transported some of their worst people, beliefs and values to the Americas to teach the Natives about an evil civilization under the banner of Christianity and civilization.
One group of Canadian Natives, the Wendat or Huron, located between the Algonquian and Iroquois Nations, is culturally Algonquian, although linguistically Iroquois. The Wendat are true Mixed Blood or Metis, as they found a way to bridge the Iroquois and Algonquian cultural differences. It is noteworthy that free trade was the major cultural mixing spoon prior to European contact.
Science is unable to determine the exact Native population before European intrusion and estimates range from ten million to more than one hundred million people. A very conservative estimate is that the Algonquian Nation numbered a quarter of a million people when the Europeans arrived to stay.
The Algonquian Ojibwa, a close relative of the Ottawa (the Traders) and the Cree,
are direct ancestors of Garneau, and their Nation is believed to number a very conservative fourteen
The early Ojibwa constructed birch bark lodges. Birch bark was a common construction material in the Ojibwa region. They also constructed birch bark canoes. They were considered great canoe men by the French. The Dakota, being a prairie people, had no knowledge of canoe building, and the Iroquois had limited knowledge but usually acquired Algonquian canoes in trade.
It is noteworthy that the Ojibwa 'genetically' appears to be the only American Peoples with a direct genetic link to European ancestors. Other than Viking contact, there is no other known hard artifact evidence to support this relationship.
Some historians contend that the Algonquian is in cultural dispute with the invading Dakota of the Mississippi, later called the Dakota then Dakota Sioux, and with the invading Iroquois of the New York area. There is little reliable evidence to support this European hypothesis. Records suggest the French, Dutch and English deliberately instigated trouble between the Algonquian and Iroquois speaking peoples. The Church records indicate that it was to the Europeans advantage to nurture this rivalry in order to support their contention of savagery; thereby justifying any exploitation activity. The Dakota and Iroquois are of the same linguistic group and are fairly recent immigrants to the Algonquian Country. However, it should be noted that in ancient times the Dakota were in Canada but withdrew into the southern prairies. The Wendat (Huron), Tobacco and Neutral people originated from the same stock as the Dakota and Iroquois but are more inclined towards peaceful coexistence with the Algonquian culture. If the Europeans had not forced their 'war like' culture and religion on the America's, there is every reason to believe the Iroquois and Algonquian Nations would have peacefully integrated like the Wendat Nation. Maternal cultures tend to be more accepting of cultural diversity.
The Marquis de La Roche-Mesgouez, a Frenchman, who established an outpost for trading on Sable Island in 1598 had failed and only eleven survivors are returned to France in 1603.
Aymer de Chaste obtained the failed outpost on Sable Island and employed Francois Grave du Pont who had previous St. Lawrence experience to prove up his monopoly holdings. Samuel de Champlain sailed with Pont.
(I)-Samuel of Champlain (1570-1635), a Protestant Frenchman, (baptized Roman Catholic this year) made a trip to Canada to assess the situation for imposing a French trading monopoly on the Algonquian Free trading networks, thereby setting the stage for a Metis Culture. The French are well aware that many European Nations are beginning to establish toe holds in the Canadian trade. Had the French decided to enter into trading relations with an independent Sovereign Nation, they would have found the indigenous population most accommodating. Many early historians consider this early cultural contact as the beginning of 'Paradise Lost'.
(I)-Samuel de Champlain (1570-1635) started the French Trading Period by establishing a fur trading post in Acadia (Nova Scotia). This trading post, however, would fail in 1607. Evidence suggests other French, Basque, Dutch and Spanish are trading furs in Canada. It is noteworthy that the Basque have been trading furs for the past 50 or more years in Canada. French Huguenots have been denied access to America and it is highly likely some may have immigrated as Coureurs des Bois, so as to escape persecution in France
Juan de Onate, (1550-1630), a Spanish colonizer of New Mexico, explored along the Colorado River.
September 3: Henry Hudson (1570-1611) gave brandy to the local Indians and their chief passed out. The place was renamed Manahachtanienk (where everyone got drunk) later called Mamhattan. Others suggest it was an Indian word meaning 'high island'.
Juan De Onate Salazar (1552-1630) the first Spanish Governor of New Mexico married Isabel de Tolosa Cortés de Moctezuma, great granddaughter of the Aztec Emperor Moctezuma Xocoyotzin. and Juan left his writing on Inscription Rock at El Morro, New Mexico
February 3: King Henry IV of France issued to Guillaume de la Mothe and Bertrand Rocque are granted a patent to trade the Atlantic coast of America between the Amazon River and Cape Breton in defiance of Spanish claims. This unusual Anglo-French expedition had John Jerome, d-1605, as one captain and Bertrand Rocque as the other captain. The Spanish spotted the expedition sailing up the Florida coast, near St. Augustine. Near Cumberland Island off southern Georgia, Indians attacked and killed John Jerome and his pilot. Some of his men continued to sail north despite the loss of their captain.
March 5: Three Spanish ships under Francisco Fernandez de Ecija captured John Jeromes ships and crew and the rest of the Jerome and Rocque expedition in St Helena Sound South Carolina. He turned over the English and French prisoners over to the Indians for sacrifice or into slavery. The lucky ones would be adopted into the tribe and were allowed to marry. Bertrand Rocque and a few others were taken to St. Augustine for interrogation.
April 10, a charter is created defining Virginia as 34 to 45 degrees latitude.
December 19: The James Town colonists departed England for Virginia. The London Council had given strict orders to keep on good terms with the Savages.
Some say that within weeks, the James Town settlement is attacked by the Powhaten chiefdom of 30 tribes, representing some 13,000 people. The conflict would continue until 1614 when the English captured Pocahontas, daughter of the Powhatans' chief. The English of Virginia would carry animosity toward the People for the next 400 years. Others suggest the English provoked the Indians by raiding the Indian villages for their stored food. The colonists failed to plant crops, expecting the Indians to provide this commodity. Four out of five British servants died in the first year.
A English settlement is established at Popham Beach, Maine, at the mouth of the Kennebec River. They built fort St. George, a storehouse, housing for 100 men and a ship. They traded for furs with the local Abanaki People. In the fall of 1608, the colonists decided the climate was too harsh and they departed.
Christopher Newport and John Smith with 20 others returned from an expedition up the James River using an Indian drawn map showing "certaine hugh mountains called Quirank" (Blue Ridge Mountains). They visited the village of Powhaten, with their corn fields. Upon their return they discovered the colony had been attacked by the savages and 17 men were wounded and one boy killed.
The Church of England Episcopal Church was established at Jamestown, Virginia.
