METIS CULTURE 1798-1799



Not a single Hudson Bay Company employee, during this century,
asked to retire in the North West Territories.
The Hudson Bay Company has 530 servants in the trade, with 416 being from the Orkney Islands.
Most, if not all, would abandon their country wives (Cree) and Orkney Metis children.
The English would not allow these men to bring their families home.
Until this time, the men had no option, as they had not ventured far from their trading shacks.
Now that the Hudson Bay Company employees are aware of the Metis Colony at Red River,
many would join the Metis Colony and the Metis culture.


  10/01/2012
METIS HISTORY 1800-1802

METIS HISTORY Return to METIS 1790-1790 index

METIS HISTORY Return to MAIN METIS index

DIRECTORY Return to MAIN HISTORY index



The Red River des Metis Settlement began mining salt for the fur trade.
The 'XY' Company is organized as competition against the North West Company.


1798 

The XY Company, for economic reasons, forbid its employees to take Indian wives.  John Wills (1765-1804) a director of XY Company (1798-1804) likely Red River joined NWC (1804-1815) in charge Red River.

(II)-Wilberforce Auld, Metis son (I)-William Auld (1770-1830) and Mary Indian or Metis, epouse (I)-William Tait b-1795, Orkney;  (I)-William Auld (1770-1830) abandoned his wife and their children when he returned to Scotland 1814.

Jean Baptiste Belleau born 1798 died October 3, 1843 La Pointe, Wisconsin.

(II)-James Bird, aka Jimmy Jock, Metis, born 1798/1800  North Saskatchewan River d-1892 son (I)-James Bird (1773-1856) and Mary Kelly Indian born 1777 North West territories, listed St. Andrews, Red River census 1870.  (II)-James  1st  marriage Sarah Butts Piegan Indian b-1809 North West Territories, 2nd marriage Elizabeth b-1808,.  This could be in error as (I0-James Bird Sr arrived HBC 1788 but had children from 1781, 1783 & 1785 making his birth day closer to 1760 or we are dealing with two James Bird.

Angelick Boadwine b-1798, arrived 1833 St. Ignace wife Joseph Beaudwin, Ojibwa Metis, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Daniel Boone (1734-1819) moved to Missouri region from west Virginia where he stayed until his death.

Pierre Bonneau Metis b-1798/1803  Red River des Metis Settlement, 

Anonyme Bottineau, Metis, b-1798, Red River des Metis, died October 18, 1805, Pembina on the Red River (North Dakota), child Charles Joseph Bottineau, (1776-1824) and Techomegood. 

Charles Brisbois b-1797 Prairie du Chien (Wisconsin) died 1847 Fort Crawford (Wisconsin) son Michel Brisbois and Domitelle Gaultier de Verville who was the son of Joseph Dubois dit Brisbois a known debaucher of Indians slave girls and had many Metis offsprings; He and his uncle Henry F. Fisher departed inland to avoid the war of 1812.  He joined the NWC (1816-1821) and by 1820 was in Columbia District, joined HBC (1821-1842) Athebasca, Mackenzie and Cumberland District.  He retired to Prairie du Chien, he married Ann Metis/Indian
    Edmond Brisbois Metis
    Michel Brisbois Metis
    Edward Brisbois Metis
    Ann Brisbois Metis
    Charlott Brisbois Metis
    Adelaide Brisbois Metis
    Therese Brisbois Metis

(IV)- Jean Baptiste Jr. Cadotte (1761-1818) and his wife, Janette Piquette ( -1850), are living at Red Lake Falls (Wisconsin) with their daughters, 
    (V)-Marie Archange Cadotte (b-1797) 
    (V)- Archangle Cadotte (b-1798).  The Northwest Company did not maintain a post at Red Lake this season.  


Archangel Gornow (Gornor) aka Cadotte, Ojibwa Metis, b-1798, arrived 1806 Sault Ste Marie, married Louis Gornow (Gornor), Ojibwa Metis b-1790, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Angelick Cadotte, Ojibwa Metis, b-1798, arrived Sault Ste Marie 1816 & 1831, married 1820, Hines Cadotte, listed March 28, 1836, treaty. 

Nicholas Chastellain (Chatelain) Metis b-1798 likely Detroit joined HBC (1822-1870) assigned 1824 Lac La Pluie, (Ontario) 

Prairie du Chien, birth Charles Brisbois, Metis died 1847 son Michel Brisbois (1759-1837) and Domitelle Gauthier de Verville born 1781 Prairie du Chein.

Isaac Cadotte b-1798, living 1870 census, Drummand Island, Michigan.

Joseph Desmarais Metis b-1798 married Cecile Dumont Metis b-1800 likely North West.

(II)-William Dickson, Metis born 1798/1801 son (I)-Robert Dickson (1768-1823) from Mackinac and Helen Totowin.  He married 1st to a Ojibwa Metis and 2nd to a Yankton woman.  

Joseph Dorion was hired by la Compagnie du Nord Ouest for 'servir comme Matelot pendant trois ans', to work as a boatman.