April: The first English settlers to America arrived at a small peninsula along the James River that they called James Fort (Jamestown, Virginia). Mr. Edward Maria Wingfield, Bartholomew Gosnoll and Christopher Newport plus 30 others were the first to make landfall. They were immediately attacked by 5 Savages.
April: John Smith (1580-1631) is one of 105 settlers who founded Jamestown, Virginia for the Virginia Company. He was accused of mutiny on the trip over. The colony was shocked, upon opening sealed orders name Smith as one of the seven leaders of Jamestown. Smith was a proud boastful man and many are doubtful of the truthfulness of his accounts.
March 24: John Smith was arrested as it was claimed he was trying to kill the ruling council and make himself king. He would remain under arrest until June 20 when he was allowed in council.
April 26: Christopher Newport sought shelter in Chesapeake Bay. The forced landing led to the founding of Jamestown on the James River. Others suggest the landing was May 13, others May 24 and June 15. About 100 men and boys files ashore.
May 13: James Town formed the first ruling council being selected by London:
Edward Maria Winfield, elected President,
John Smith (Smyths),
John Maryin (Martin),
George Kendall, shot to death December 1, 1607
The Savages visited the colony often and were kindly
June 15: The supply ships returned to England from James Town.
June 2: John Smith departed the Fort James Town on an exploration
June 22: The James Town consisted of 105 men:
Seven Ruling Council, plus;
Robert Hunt, a preacher
Thomas Studley, a merchant, died August 28, 1607
Thomas Wotton, Sierg
Edward Brinto, Mason
Tho Couper, Barber
William Garret, Bricklayer
John Herd, Bricklayer
William Love, Taylor
Jonas Profit, Sailor
James Read, Blacksmith
Walter Russell, Doctor, may have left on supply ship?
Nie Skot, Drum
William Willkinson, Surgeon
Thomas Abbat, may have left on supply ship?
William Phettyplace, may have left on supply ship?
Richard Wyffin aka Richard Pot(s), may have left on supply ship?
The second supply ship arrived with 120 more colonists:
Matthew Scrivener, appointed to Council.
Robert Alberton, Perfumer
Richard Belfield, Goldsmith
Robert Cotten, a Tobaco-pipe maker
William Dawson, Refiner
Richard Dole, a Black Smith
Thomas Feld, Apothecaries
Post Gittnat, a C(hir)urgion
John Harford, Apothecaries
William Johnson, Goldsmith
Peter Keffer, a Gunner
John Lewes, a Couper
Abraham Ransacke, refiner
David Stalling, Jueller
August 28, Thomas Studley the merchant died
The Savages at Kecoughtan supplied corn so the citizens at James Town wouldn't starve.
December 1: Councilor George Kendall is shot to death over a squabble in James Town
A ship out of Bordeaux, France, bound for Kubec (Quebec), was to include
three Jesuits but they took a secular priest instead. At this time most Catholic ship
captains and all Calvinists did not want to take the Jesuits to New France, even under orders
of the Queen. These Jesuits classified the natives of America as savages and barbarous people,
even before they met the people.
As a result of the 1607 trading post failure at Acadia, (I)-Samuel of Champlain (1570-1635) of France established Stadacona (Kebec) on the Canadian River (St. Lawrence River). This second attempt to impose control over the Algonquian free trade network would also fail. Samuel Bruce, the Frenchman from 1608 to 1615, lived among the Wendat (Bear, Rock, Cord and Deer) Peoples. He visited the Neutral (Tobacco and Cat) People and the Susquehannock Peoples who are of the Iroquois speaking family of Nations. Samuel Bruce is the first officially recognized Coureurs des Bois or- more correctly- Voyager. A Voyager is an engage under strict control of France and subject to the rigidity of church and state Laws. The Coureurs des Bois is a free agent, more like the Native American. A Coureurs des Bois, in effect, abandons his European culture in search of a better life style. They discovered a hybrid culture and formed the basis of the Metis Culture. This cultural tradition to that of free agent and free trader is an Aboriginal tradition which is inherent to Americans from ancient times. These and other Native American rights formed the basis of American Common Law. The Roman Church and State's ordained authority considered personal freedom a great evil, being the work of the devil. It is noteworthy that the North Americans had no concept of the devil and didn't believe that man had fallen from God's favor. God or more commonly called the 'Great Spirit' was not a vindictive God, he would never do evil to the People.
(I)-Nicolas Marsolet (1587-1677) arrived Tadoussac with (I)-Samuel de Champlain (1570-1635). Champlain couldn't stand Marsolet because he was not under his control and he report independently back to France. Some classify Nicolas as a Coureur Des Bois because he joined the Montagnais culture which he judged to be superior to Franch culture in many respects. He took a Montagnais wife and raised Metis children. He later married his 2nd wife a French woman in Kebec but never lost his appreciation of the Montagnais. They called him Tadoussac's Little King.
John Smith explored the Chesapeake Bay and lower Susquehanna River. He described the Susquehannock People as being giants. He claims one warriors calf measured 27 inches. Bowling in Jamestown, Virginia was banned after workers were found bowling instead of building a fort. John Smith sailed up a tributary of Chesapeake Bay and was amazed at the Indian skill at making log canoes.
James Fort (Jamestown, Virginia) has been reduced from 215 settlers to 60 by this winter being decimated by famine, disease and Indian attacks. It would appear that heavy body armor, helmet and swords were discarded as being more hindrance than help. They turned their armor into lightweight, arrow-proof vest. There were 6 different reports the cannibalism was used at Jamestown to avoid starvation. Historians have hotly debated these claims but archaeological evidence to support the rumors has been conducted in 2013. During the period 1609-1610 the Jamestown settlers dug up buried corpses and ate them. One man killed his pregnant wife and ate her. He was later executed.
John Laydon married Anne Burrowes being the first recorded in Virginia.
George Kendall was shot in the Jamestown Colony for spying for Spain.
January 7: A fire destroyed Jamestown, Virginia.
September 7: The Council President, Edward Maria Winfield, is taken prisoner for mutiny, many are dead in the James Town and others are sick. Much of the harvest was spoiled by rain.
September 10: John Smith assumes the Presidency of the James Town Council.
The first known history of New France is written this year.
Marc Lescarbot at this time described the Algonquian as more civilized than European in many ways but pitifully ignorant of the pleasures of wine and love. He also noted that the natives of Gaspe, Quebec, spoke a trade language that was half Basque. The Basque have been living among the savages since 1540 and this likely represents not only trade relations but likely many Basque settled among the native peoples for freedom and adventure.
There is little doubt that the English settlers in James town were savages and barbaric during the starving time of 1609-1610. The population went from 300 to 60 this winter. They turned to cannibalism to survive. They dug up the dead and ate them. One man killed his pregnant wife and ate her. This has been verified by survivor accounts and forensic studies of the skeletons.
Etienne Brűlé (Brule), born 1582- others suggest (1591-1632) or (1592-1633), likely Champigny-sur-Marne, France, died in 1632 Huronia, New France was an indentured servant of Champlain. Champlain called him 'boy' and he departed for the Huron interior. It is highly likely that he is the first Coureurs des Bois from the newly formed Kebec settlement. It is believed he traveled to Lake Ontario, Huron and Superior. We know little of his life because the religious held him in great contempt for his Native lifestyle of independence and adventurous spirit.
At James Fort (Jamestown, Virginia, New England), the period of 1606 to 1612 was the driest seven year period in 770 years according to tree ring studies. The Virginia Company had ordered the colonists to extract the New World riches. The order was to search for gold and other commodities and to barter with the Indians for food rather than spending time growing crops. The James Fort residents are eating horses, cats, dogs, rats and snakes- even poisonous ones. The Indians had no surplus food to trade. The English raided the Indian villages, stealing their limited supply of food. The Indians retaliated by attacking James Fort. This winter 2/3 of the colonists at James Fort died from hunger, disease and Indian attacks. The surviving colonists abandoned the Fort just as a supply ship arrived, so they returned.
The New England colony of New Foundland is established this year.
The Jesuits claimed that the Savages occupied a land so large that the old world bears no comparison to it. They believed the Spaniards carried Christianity with cruelty and avarice. They have killed almost all the Natives of the country who, only 70 years ago, numbered 20 million.
At this time there are approximately thirty thousand Wendat' (Huron) living in thirty towns around Lake Huron aka The Great Lake La Mer Douce (the calm Sea) later renamed Lac des Hurons (Lake of the Hurons). The Wendat City of Cahiague, with two hundred wooden buildings, is a thriving trading center on Lake Huron aka The Great Lake La Mer Douce (the calm Sea). The Frenchmen Etienne Brűlé (1592-1632) and Jean Nicolet of Belleborne (1598-1642) used this as their staging point for their travels of the Great Lakes.
The French formed an alliance with the Carantouan of Pennsylvania in order to attack the Onondaga, the senior of the five Nations of Iroquois. The French instigated this war to ensure no alliance is forged with the Iroquois. Their divide and conquer strategy would remain a consistent theme. Etienne Brűlé (1592-1632), who lived as an exchange student with the Wendat, went to get the Carantouan for war but they are late in showing and the assault is a failure. The Carantouan, who arrived two days late, which indicated their reluctance to fight but also their impelling desire to remain open to future economic trade relations.
La Pointe is located on the western end of Lake Kitchi-Gami, some say Kitch-Game (Lake Superior). This location has been an Ojibwa settlement from ancient times. Other names for this lake are Upper Lake, and Lake Tracy in 1777..
Ojibwa tradition suggests that two Frenchmen visited La Pointe, Ojibwa Country (Madeleine Island, Wisconsin) this year, possibly Samuel Bruce and or Jean Nicolet of Belleborne (1598-1642). Others contend the first visit is about 1610 to 1612.
The Ojibwa tradition claims their Crane and Bear clans are at the Great Turtle Island a.k.a. Mifsilimakinac (Mackinac) when the first European arrived. It should be noted that most Ojibwa bands had Crane and Bear clans.
Henry Hudson (1570-1611) enters James Bay and trades with a single Indian.
The Spanish Palace of the Governors in Santa Fe, New Mexico built this year, is the oldest public building still standing in the United States.
Sir Thomas Dale issued the laws and orders to govern the Virginia Colony. The laws were barbaric and clearly unchristian. The laws were designed to protect the powers of the elite who were basically exempt except for very serious transgressions. Those who attempt to run away from the Colony are executed. Whippings are the most common punishment for most transgressions against the government or church. Absence from church was a capital offense. One man was broken on the wheel. Blasphemy was punished by boring the tongue with a red hot bodkin. Another offender was chained to a tree to die.
Henry Hudson's (1570-1611) crew mutinies aboard the ship Discovery. They set Hudson and some of his crew adrift in a small sailing dinghy. Their fate remains unknown. Some question if they actually reached Hudson Bay. The credibility of a mutinous crew is in question.
Etienne Brűlé (Brule) (1582/1592-1632), having been living with the Huron, returned to Kabec with 200 Huron to trade. Champlain could not punish Brűlé due to the number of Indians he brought to trade. Brűlé had learned to speak the language fluently. Many more from the small colony would follow Brűlé to become Coureurs des Bois such as Duvernais, Demerais and Jean Nicolet of Belleborne (1598-1642). These French would travel with the Huron into the great Lakes region to the west.
The horse of mixed blood lines, Arab Barb, Turk and English are introduced to Virginia.
Former Dutch lawyer Adrian Block explored Manhattan Island in the ship Tiger. He returned to Europe with a cargo of furs and two kidnapped Indians, whom he named Orson and Valentine.
(I)-Thomas Button (d-1634) wintered Fort Nelson (York Factory) Hudson Bay, searching for the Henry Hudson (1570-1611) party and a navigable North West Passage. He named the southern part of Hudson Bay as New Wales. It is noteworthy that by 1810 the English still had no idea what New Wales consisted of beyond the coast line. English exploration for the next two hundred years is primarily confined to the coastal regions, accessible by boat.
The English of Virginia called the Native People as Savages yet John Smith noted that these savages could count into the thousands.
(I)-Samuel of Champlain (1570-1635) traded with the Algonquian for a foot long piece of copper. They reported the copper was from a river that enters the Great Lake (Superior).
Brother (I)-Gilbert Du Thet is killed at St. Sauveur.
The American Indian slave Tisquantum aka Squanto of George Weymouth in 1905, was returned to America from England as an interpreter for John Smith. He was freed by Smith only to be captured along with 19 associates by an Englishman and carried off to Milaga, Spain. He eventually escaped to England.
April: Jamestown, marriage (I)-John Rolfe (1585-1622) to Pocahontas (Matoaka, Lady Rebecca) a Powhatan b-1595?, died March 1617 of smallpox aboard ship. They had one son a (II)-Thomas Rolfe, a Metis (1615-1675) who married September 13, 1632, England Elizabeth Washington who had one daughter (III)-Anne Rolfe Metis b-1633 who married Peter Elwin (1623-1695). (II)-Thomas Rolfe, a Metis (1615-1675) 2nd marriage Jane Poythress Indian and had one child (III)-Jane Rolfe, Metis b-1650 married Robert Bolling
John Smith visited Massachusetts, before it was emptied by disease, and declared that the land was so planted with gardens and corn fields, and so well inhabited with goodly, strong and well proportioned people. I would rather live here than any where.