David H. Elliott b-1798, living 1870 census, Fountain, Minnesota.

(III)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger Metis (1776-1853), son (II)-Lawrence  Edward Ermatinger (1767-1829); Charles married Charlotte Kalawabide (Kattawabide/Cattoonalute/Manacowe) who died 1880.  Charlotte was daughter Kadowaubeda (Broken Tooth or DeBreche) Ojibwa of the Sandyt Lake Village of the Ahahwauk (Loon) clan.

(II)-Charles Fidler Metis b-1798 Cumberland House son (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) and Mary Metis or Indian (1771-1826), joined HBC (1812-1819) Red River
    (III)-Peter Fidler Metis bapt 1824
    (III)-Edward Fidler Metis bapt 1826
    (III)-Elizabethr Fidler Metis bapt 1827
    (III)-Nancy Fidler Metis bapt 1828
    (III)-Thomas Fidler Metis bapt 1830
    (III)-Charles Fidler Metis bapt 1832
    (III)-Lethy Fidler Metis bapt 1834
    (III)-Alexander Fidler Metis bapt 1835
    (III)-Sophia Fidler Metis bapt 1837
    (III)-Amelia Fidler Metis bapt 1839
    (III)-Catherine Fidler Metis bapt 1840
    (III)-David Fidler Metis bapt 1843
    (III)-Emily Fidler Metis bapt 1846

(I)-John Foulds (1798-1868) married (II)-Mary Fidler, Metis, b-1805/11, Red River Settlement, daughter of (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) 

Detroit marriage Jean Baptiste Gignae and Marie Catherine Fare.

Thirey Goddin Metis (1779-1830) of Maskinonge, joined NWC (1798-1819) to work the North West, HBC (1820-1828) Columbia District, killed by the Blackfoot in 1830.

Albany District, birth (II)-Nancy Goodwin, Metis (1798-1880, daughter (I)-Robert Goodwin aka Goodwyn, (1761-1805) employed HBC 1781-1805) married about 1790 Albany District, Jenny Mistigoose d-1798 daughter Puckethwanisk: married (II)-James Hodgson, Metis B-1785: married (II0-Jacob Daniel, Metis (1792-1870)

John Gulding born 1798 North West son John Gulding, listed 1870 St. Andrews, Red River census.

Donald Gunn born 1798 Ruberts Land, census 1833 Red river.

Henry Hallett born 1798 North West, census 1838 Red River.

Francois Hoole, Metis, (1798-1885) born Red River, employed NWC (1819-1821) and HBC (1821-1885) Athabasca and Mackenzie River Districts.

(II)-Charles Houl (Houle), Metis, b-1798 Red River des Metis, a hunter, son of (I)-Houle b-1769 Europe & Elsie Indian b-1774;  married 1st Magdeleine Breland, Metis b-1800 Red River, daughter free trader Pierre Breland (1760-1829) and Louise Belly, Indian, 2nd Catherine Falardeau, Metis born 1810 Red River. 1850 census.  (Charles b-1794 & Catherine b-1820)  

(I)-John Inkster b-1798/99 Scotland married Mary Sinclair Metis b-1804/05 North West Territory.  This might be (II)-John Inkster Jr. bapt 1799

(I)-Alexander Kennedy (1781-1832) joined HBC (1798-1829) York, Swan River, Red River and (1822-1825) Columbia District and Albany
married Aggathas (Agatha and Aggatha) also Mary Isbister and sometimes Bear Indian or Metis (1782-1863)
    (II)-John Frederick Kennedy Metis b-1805 married Indian girl
        (III)-Dr. Alexander Augustus Kenndy Metis d-1859 
    (II)-Mary Kennedy Metis b-1807 married 1821 Norway House (I)-Thomas Isbister (1793-1836)
    (II)-Alexander Kennedy Metis b-1808 Moose Lake 
    (II)-Elizabeth Kennedy Metis b-1810 married Mr Finlayson b-1829
    (II)-James Kennedy Metis b-1812 d-before 1929
    (II)-William Kennedy Metis b-1814 Cumberland House married 1859 Eleanor Elizabeth Cripps d-1890
        (III)-Wille Kennedy Metis 
        (III)-Mary Louise Kennedy Metis
    (II)-George Kennedy Metis b-1816
    (II)-Philip Kennedy Metis (1818-1873) married 1838 (II)-Jessie McKenzie Metie b-1824 daughter (I)-Roderick McKenzie (1791-1830) and Indian woman
    (II)-Isabella Kennedy Metis b-1820
    (II)-Roderick Kennedy Metis (1822-1911) Cumberland House married 1847 Mary MacTavish (1817-1887) daughter John George McTavish (1778-1847) or Roderick Mackenxie and Nancy McKenzie and widow of (I)-George Ross (1808-1846) and daughter John George MacTavish; children George Ross and Mary (1817-1887) some conflicting information concerning Mary?
    (II)-John George Ross Metis
    (II)-Thomas Ross Metis

Joseph Laframboise, Metis b-1798 St. Joseph River, Michigan, died February 23, 1867 Silver Lake, Shawne, Kansas, son Francois FaFard dit LaFramboise, (1767-1830) and Shaw We No Quar Pottawatomi, Metis, b-1760.

Manuel Lisa (1772-1820) born Cuba arrived St. Louis in the late 1790's.

Kechegawnawououm b-1798, living 1870 census, Pt Aux Chene, Michigan.

Julien Laundry b-1798 married Josephte Metis b-1799 most likely North West.

Jean Baptiste LeLondu b-1798 Canada, living 1850 census Sault Ste. Marie, Wisconsin, listed as a farmer.

Toussaint Lessier b-1798 Canada married Josephte Lachevrotier Metis b-1815 Canada.

Donald McKay d-1820 is working Mattawagamingue (Mattagami) Post near Gogama, Ontario.

(II)-Alexander McKay, Metis, b-1798, Albany Factory or Brandon House, son (I)-John McKay, b-1753/1763, Scotland died July 5, 1810 and (II)-Mary Favel, Metis, b-1775, Albany, daughter (I)-John Favell Jr.d-1784 and Tittmeg aka Titameg native woman

Hector McKenzie b-1788 married Mary Bird Metis b-1800 most likely North West.

(I)-John George McTavish, a Scot (1778-1847) employed NWC (1798-1821) then employed HBC (1821-1846), a most despicable man.  Montreal (1798-1803), (1803-1806) James Bay, (1808-1809) Fort Dunvegan (Alberta), (1810-1811) Montreal, (1811-1816) Columbia District  He was a bigamist who abandoned wives and children as he lived a life of debauchery.  

1st married about (1803-1806), Fort St. Andrews, James Bay, (II)-Charlotte Thomas, Metis (1788-1843) daughter (I)-John Thomas (1751-1822) and Indian woman, they had two Metis children, John deserted them and Charlotte killed the two Metis children as a result.

2nd marriage about 1814/16, Fort Astoria aka Fort George, Columbia District (Oregon Territory) (II)-Nancy McKenzie, Metis, daughter (I)-Roderick MacKenzie (1772-1859) and Indian Woman, they had 5 children
    (II)-Mary McTavish Metis b-1817 Athabaska
    (II)-Flora McTavish Metis bapt 1822 York Factory, married (I)-Thomas Fraser (1777-1849)
    (II)-Margaret McTavish Metis bapt 1823 York Factory married Courtney Meade Walker (1804-1887)
    (II)-Ann McTavish bapt 1826 York Factory
    (II)-Grace McTavish Metis bapt 1826 York Factory
    (II)-Catherine Turner Metis d-1841, married 1830
        Elizabeth Turner Metis 
        Francois Turner Metis     
He then abandoned Nancy and children in 1830,
3rd marriage 1819/1820 Scotland, Catherine A. Turner, d-1841, they had 2 children
    (II)-Elizabeth McTavish Metis
    (II)-Frances McTavish
4th marriage March 1843, Lake of Two Mountains, Chats District, (II)- Elizabeth Cameron Metis, d-1855 the niece of Chief Factor (I)-Angus Cameron (1782/85-1876).  They had two children
    (II)-Georgia McTavish Metis
    (II)-Alexandria McTavish Metis 
The abandonment of his mixed descent wives did not hold him in good stead with his fellow fur trade officers It was a common practice among the Scots and English of early Canada to abandon wives and children when they transfer posts or to sell or assign wives to other company employees.  Women were considered as commodities by the Scots and the HBC.

 

Abraham Martin b-1798 Canada married 2nd 1825 Red River, (V)-Eupgrisine Gariepy Metis b-1815 Red River b-1825 daughter (IV)-Louis Marie Gariepy (1777-1856) and Josephte Saulteaux b-1785

Louis Martin, Ojibwa Metis, b-1798, St. Ignace, bapt 1799 Michilimackinacm brother Antoine Martin Ojibwa Metis, b-1791 St. Ignace, listed March 28, 1836 treaty wife was Sauteaux woman.

Margurite Marie Michina, a Sallshan woman born 1798, Coeur D'Alene married Canote Humpherville a French Metis canoe man who died 1841.  They had eight children, a few of whom were baptised Colville in 1839. 

Kitchi Moniawinini (Great Montreal Man or Great Canadian Man) born 1798 most likely Montreal died February 20, 1860, LaPointe, Wisconsin.

Charles Peltier, Metis b-1798 Pembina married Suzanne Bercier, Metis b-1803 Red River. 1850 census.  (Charles Pelletier b-1805 N.W.T. & Suzanne b-1801 daughter Alexis Bercier b-1771 Canada and 1st Josephte Indian b-1783 2nd Margaret, Metis b-1779.)  Genealogy First Metis Nation.

(III)-Francois Piquette born 1798/1800 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin married June 26, 1836 La Pointe, Wisconsin Louise Atikons born 1816 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin.