April 5: American Indian princess Pocahontas (d.1617) daughter grand chief Powhatan married English Jamestown colonist (I)-John Rolfe (1585-1622) in Virginia. They had one son (II)-Thomas Rolfe Metis (1615-1675) he married Elizabeth Washington
The French send the Recollects to New France to convert the savages to Christianity and to assimilate them into the French culture. The Recollects were amazed that no savages were interested in adopting the French culture. Equally disconcerting was the fact that many French were ready and willing to adopt the savages culture.
Gabrial Seguard, a Recollect, is astonished to learn the reaction of the Indians to the French. The Indians see the French as feeble minded because of the hair growing on their face. He also noted that religion and trade do not go well together. Most French traders did not want religion taught to the Indians. The Recollect say that the Traders hold the beaver in a higher regard than they do their souls. It is noteworthy that the Kebec trading post only contains some 50 people and already there are 5 or more Coureurs des Bois living among the Savages.
William Baffin (1584?-1622) examined the entrance to Hudson Strait, and turned back, because of ice conditions, in sight of the land later named Baffin Island.
August 1: Champlain meets up with (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) on Lake Huron aka The Great Lake La Mer Douce (the calm Sea), and claims he gave him permission to go to the Andastes south of Iroquois Country. Its questionable if Champlain had any real control over Brule.
Father Joseph Le Caron (1586-1632) celebrated the first mass in what is now called Ontario. (I)-Samuel of Champlain (1570-1635) visits Lakes Huron, Ontario and the Wendat town of Cahiague. The Town of Cahiague, being enclosed with thirty feet high palisades, greatly impressed Champlain. He had discussions with (I)-Etienne Brűlé (1592-1632) who, the priest would later say, is much addicted to women and has many Native women. This is the first recorded incident showing that the Roman Catholic Church had begun its UN-Holy War on the Coureurs des Bois. (I)-Samuel of Champlain (1570-1635) also reported that a number of French traders are living among the Indians of Lake Huron aka The Great Lake La Mer Douce (the calm Sea). This is an interesting comment, suggesting a number of Metis or Coureurs des Bois preceded any official exploration of the West. Basque, Dutch and Spanish fur traders are also active in the Region.
September 8: (I)-Etienne Brule (1592-1633) departs Lake Simcoe with his Huron guides and goes to Buffalo at the junction of Lakes Erie and Ontario. He went as far as the Susquehanna River.
(I)-Jean Nicolet of Belleborne (1598-1642), who is also living with the Wendat, worked as a spy for Samuel of Champlain (1570-1635) and carried on exploration and trade. The Algonquian Nation understood the need to develop good will with the Europeans. Trade and commerce are an integral component of the Algonquian belief system. During his stay they showed (I)-Etienne Brűlé (1591-1633) Georgian Bay, Sweet Water Sea (Lake Huron) aka The Great Lake La Mer Douce (the calm Sea) also (Karegnon) and Lake Superior (Kitchi Gami).
Lake Superior is the largest fresh water lake in the World, being 31,810 square miles and 1,290 feet deep. This is the cultural center of the Ojibwa Peoples. Lake Huron aka The Great Lake La Mer Douce (the calm Sea), is fourth largest, with Lake Michigan next.
They showed Jean Nicolet of Belleborne (1598-1642), Lake Michigan (Lac de Puans). Lac des Puans would later be referred to as Winnebago Lake, Wisconsin specifically its outlet at Fox River.
(I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) is captured by the Iroquois and tortured but is finally accepted as a potential negotiator for the Iroquois.
During the period of 1616 to 1642, the Wendat/Algonquian Confederation enhanced their trading empire which included all the Great Lakes to the Hudson Bay and alliances with the Algonkin, Ottawa (meaning traders), Nipissing, Ojibwa and Cree Nations. The French and Dutch would use this enhanced merchant class status to create a long standing cultural and territorial dispute with the Iroquois Nation.
Canadian history largely ignored the growing independent Basque, Celt and French free traders that had gone Native because the Roman Catholic Church and (I)-Samuel of Champlain (1570-1635) consider them an obnoxious lot. The French considered them very difficult, if not impossible, to control. Control from a European perspective is punitive in nature, whereas the Native Americans considered control to be through reason and consensus. They believed only God and Nature held control over man. The early Native Canadians socially ostracized those who attempted to exercise control over others.
Some content the Coureurs des Bois had reached the Chequamegon Territory by 1618. This includes the area between the Ojibwa towns of Skiaeronon (Sault Ste Marie, Michigan) and Chequamegon (La Pointe, Wisconsin). Ojibwa oral tradition supports this contention. Chequamegon (She-wam-egun) is an early reference to the south shore of Lake Superior between Baraga, Michigan and Duluth, Minnesota. The Coureurs de Bois called the Ojibwa people of the first town Saulteurs (Saulteaux) and Outchibouec; meaning people of the rapids. The Ojibwa called themselves Anishinabe (Anishinabeg) meaning first or original man. Later they became know as the Ojibwa or Ojibway. Ojibwa tradition relates that their people originated near the Great Eastern Salt Ocean. Ojibwa or Ojibiwes also means those who make pictographs. Ojibwa is a French term and Chippewa, an English name. Skiaeronon would later be called Boweting or Falls of St. Marie then Saulteurs of Saint Marie. These Saulteurs raised Mundamin (corn) and Pumpkins.
May: Virginia’s Deputy Governor George Yeardley and a group of men killed 20 - 40 Chickahominy Indians. It was under Yeardley’s leadership that friendly relations between the Chickahominy and the colony ended
A measles epidemic this year ravaged the remains of the Incan culture.
The English exported 200 English boys, as slave labor, to Richmond, Virginia. This English practice would eventually be called "The Home Children Program" basically institutionalized (1869-1965) involving about 150,000 children as young as 4-5 years old. The Hudson Bay Company would also use this form of slave labor for the next 200 years. The disturbing aspects of this philosophy is it is deeply entrenched within the English culture into the twentieth century.
July: (I)-Etienne Brule (1591-1633) returns to Kebec having explored Pennsylvania and expressed a desire to explore Lake Superior. He had previously only gone as far as Saut de Gaston (Sault Ste Marie). He told Gabriel Sagard ,a Recollet (Franciscan), that beyond the freshwater sea (Lake Huron) aka The Great Lake La Mer Douce (the calm Sea), there was another very large lake which emptied into it by water fall called Saut de Gaston falls (Sault Ste Marie). Sagard was fascinated by the exotic sounds and sights of native music-making. Others suggest Brule had explored the south shore of Lake Superior. Some even suggest it went as far as Madeline Island and visited the Ojibwa. A 1632 map reads Lac Superior de Tracy and the lower end shore as Fond Du Lac.