(I)-James Whiteway (1778-1838) Joined HBC (1798-1811) York & (1811-1823) Fort Edmonton, married twice
1st married Mary Park died before 1823
    (II)-John Whiteway Metis bapt 1823
2nd married (II)-Nancy Ann Monkman Metis daughter (I)-James Monkman (1775-1865) and Mary Swampy Cree
    (II)-James Whiteway Metis bapt 1826 married 1st  Chloe Spence d-1912 daughter Andrew Spence, 2nd Jane  
    (II)-Mary Ann Whiteway Metis bapt 1828 d-1839
    (II)-Catherine Whiteway Metis bapt 1830 (1828-1839)
    (II)-William Whiteway Metis (1829/31-1905) married Jane 
    (II)-Margaret Whiteway Metis bapt 1833 d-1835/37
    (II)-Joseph Whiteway Metis b-1830 bapt 1835 d-1810 married Elizabeth Hamelin
    (II)-Mary Whiteway Metis bapt 1837

January 11: Sorel, Augustin Peter Pond, Metis son of Peter Pond (1740-1807) is hired by the NWC and posted to Fort Chipewyan

Pierre Rivard b-1798 married Therese Metis b-1800 most likely North West.

Bonaventure St. Arnaud b-1798 Canada married Genevieve Contre Metis b-1817 most likely North West.

Martin St Mathe b-1798 North West Territories married Angelique Letenore Metis b-1805 most likely North West. 

Francis St. Peters, Metis is born about this time in Pembina Ojibwa Band, lived at Saint Joseph, applied July 17, 1868 for mixed-blood script Lake Superior and was approved.  

George Sandison born 1798 North West, census 1834 Red River. (William B-1804, David b-1805, another William b-1806).

Oxford House, birth (II)-Catherine Sinclair, Metis (1798-1881) daughter (I)-William Sinclair, Orkney (1766-1818) employed HBC (1782-1818) married Margaret Nahoway Cree or Metis; married (II)-Joseph Cook, Metis (1792-1848) son (I)-William Hemmings Cook (1766-1846) and Indian woman.

John James Smith b-1798 England 1st married Mary Indian b-1794, 2nd marriage Nancy Favel b-1816 Red River des Metis Settlement.

(I)-Thomas Stayner (1770-1827) employed HBC (1787-1801) 1798, married, 1st, Sarah Elizabeth Baylis, London, 1798 married 2nd, Churchill Factory, Ke-che-cow-e-coot, Metis alias Wee-misti-goos, Metis and Keese-cow-e-cumacoat, Metis or (II)-Betsy Cocking, Metis (1775-1835) daughter (I)-Matthew Cocking (1743-1799) and Le-lo-es-com:   They had two Metis daughters which (I)-Thomas took to London but abandoned his wife in 1801, she married 2nd 1806, (I)-John Pocok Homes (1783-1858),(I)-Thomas married 3rd wife Jan Mary Judith Le Cointe (1783-1857) and had one Son (II)-Thomas Colley Stayner b-1804.

(I)-James Taylor b-1798 Orkney married Mary Inkster Metis b-1812 North West Territories.

Mary Thomas b-1798, living 1870 census Ashton, Michigan.

John Thompson of the North West Company, while wintering on the Rogue River, abandoned his Indian wife and child, attempting to assign (or sell) his responsibilities to Demarrais.  His wife, however, refused and returned to her people.

Joseph Vandal b-1798 married Marie Charette Metis b-1805 most likely North West.

Smith Wabose b-1798, living 1870 census Bay Mills, Michigan.

St. Louis, Missouri, birth (II)-Pierre Louis Vasquez (1798-1868) son (I)-Benito Vasquez (1738-1810) and Marie Julie Papin; married 1846 Narcissa Burdette Land.

Whitehead b-1798 married Jane Indian b-1800 North West Territories.

George Landmann, born 1780, arrived from Quebec to Fort St. Joseph, on the St. Joseph Island where the Saint Mary's River flows into Lake Huron.  The following people had already established a settlement on the Island:   John Ogilvie, Robert Gillespie, David Mitchell, Jean Baptiste Pothier, Chiset, Fergot, Thomas Duggan, Guillaume La Mothe d-1799, Charles Langlade Jr., and Charles Jean Baptiste Chaboillez.  Guillaume La Mothe had previously worked Michilimackinac.

This was an excellent year for the North West Company and their published trade figures were:
        106,000 Beaver skins              32,000 Marten
          17,000 Muskrat (Musquish)     6,000 Lynx
            5,500 Fox                              4,600 Otter
            3,800 Wolf                             2,100 Bear
            1,900 Deer                             1,800 Mink
            1,600 Fisher                              700 Elk
               600 Wolverine                        500 bison (buffalo)

The cost per North West Company share averaged four thousand pounds, and dividends are four hundred pounds.  The company established a trading post at Moose Lake (1798-1799).

The Metis from Red River began mining the salt from the salt springs between Winnipegosis and Camperville, and by 1874, the annual production of salt would reach one thousand bushels per year.  It was of poor quality and brownish in color after processing.  

(I)-David Thompson (1770-1857), N.W.C., bought two slave Sioux women from the Mandan, who are later sold to other traders.  It is noteworthy that (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857), NWC, a slave trader, who was assumed to be of a higher moral standard than most British, not only condoned, but took an active part in the slave trade.   Sean Peake challenges the interpretation of this incident.  "The men Thompson paid to travel with him were free traders, men whom Thompson had neither control nor authority over."   "Their names were: Hugh McCracken, Joseph Boisseau (Thompson's servant), Alexis Vivier, Pierre Gilbert, Francois Perrault, Toussaint Vandril, Louis Joseph Houl, and Jean Baptiste Minie."

(I)-David Thompson (1770-1857), NWC, met Sheshepaskut, a Chief of the Red Lake Ojibwa who claimed to have repressed the incursion of the Dakota Sioux and driven off the Village Indians to the Missouri.  The Ojibwa are aware that (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857), NWC, had visited and traded with the Mandan, and these claims are intended to discourage competition. (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) NWC recorded the sighting of a motley group of Indian trappers half of them Iroquois.  Part of them went up the Red Deer River, and about 250 went to Fort Augustus (Edmonton, Alberta). This year a fire in May consumed eight Indians near Edmonton House, so reports (I)-William Tomison in the field (1760-1811) an Orkney, Factor for Hudson Bay Company.

York (Toronto) is described as a dreary, dismal place.  It did not possess the characteristics of a village, lacking a church, school or business establishment.

(I)-David Thompson (1770-1857), of the NWC, noted a large group of Indians engaged in the fur trade, at least half of them Iroquois from Quebec. Part of them went up the Red River and about 250 of them came up the Saskatchewan River, in company with the canoes of the Fur traders to the upper post called Fort Augustus (Edmonton, Alberta) of the North West Company.

(IV)-Michel Cadotte (1764-1837) built a permanent post at LaPointe on a spot known as the Old Fort.  He also built posts at Lac Courtoreille and posts on Wisconsin, Chippeway and the St Croix Rivers.  His Ojibwa name is Kechemeshane (Great Michel).  The Cadotte's are doing $40,000 in annual business out of Grande Portage.  Jean Baptiste Faribault reported being robbed by the Winnebagoes at Prairie du Chien.

(IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Jr., Metis, born (1761-1818), of the North West Company out of La Pointe, established a trading post at the junction of the Red Lake and Clearwaters rivers (Minnesota).  This location is now called Sportsman's Park in Red Falls.  He is with his wife Janette Piquette, Metis ( -1850), are living at Red Lake Falls (Wisconsin) with their daughters, (V)-Marie Archange Cadotte, Metis (b-1797) and (V)- Archangle Cadotte, Metis,  (b-1798).  (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857), of NWC, took shelter in that Post this year during a spring snow storm.  David Thompson (1770-1857) wrote: Mr Baptiste Cadotte was about 35 years of age, he was the son of a French gentlemen by a native woman, and married to a handsome native woman, also the daughter of a Frenchman.  He has been educated in Lower Canada and spoke fluently his language with Latin, French and English.  There is a high probability that Monsieur Garneau (Gaunaux), the stray of Ste Pierre de Montmagny, born about 1769, is working out of this Fort, as his second child, Francois Gourneau, would be born in 1800, of the Red Lake band.  It is more than coincidence that the Garneau Clans of La Point and Red Lake precede and align with the movements of the Cadotte clan.  It would appear that Monsieur Garneau (Gaunaux), the stray born about 1769, probably work for the Cadotte family, into which his son would marry.  Charles Jean Baptiste Chaboillez (1736-1808) of Red River traded with Sucre, a prominent Chippewa Chief from Red Lake.  He normally traded with the (III)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1723-1803) family at the junction of Red Lake and Clearwater Rivers, Red Lake County, Minnesota.  Others reported that the Pillager (Ojibwa) Indians, located on Leech Lake, Minnesota, are hunting and trading the Red River.  The Maskigon and Cree, who live between Lake of the Woods and Lake Winnipeg, are also hunting and trading Red River.

(I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) of the NWC wintered 1798/99 with the Metis and Indian community of Lac La Biche (Alberta).

(IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Jr (1761-1838) is fluent in Latin, French, English and Ojibwa.  About this time, Jean Baptiste Perrault (Perrot) (1761-1844) records that a John Sayer Jr. had been ordered to go to the assistance of Mr. Cadotte who is subject to allowing himself to be overcome by drink.  John Sayer Jr., a former Coureur des Bois of Fond du Lac, claimed being ill and asked his old friend, Jean Baptiste Perrault (Perrot) (1761-1844), to go in his stead, giving him a letter for Cadotte.  The letter instructed Cadotte to turn the post over to Jean Baptiste Perrault (Perrot).  It would appear that this is the beginning of a conspiracy to remove Cadotte from the North West Company.  (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte Jr. (1761-1818) remained a partner of the Company and, in 1801, still held 1/46 share.  In 1803 he would be expelled from the company for alleged drunkenness.  He basically represented the last of the Coureurs des Bois.  Desriveres is a signatory of the XY Company agreement of October 1798.