Rasmus Jensen claims the Hudson Bay and all adjoining lands for Denmark, confirming their Viking ancestors claim to this region of the world. The European tradition of claiming unknown land and people is a rather strange custom from a Canadian perspective. Reverend Rasmus Jensen at Fort Churchill, Hudson Bay, conducted services for Jens Munk and his expedition of two ships and sixty four men, who would all die this winter with the exception of Munk, another man and a boy. His nephew Eric Munck and best friends Hans Brock and John Weston died of scurvy. They managed to sail one of the ships home to Copenhagen by December 25, 1620. They are some of the few known Europeans to visit the Hudson Bay since the Vikings exploration trip of 1362. This European desire which lays claim to other peoples territory and which ignores the existence of other people, finds it basis in the Genesis tradition.
The Canadian Encyclopedia (McClelland & Stewart) suggests that the Metis first settled the Churchill region of the Hudson Bay this year among the Chipewyan and Cree. Its possible but highly unlikely in my opinion.
(I)-Samuel of Champlain (1570-1635) had promised the Wendat (Huron) that the French would go into their country and marry their daughters. This is a long standing native tradition to support alliances. Later (I)-Jean Talon (1626-1694) stated that the incorporation of Indians would enrich the colony more than immigration would. Louis XIV would also institute the Kings Gift, a subsidy for mixed (Metis) marriages. The early Church tolerated these marriages hoping, thereby, to gain more converts. The Recollects reported this year that five or six Frenchmen had joined the Wendat (Huron), being lost to the colony. Shortly thereafter the Church would change her opinion, as the Frenchmen preferred the Indian religion and culture. These deserters to the faith and civilization had chosen to run in the woods like a Savage, (Coureurs des Bois) so reported the Jesuits.
The death rate at James Fort (Jamestown, Virginia) runs at 80%. To encourage migration, the Virginia General Assembly is created, allowing private land ownership and the right to vote.
July 30: The first group of 20 Africans was brought to Jamestown, Virginia by a Dutch vessel, as indentured servants (Slaves). Most indentured servants were released after serving a term, usually seven years, and were allowed to own property and participate in political affairs, at this time. Later this would be rescinded.
December 4: On the Berkeley plantation in Virginia, about 40 English settlers observed the first known annual day to thank god. This private annual thanksgiving lasted 3 years until the colony was wiped out in 1622.
(I)-Jean Nicolet de Belleborne (1598-1642) lived among the Algonquians of Allumette Island on the Ottawa River and Nipissing, 1620-1629. He traveled Green Bay and the Fox and Illinois Rivers.
It is believed the population of Kebec is no more than 50 people.
Port La Tour, Acadia, birth Andre Lasner, Metis, son Louis Lasnier of Dieppe and Indian woman. Some believe this is the first recorded Metis birth in North America.
Abraham Wood (ciria 1615-1681) arrived Virginia from England as an indentured servant.
The Mayflower was not alone when she sailed. The Speedwell, her companion, twice developed trouble. Repairs were first made at Dartmouth. The second time it turned back to Plymouth where it was abandoned.
January 31: Virginia Colony leaders wrote to the Virginia Company in England, asking for more orphaned apprentices for indentured (slave) labor.
September 16: The Mayflower sailed today for the New England Colony of Virginia. They received word that they were not welcome in Virginia and changed their destination to establish the New England Colony of Massachusetts.
November 11: The list of Settlers at New Plymouth, northern Virginia numbered some 200 who had sailed from Great Britain. 50% died within 2-3 months of arrival. Those recorded only add up to some 102 to103 persons. It is noteworthy that this region was void of Natives as they had all died this year and the remainder likely moved away. It is believed a French ship preceded the English ships to Plymouth earlier this year, delivering a deadly sickness and thereby clearing the lands. William Bradford of the Mayflower said that the good hand of God favored our beginnings by sweeping away great multitudes of the natives so that he might make room for us. Some suggest that the death rate likely numbered about 90% of the Indians, based on the evidence.
The colonists include:
John Alden, (1599-1687) cooper, married
1623 Priscila Mullins
Isaac Allerton, (1586-1659) & wife Mary, d-1620
Bartholmew Allerton (1612-1658) son Isaac
Remember Allerton (1614-1652) son Isaac
Mary Allerton (1616-1699) daughter Isaac
John Allerton, d-1620
John Billington Sr. (hanged 1630), & wife Elen
John Billington Jr. died before 1630 son John
Francis Billington son John
William Bradford, & wife Dorathy d-1620, 2nd marriage Alice Carpenter
William Brewster, & wife Mary
Love Brewster (1606-1634)
Wrasling Brewster (1614-1644)
Richard Britteridge, d-1620
Peter Brown (Brownie), d-1633
William Butten, d-1620, servant
Robert Carter, d-1620/21 servant
John Carver, d-1620 & wife Katherine, d-1620 & maid servant d-1621-22
James Chilton, d-1620 & wife d-1620
Mary Chilton daughter James
Richard Clark (Clarke), d-1621
Francis Cookie (Cooke), (1583-1663)
John Cookie (Cooke) son Francis
Humillity Coper d-1651
John Craxton (Crankston) Sr., d-1621
John Craxton (Crankston ) Jr. d-1626/27
Edward Doten, d-1655
Edward Doty, servant
Francis Eaton, & wife Sarah, d-1620
Samuell Eaton son Francis
Thomas English, d-1621
Joses (Moyses) Fletcher, d-1621
Edward Fuller, d-1620 & wife d-1620
Samuell Fuller son Edward
Samuel Fuller, d-1633
William Holbeck, d-1621, servant
John Goodman, d-1623-27
John Hooke, d-1621, servant
Steven Hopkins, d-1640 & wife Elizabeth, d-1640
Giles Hopkins son Steven, & former wife
Constanta Hopkins daughter Steven & former wife
Damaris Hopkins son Steven and Elizabeth
Oceanus Hopkins son Steven and Elizabeth
John Howland, servant, married Elizabeth Tillie
John Langemore, d-1621 servant
William Latham, a boy & a maid servant
Edward Liester (Litster), servant
Edmund Margesson (Margeson), d-1620
Christopher Martin, d-1620 & wife, d-1620
Desire Minter sick died upon return to England (1605-1651)
Jasper More, d-1620
Richard More, d- 1620
Ellen More d-1620 sister Richard
William Mullins (Molines), d-1620 & wife, d-1620
Joseph Mullins, d-1620 son William
Priscila Mullins daughter William & married John Alden
Digery (Digerie) Priest, d-1620
Salamon Prower, d-1620 servant
John Ridgdale, d-1621 & wife Alice, d-1620
Thomas Rogers, d-1620
Joseph Rogers son Thomas
George Soule (Sowle), servant
Myles Standish, & wife Rose, d-1620
Elias Story, d-1621 servant
Edward Thomson d-1620
Edward Tilly (Tillie), d-1620 & wife Ann, d-1620
John Tilly (Tillie), d-1620 & wife, d-1620
Elizabeth Tilly (Tillie) daughter John & married John Howland
Thomas Tinker, d-1620 & wife, d-1620 & a son, d-1620
John Turner, d-1620 & 2 sons both d-1620
Richard Warren, d-1626
William White, d-1620 & wife Susana
Resolved White son William
Perigriene White son William
Roger Wilder, d-1621 servant
Thomas Williams, d-1620
Edward Winslow, & wife Elizabeth, d-1620, 2nd wife widow William White & 2 men servants of which one died 1620
The first colonists represent England, France, Scotland and Ireland, and it is unlikely that many lived long enough to procreate.