The Birth of Beverley Jefferson, son of Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), 3rd President of the United States of America, and his slave Sally Hemings, has been denied for over two hundred years, despite conclusive evidence including DNA testing.  Sally had five children:  Beverly, Harriet, Easton, Madison and another Harriet, as the first one died.  It is noteworthy that Jefferson had 187 slaves in his estate.


MISHIPESHU AGAWA

Ojibwa Rock Art This is Ojibwa rock painting, called Mishipeshu Agawa, is believed to be created about this time or earlier. The north shore, not far from Sault Ste. Marie, is covered with this art, as are a number of other locations. It would appear that they were painted from a canoe or from some suspension type system. They are best observed from a boat.

 

January 5:  Churchill, marriage (I)-Thomas Stayner (1770-1827) to Sarah Elizabeth Baylis alias (II)-Betsy Cocking (1775-1835) aka Ke-che-cow-e-com-e-coot alias Wee-misti-coos daughter (I)_Matthew Cocking (1743-1799) and Le-lo-es-com.  Two children are recorded (II)-Ann Stayner, Metis and (II)-Sarah Stayner, Metis.  He took his children back to London in 1801 but abandoned his wife who married (I)-John Pock Holmes (1783-1858)  

February 1:   Georgia:  A list of 'Old Settlers on the lands of the Frontier of Georgia are as follows: (It is not known how early they settled on these lands.)  Jesse Austin, Richard Burkaes, Moses Halcom, George Hopper, Lucas Lecroy, James McCracken, William Weatherspoons, William Wofford, Benjamin Wofford, and Nathaniel Wofford

February 3:  (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) visited McDonneil's House at the mouth of the Souris River.

February 28:  (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) charted a route between Red & Mississippi Rivers and Grand Portage.  He surveyed the rest of the Assiniboine to the Forks (Red River, Winnepeg).  He then ascended the Red to Red Lake River to Red Lake.  There he reached the house of Jean Baptiste Cadotte on March 24 where he stayed until spring break up.

March 14:   (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) of the N.W.C. arrived at the Pembina post and, on March 21 (IV)-Charles Jean Baptiste Chaboiller (Chaboillez) (1736-1808) accompanied him to Vincent Roy's NWC post, south of Pembina on the Forest River.

March 21:   Rene Jusomme and (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857), N.W.C., arrived at Cadotte's house at Red Lake Falls, saying his native woman is also the daughter of a Frenchman.  This is interesting because his wife Charlotte Small is Irish/Cree?  (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857), N.W.C., noted the location as 47-54-21.  David meets Sheshepaskut (Sugar), the principle Chief of of the Ojibwa Tribe, on the Red Lake River. 

April 9:  (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) surveyed Lake Superior, the south shore to Sault Ste Marie to Grande Portage.

May:  Fire broke out in the Fort Edmonton area, and Tomison estimated that eight Indians had burned to death within the period of the last 10 days.

July 14:  (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) went to Red River and up the Saskatchewan to cumberland House arriving August 9.

August 20:  Florissant, Missouri, marriage Joseph Montreuil to (III)-Marie Marechal, Metis, daughter (II)-Francois Marechal, Metis, born March 31, 1751 Cahokia, (Illinois) and Marie Therese Riviere. 

September 2:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Female Bourassa, Metis, born 1797, daughter and slave of D. Bourassa

October 1:   (I)-Roderick MacKenzie (1761-1844) claims sending the first Winter Express Canoe from the interior for Lake Superior this year. The canoe departed Fort Chipewean on October 1 and arrived Sault Ste Marie on May 17, 1799.

October 10:  Cumberland House, Saskatchewan, birth, (II)-Charles Fidler Sr., Metis, son of  (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822)  and Mary Swampy Cree, Indian (1771-1826); joined HBC (1812-1819) Red River District 
Married October 25, 1825 Red River, Ann Saunders Sanderson, Metis, born May 31, 1801, Hudson Bay, daughter Jake Saunders Sanderson and Isabel a Swampy Cree.  HBC records say born 1798.   October 10, 1797: Cumberland House, birth (I)-Charles Fidler Metis b-1797 North West Territories married Ann Saunders Metis b-1807 North West Territories daughter Jack Saunders Metis b-1797 North West Territories and 1st marriage unknown, 2nd marriage Sophie Indian b-1805.
Some say (II)-Charles married (1824 to1830) Mary Cree b-1811a runaway wife of (I)-James Inkster (1774-1854)
Others claimed she married Charlotte Aikinson b-1811 Red River daughter George Aikinson b-1770 and Margaret Indian/Metis
I will leave it to others to sort this out. 
HOWEVER RECORDED CHILDREN are:
    (III)-Peter Fidler Metis bapt-1824
    (III)-Edward Fidler Metis bapt-1826
    (III)-Elizabeth Fidler Metis bapt-1827
    (III)-Thomas Fidler Metis bapt-1830
    (III)-Charles Fidler Metis bapt-1832
    (III)-Lethy Fidler Metis bapt-1834
    (III)-Alexander Fidler Metis bapt-1835
    (III)-Sophia Fidler Metis bapt-1837
    (III)-Amelia Fidler Metis bapt-1839
    (III)-Caroline Catherine Fidler Metis bapt-1840, married Felix Bone (Bowen)
    (III)-David Fidler Metis bapt-1843
    (III)-Emily Fidler Metis bapt-1846


(II)-Thomas Richards d-1812 Metis employed NWC (1798-1799) is at Cumberland House, Saskatchewan in opposition to (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) 

Gordon House:  birth (II)-? Howse son (I)-Joseph Howse (Howes) (1774-1852) employee HBC (1795-1815), this might be the same as son (II)-Henery born 1797 York Factory?

 

1798 HUDSON BAY, NORTH WEST TERRITORIES

(I)-Thomas Thomas-(2) born 1781 British Islands, arrived at York Factory in 1794, defected to North West Company in 1804 and died August 2, 1868, St. Peter's Church, Red River.  He took a number of country women, one being Mienish Cree, possible second marriage Sally & third marriage about 1830 to a Jane.  (Thomas Thomas married (churched) October 8, 1834 St. John, Red River Jane an Indian both of Red River).  The third marriage could be confused with Thomas Thomas-(3).

SIX CHILDREN ARE RECORDED:

(II)-Henry Thomas, Metis, born about 1799

(II)-Richard Thomas, Metis, born 1800 Albany District of Hudson Bay Company died, July 7, 1860, Little Britain, Red River married about 1823 (II)-Eleanor Thomas born 1805.

(II)-Mary Thomas, Metis, born September 29, 1804

(II)-Eleanor Thomas, Metis,  born 1805

(II)-Simon Thomas, Metis, born 1815 North West (ID # 4679) married about 1835 Catherine Linklater.

(II)-John Thomas, Metis,  born 1819 Red River baptized August 11, 1835 and classed himself as both native and Metis, married about 1840 and 1835 baptism lists mother as Sally or (Gaily).

December 20: York Factory or Gordon House birth (II)-*son Howse, Metis, son (I)-Joseph Howse (Howes) (1774-1852)  HBC (1795-1815) and Indian Woman * might be  same as 
    (II)-Henry Howse Metis (1798-1808)

 

 

1799  

Antoine Allary, Metis, born 1799, North West Territories, son Michel Allary, b-1765 and Francoise Cree, married, about 1818 N.W., Angelique Josephte (Suzette) Caplette, Metis, born 1805 Red River des Metis Settlement, died June 24, 1883, Manitoba, daughter Joseph Caplette b-1770 Canada, d-1862 and Angelique Guiboche Metis b-1780 or (1785-1862)

(II)-Robert Auld, Metis son (I)-William Auld (1770-1830) and Mary Indian or Metis, epouse (I)-William Tait b-1795, Orkney;  (I)-William Auld (1770-1830) abandoned his wife and their children when he returned to Scotland 1814.

Jean Baptiste Beaulieu b-1799 married Margarite Saulteaux b-1805 likely North West.

Francis Bellin (Belland) is born in Minnesota, no location given.

Toussaint Berthelet aka Savoyard dit Berthelet, Savoyard, b-1780, married about 1799 in North West Marguerite Saulteux

Superior, (Wisconsin) birth Stephen Bonga, Metis died 1889 son Pierre Bonga (Mukdaweos) Negro, born 1780's and an Ojibwa woman of Lake Superior; married Susan. 

Pierre Breland, b-1760, died October 31, 1829, a free trader married 1799 N.W.T., or earlier Louise Belly.

Henry Brown b-1799 Orkney married Isabella Slater Metis b-1806 daughter James Slater b-1777 Orkney and Mary Metis b-1780 likely North West.

(IV)-Charles Chaboiller (1772-1812) became a partner of the North West Company and is assigned the Lower Red River Department.

(I)-John Charles b-1784 Westminister, London, employed HBC (1799-1843) mostly Churchill, Athabasca 1830 etc. 
married (churched?) February 2, 1835 Red River,  (II)-Jane Auld Metis b-1800, bpt 1831 IIe-a-la-Crosse died 1841; daughter (I)-William Auld  (1770-1830) and Mary Indian; nine children are recorded.
    (II)-John George Charles Jr. Metis bapt 1831, d-1849 HBC 1846-1849) Norway house and Fort Vancouver
    (II)-Margaret Charles Metis b-1815 Churchill, 
    (II)-Anne Charles Metis b-1818 Churchill
    (II)-Elizabeth Charles Metis b-1821 Churchill
    (II)-Thomas Charles Metis b-1823Indian (Split) Lake, HBC (1844-1872) Columbia District
    (II)-William Charles Metis bapt-1831 Fort Chipewyan, Athabasca, d-1903, HBC (1853-1885) Columbia District
    (II)-Catherine Charles Metis (1833-1833) Fort Chipewyan, Athabasca 
    (II)-Jane Charles Metis bpt 1838 York Factory
    (II)-Mary Charles Metis bpt 1840 

Joseph Collin married 1799 Josephte Santeuse (Chippewa) .