The Dutch, who had entered the slave trade in 1621 with the formation of the Dutch West Indies Co., imported black people to serve on Hudson Valley farms. According to Dutch law, the children of manumitted (freed) slaves were bound to slavery.
January 3: William Tucker is believed to be the first African-American born in America. Some suggest it was 1624.
March 16: Samoset, an English speaking Indian and his friend Tisquantium of the Wampanoag an Algonquin tribe called the People of the Dawn, met with the Mayflower colonists saying "welcome Englishmen". The colony described Samoset as: "He was a man free in speech so far as he could express his mind, and of a seemly carriage...he was a tall straight man, the hair on his head black, long behind, only short before, non on his face at all." This would suggest he was not a Metis. These People taught the Englishmen how to plant corn, squash and beans. Sqvanto of the same tribe also spoke English. This would imply a prolonged contact with English prior to the arrival of the Mayflower. It is known that English contact in 1620 inflicted the People with European diseases.
(I)-Etienne Brűlé (1592-1633) and (I)-Grenolle (Grenoble or Crenole) arrived village des Saulteurs (Sault Ste Marie) and the Ojibwa called it Sault de Gaston. It was named after the brother of Louis XIII. This is a clear indication that other French had arrived before them. They observed the Ojibwa mining operations either on Isle Royale (near Port Arthur), the Keweenaw Peninsula, or on the Ontonagon River (Wisconsin-Michigan boundary). Some contend they ventured as far west as the Bois Brűlé River (Duluth). Bois Brűlé River (Burnt Woods) is named because the Ojibwa burnt the woods there to improve their hunting territory. This may also rule out (I)-Etienne Brűlé (1592-1632), being one of the two Europeans reported on Lake Superior in 1610. Others, however, still contend that (I)-Etienne Brűlé (1592-1632) may have been on Lake Superior in 1615.
Jean Nicollet de Belleborne, born 1598, died October 27, 1642 Sillery, Quebec, is living 1620-1629 with the Nipissing. He explored Green Bay and the Fox and Illinois Rivers.
Dutch trader Jacob Eelkes (Eelckens) captured a Pequot sachem on Long Island and threatened him with decapitation unless he paid a large ransom. The Pequot paid off Eelkes with 140 fathoms of wampum. Wampum is short for wampumpeag meaning a white string of shells
September 6: A Spanish silver fleet disappeared off Florida Keys, thousands died. This is likely an exaggeration.
The young male caretaker of cattle was first called cowboy.
John Oldham (1600-1636) an English trader, arrived Plymouth, from which he was expelled in 1624. He traded at Nantasket and Cape Ann with New England's coastal Indians. He later moved to the Watertown in the Massachusetts Bay colony.
March 5: Virginia exempted the upper class from punishment by whipping.
The Virginia Company sent 6,000 colonists to James Fort (Jamestown, Virginia) between 1607 to 1625. 4,800 died or were killed.
Some contend (I)-Etienne Brule (1592-1632) was in the Detroit area 1625/1626.
The French Jesuits (I)-Jean of Brebeuf (1593-1649), Father (I)-Anne Noue (1587-1646) and (I)-Daillon departed Quebec for Penetanguishene, Georgian Bay to secure this trade Centre for the Church.
Some believe the first French visited Mishinimaukinong (Mackinac, Michigan) this year.
March 4: Dutch explorer Peter Minuit landed on Manhattan Island.
November 7: The ship Arms of Amsterdam arrived with a cargo of furs and timber from New Netherlands.
Jean Nicolet de Belleborne (Metis? (1598-1642)) married a Algonquian or Huron woman. According to Champlain the population of Quebec is 67 including children . This would imply the existence of a Metis population.
James Morton changed the name of the New England Mount Wollaston Settlement to Merrymount and organized a trading company to compete with Plymouth for the Indian Trade in beaver pelts.
New France, birth (about 1828-1833) (II)-Euphrasine Madeleine Nicolet, Metis, daughter (I)-Jean Nicolet de Belleborne (1598-1642) and a Algonquian or Huron woman.
(I)-Etienne Brűlé (1592-1632) and (I)-Nicolas Marsolet de Saint Aignan (1587-1677), who are living among the Huron during the occupation, are accused of being traitors to France because they led the English to Kebec. Others accuse (I)-Jacques Michel (d-1634), the Huguenot, as the traitor. These wild accusations appear to be designed to shed blame for the fall of Kebec and New France on others. This is highly unlikely, but they likely continued to conduct trade with the English during the occupation. The other Coureurs des Bois also continued to live with the Indians during the occupation. Many others from Kebec went to live with the Huron during the occupation in order to avoid being deported back to France via England. The Hebert family likely swore allegiance to England to retain their farm and possessions and not be deported like the others.
(I)-Jacques Hertel d-1651, an interpreter, also took refuge among the Savages when the English captured Kebec.
Charles LaTour and 18 to 20 men of New France became Coureurs des Bois, traveled the woods, mingled with the savages and lived infamous and libertine lives without practice of religion- not even bothering to baptize their (Metis) children. They procreated then abandoned them to their mothers.
Black slaves were imported into Connecticut (1629), Maryland and Massachusetts (1634), and New York City (1637).
Governor Mexico (1625-1641) Manuel De Silva Nieto left his writing on Inscription Rock at El Morro, New Mexico
(I)-Etienne Brűlé (1592-1632) ventured to Lake Superior on the north shore, meeting the Winnebago (Ouinipeg) People of the Salt Sea- about which we know nothing.
Some credit William Kieft of New Netherlands as establishing the paying of money for proof of killed Indians. The proof?- their scalp.
John Winthrop governor and Thomas Dudley deputy governor with 1,000 settlers established the New England Massachusetts Bay Colony called Boston located on the Shawmut peninsula. So popular was the freedom granted this colony that by 1640 the Great Puritan Exodus deposited 20,000 people at Boston.
Henry Lynne of Boston was sentenced to be whipped. He wrote to England "against the government and execution of justice here," and was again whipped and banished. Lying, swearing, taking false toll, perjury, selling rum to the Indians, all were punished by whipping.
September 7: The town of Trimontaine, Massachusetts was renamed to Boston.
September 30: John Billington an original Pilgrim on the Mayflower is hanged for shooting John Newcomin, following a quarrel.
(I)-Captain Thomas James (1593-1635) wintered at Charlton Island, James Bay and built a shelter. (I)-Luke Fox (1586-1635) explored the Hudson Bay.
Boston: "That Philip Ratcliffe shall be whipped, have his 'eares cutt off', fined 40 pounds, and banished out of the limits of this jurisdiction, for uttering malicious and scandalous speeches against the Government."
(I)-Samuel of Champlain (1570-1635) produced the
first crude map of the North West Territories including Manitoba and the James
and Hudson Bay. It obviously originated from native and Coureurs des Bois
maps or other verbal accounts. One of his 1614 maps showed a village
at Sault Ste Marie and, north of there, the Nation and Village of Puans.
The inhabitants of Puans, the Ojibwa, also live at Lac des Puans, Winnebago
Lake, Wisconsin and La Pointe near Duluth at this time. One needs
to keep in mind that the Ojibwa of Sault Ste Marie and La Pointe had formed the merchant center of the Midwest trading network from about 1400 to the
arrival of the Europeans. They maintained trade relations with the Assiniboine,
Cree, Dakota, Illinois and Wendat people.
The first recording of Sault Ste Marie however was found on Chaplains map of 1632 recorded as Sault although Champlain never viewed the great river which empties Lake Superior.
The Ojibwa tradition speaks of two Frenchmen from Quebec on Lake Superior. It says they are near starvation in a log cabin near La Pointe. The Frenchmen are taken to the La Pointe village (Wisconsin) and thereby saved. These Coureurs des Bois or Metis represent a growing French subculture.
(I)-Etienne Brűlé (1592-1632), the first known Coureurs des Bois of Kebec, is killed by the Huron for unknown reasons. If the Jesuits are correct in saying he was much addicted to women, then it is highly likely that he was killed for impropriety.
De Razilly brought from France several families to settle La Heve (Pijeloveekak). This was the start of the Acadian and Metis culture in Nova Scotia. These early Acadians maintained good relationships with the Micmac Indians and freely married their daughters. La Heve would later be considered an Acadian Metis community.
John Oldham (1600-1636) established an overland route from Boston to the Connecticut River, he lived among the Indians.
September: William Holmes founded a Plymouth trading post at Windsor, just north of the Dutch Fort Good Hope (Hartford) founded in June of this year.
(I)-Jean Nicolet (1598-1642) one of the more famous Coureur Des Bois is believed to have reached the Mississippi River this year. He always wore a Chinese robe during his travels. He visited Green Bay (Wisconsin) and traveled the Wisconsin and Illinois Rivers leading to the speculation that he reached the Great River (Mississippi River).
(I)-Jean Nicolet of Belleborne (1598-1642), a Coureurs des Bois and interpreter and clerk of the Company of New France, left Quebec charged with the mission of finding the inland sea to the Pacific. He reached Sault Ste Marie, Ojibwa Country (Michigan), and observed Lake Superior but did not venture further West. Others suggest he explored Lake Michigan and west of Green Bay. This is interesting given that Chequamegon Bay- the Ojibwa's strong hold (La Pointe, Madeline Island, Wisconsin), lay only nine days canoe to the west of Sault Ste Marie. He would be aware of its existence, but the Ojibwa probably suggested he go to Green Bay, Fox Country (Michigan). Jean Nicolet of Belleborne (1598-1642) ventured south to Green Bay visiting the Puant and Ounipigon (Winnebago). He claims to be investigating a rumored route to the Pacific Ocean. It is more likely that he is assessing the fur trading potential of this region. This appears to be a corruption of Nicolet's venture when Kebec was under the control of the Kirk brothers.
(I)-Leonard Calvert, d-1647, for his brother Cecilius Valvert (1605-1675), establishes the first settlers in the mixed Catholic-Protestant colony of Terra Mariae (Maryland). The colony was established based on religious tolerance.
Mishinimaukinong or as the Metis and Coureurs des Bois called it Michilimackinac, Indian Country (Michigan) is believed inhabited at this time, on the south shore of the Mackinac Strait.
(I)- Jean Nicolet of Belleborne (1598-1642) returned to Kebec to convince Paul Le Jeune, a Jesuit, that he had nearly discovered the Northern Sea and access to China. The Winnebago People had likely been describing the Northern Bay (Hudson Bay) to Nicolet.
The Pouteouatami (Pottawatomies), contacted by the French trader Poux who fled from the Iroquois, and the trader Nicolet are found near Green Bay, Wisconsin in 1634 and 1635.
Fort Ste Anne (Cibou), Quebec is built this year.
July: (I)- Jean Nicolet of Belleborne (1598-1642) departed Trois Rivers with an expedition of 150 canoes for Huron Country. Father Jean Brebeuf (1593-1649) and two other missionaries are among the crew.
July 1: (I)-Jean Nicolet de Belleborne (1598-1642) departed Kebec with two fleets of canoes bound for Trois Rivieres, he was in the second fleet which was to explore the Upper Country. Both canoe fleets were involved in building a fort at Trois Rivieres. (I)-Jean went on to Lake Huron, Sault St. Marie, Lake Superior, the Straits of Mackinaw, Lake Michigan and Green Bay. He wore Chinese robes among the Winnebago (Winnipegou), the People of the Sea expecting to meet Chinese Mandarins. He only met the Dakota and Sioux but learned of the Missisepe (Mississippi) Great River. Some suggest he discovered the Mississippi but it was likely the Wiconsia River.
August: (I)- Jean Nicolet of Belleborne (1598-1642) is back in Kebec and appears to have survived the attack of the Recollet. This cannot be correct, the year is likely in error. In September 1634 he was still in Wisconsin.
Jean Thomas, an illegal fur trader, incited a revolt by French and Savages at Fort Saint Francois, Cansi, Nova Scotia. Isaac de Launoy de Razilly (1587-1635) put down the rebellion and took Thomas prisoner.
The Chinos, a name commonly use to describe any people who came from across the Pacific
Ocean, are so numerous that the Spanish barbers in Mexico City petition the Municipal Council
to prevent Chino barbers from working in the capital. They are duly banished from the city.
But Spanish shopkeepers also face competition from Chino physicians, tailors, weavers,
silversmiths and ironsmiths, shipbuilders, carpenters, merchants and more. Many of these men
take Mexican wives but they and their descendents remained Chinos. The seaport of Acapulco
where the Manila Galleons landed, becomes known as the ciudad de los Chinos, the 'City of Chinos'.
The trade route from Acapulco to the capital, Mexico City is called El Camino de la China -
'the road of the Spanish Chinos' who later became known as Mexican Chinos.
John Oldham (1600-1636) is killed by Indians for unknown reasons as he returned from a trading trip to Block Island.
(I)- Jean Nicolet of Belleborne (1598-1642) married Marguerite Couillard and settled Trois Rivieres. This is his second marriage, the first being in 1626 to a Algonquian or Huron Woman with whom he had at least one known Metis child.
Father (I)-Jean de Brebeuf (1593-1649) also called Echon by the Savages, compiled a list of instructions for the Jesuit to gain respect from the Huron. This is an interesting list, as it represents the cultural traits that the Coureurs des Bois and the Metis would also required to gain the respect of their brothers. The following is a partial list:
- Never make them wait for you in embarking in a canoe.
- Have a tinder box and a burning mirror to furnish them with fire in the daytime to light their pipes.
- Eat their sagamite and salmagundi in the way prepared, although it may be dirty, half-cooked, and very tasteless.
- It is well to take everything they offer, although you may not be able to eat it all; for, when one becomes somewhat accustomed to it, there is not too much.
- You must eat at daybreak, the day is long and the Barbarians only eat at sunrise and sunset, when they are on their journeys.
- Do not carry sand or water into the canoe. You must have your feet and legs bare; while crossing rapids, you can wear your shoes, and, in the long portages, even your leggings.
- You must conduct yourself so as not to be troublesome to even one of these Barbarians.
- Do not ask many questions, nor make observations on the way. Silence is a good equipment during the work.
- You must bear imperfections, without seeming to notice them. If criticism, it must be done modestly, and with words and signs which evince love and not aversion. In short, you must try to be, and to appear, always cheerful.
- Each one will try, at the portages, to carry some little thing, according to their strength, however little one carries, it greatly pleases the Savages, if it be only the kettle.
- You must not be ceremonious with the Savages, but accept the comforts they offer you, such as a good place in the cabin. The greatest conveniences are attended with very great inconvenience, and these ceremonies offend them.
- Be careful not to annoy any one in the canoe. There is no impropriety among the Savages.
- Do not undertake anything unless you desire to continue it, for example, do not begin to paddle unless you are inclined to continue paddling. Take from the start the place in the canoe that you wish to keep; do not lend then your garments, unless you are willing to surrender them during the whole journey. It is easier to refuse at first than to ask them back, to change, or to desist afterwards.
- Finally, understand that the Savages will retain the same opinion of you in their country that they will have formed on the way; one who passed as an irritable and troublesome person will have considerable difficulty afterwards in removing this opinion.
The first recorded execution of a savage woman as a sorceress, by the savages themselves, occurred this year according to the Jesuits. This European principle, brought over by the French Religious, would be used against the Jesuits themselves in future years. The Jesuits, however, would consider an execution of one of their own, for sorcery, as murder and would it lead to the martyrdom of the person.
The Jesuits also noted that the introduction of European child correction procedures have dire consequences on the savages. They reported that savage children who are castized (chastised) by their parents usually hang themselves or take poison. It is noteworthy that, despite this dire warning, the Jesuit continued to encourage corporal punishment on the children under their care. This religiously based principle would find its way into residential schools causing extensive damage to the native peoples. The damaging effects of this philosophy are still recorded world wide in the year 2000 A.D.
March 17: Father Superior (I)-Paul Le Jeune (1591-1664) and Father (I)-Francois La Mercier (1604-1690) visit Iahenhouton to propose whether it would be acceptable to them that some of our Frenchmen should marry in their country as soon as possible. The People said the Frenchmen who had resolved to marry were free to take wives where it seemed good to them; that those who had married in the past had not demanded a General Council for that purpose, but they had taken them in whatever way they had desired. The Father replied to this that it was very true that the Frenchmen who had hitherto married in the country had not made such a stir about it, but also that their intentions were far removed from ours, that their purpose had been to become barbarians (like the People of the country), and to render themselves exactly like them (Coureurs des Bois). He said we, on the contrary, aimed by this alliance to make them like us. This the People said would require a General Council.
The Jesuits admit that Frenchmen have been taking savages as country wives where it seemed good to them and their purpose is to become barbarians (Coureurs des Bois). They wish to render themselves exactly like the savages.
The conditions necessary for their daughters to marry Frenchmen are as follows:
1. They needed to know what dowry the French would give to the wife, any wife's family,
2. And know whether the wife would have everything at her disposal.
3. If the husband returned to France, would he take her with him? If not, what compensation would he pay?
4. If wife failed in her duty and is driven off by her husband, what could she take away with her? And if, on her own free will, the fancy seized her to return to her relatives, what could she take with her?
The Jesuits report that some Frenchmen were more hesitant in entering into a marriage with a savage upon learning the terms and conditions of marriage to these savage girls. Most Coureurs des Bois, however, didn't give it a second thought, as they were committed to the relationship.
Sweden founded a colony in the New World called New Sweden in the Delaware River Valley.
In New Amsterdam, an ordinance was passed forbidding adulterous relations "with heathens and blacks."
(I)-Jean Nicolet of Belleborne (1598-1642) is reported on Lake Winnebagoes (Wisconsin), establishing an alliance with the Indians of Fox River. This trip resulted in the first mention of the Dakotas (Sioux), saying they are a sedentary people and very numerous. This sounds more like a description of the Mandan people. Some French called the Dakota the Nation of Stinkers, as the Ojibwa word Ouinipeg signifies stinking water. The Dakota called themselves Ouiwipegou because they originally came from the shores of a sea (Pacific Ocean?).
Jesuit (I)-Jerome Lalemount (1593-1673) of the Huron Mission founded Sainte-Marie among the Wendat (Huron), near Midland, Ontario- the first important French outpost west of Kebec. This was a major French community for the next decade. The mission was abandoned in the winter of 1648-49.
New England seamen entered the slave trade as Captain William Pierce of Salem, Massachusetts sailed to the West Indies and exchanged Indian slaves for blacks.
The seaport at the mouth of the Okhotsk River on the Sea of Okhotsk, Russia was established this year. Others suggest it was not founded until 1647 and was used for expeditions to America. The Okhotsk Peoples occupied this area since 600 A.D.