John Cox b-1799 Orkney married Nancy Taylor Metis b-1818 North West Territories daughter George Taylor b-1800 and Jane Prince Indian b-1808 North West Territories.

John Day of Virginia is reported as living in Missouri by this year.  Source Nick Sheedy.

Joseph Defond Metis b-1799 Red River des Metis Settlement married Josephite Gesbiens Metis b-1806 Red River des Metis Settlement.

Jean Baptiste DeJardiul born 1799 Red River des Metis son Jean Baptiste DeJardiul, listed 1870 Red River census.   (Possible DesJardin or LaJarde)

Joseph Delorne b-1799 Canada married Brigitte Villebrune Metis b-1805 daughter Louis Villebrune b-1780 Lower Canada and Marian Indian b-1785 North West Territories

Nicolas Descotteaux born 1799 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin married September 8, 1841 Maria Brebant born 1806 likely La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Jean Baptiste Desjardin Metis b-1799 Red River des Metis Settlement married Marguerite Hamelin Metis b-1819 Red River Settlement daughter Jacque Hamelin b-1771 Canada and Angelique Tourangeau b-1770

Maydeleine DuCharnie born 1799 Red River des Metis, North West daughter Pierre Ducharnie, listed census 1870.

Joseph Fagnant Metis b-1799 and Hamel b-1800 likely North West.

Thomas Forth b-1799 Scotland married Elizabeth Boucher Metis b-1800 Red River des Metis Settlement.

Baptism, Detroit, Catherine Geraud daughter Amable Gerard.

Charles Gladu Metis b-1799 married Madeleine Laurin b-1804 most likely North West.

Albany District, birth (II)-Anne Goodwin, Metis b-1797, daughter (I)-Robert Goodwin aka Goodwyn, (1761-1805) employed HBC 1781-1805) married about 1790 Albany District, Jenny Mistigoose d-1798 daughter Puckethwanisk: married (II)-James Hodgson, Metis B-1785: married (II0-Jacob Daniel, Metis (1792-1870).  She lists herself as being born in 1870 census as 1807 but her father died 1805.

(I)-George Groat b-1799 Scotland married Charlotte Spence Metis b-1809 North West Territories.

Henry Hallet Jr. Metis b-1799 North West Territories married Catherine Parenteau Metis b-1799.

John Henderson b-1799 married Mary Metis b-1804 most likely North West.

Alexander Henry the younger, Metis (1764-1814), in his expeditions of (1799-1814), noted that the natives on the interior of British Columbia had European trade goods and Russian coins.  This year he is at Whitemud River (Manitoba)   In (1799-1800) he is at Riding Mountain (Manitoba)

William Kay  b-1799, living 1870 census, Bay Mills, Michigan.

Louis Laferte b-1799 Canada married Agathe Carron Metis b-1814 Red River des Metis Settlement daughter Antoine Carron b-1784 Canada and Angelique St. Germain Metis b-1788

Jean Baptiste Lafontaine b-1799 North West Territories 1st married Marie Indian b-1800 most likely North West, 2nd marriage Madeleine Morin Metis b-1800 most likely North West.

Jean Baptiste Lafontaine b-1799 Red River des Metis Settlement 1st married Louise Gervais Metis b-1847 most likely North West daughter Basile Gervais Metis b-1821 and Francoise Leddoux Metis b-1824 Red River Settlement, 2nd marriage Clemence Bauvier Metis b-1851 Red River Settlement.

Bonaventure Leger dit Parisien married 1799 Isabelle Sauteuse (Chippewa).

Manuel Lisa (1772-1826) a Spaniard of New Orleans relocated himself to St. Louis being given a land grant.  St. Louis and New Orleans at this time was part of New Spain.

(I)-Allen McDonnell (1778-1859) employed XYCo. (1799-1804) Red River; NWC (1804-1821) Red River assigned Carlton House (1819-1820); HBC (1821-1841); retired 1843 to Montreal with his native wife.  His brother is Hon. (I)-John McDonell, of Detroit who married Margaret a native woman bapt 1833.  Allens children are:
    (II)-Allen McDonell Metis
    (II)-Alexander McDonnel Metis joined HBC 1826, married a daughter John McKay and had 2 Metis children
    (II)-Sophia McDonell Metis (1811-1835) married 1834 John Livingston (1808-1847)
    (II)-Margaret McDonell Metis (1825-1835) 
    (II)-T. Jones McDonell Metis
    (II)-John McDonell Metis in prison 1852 and his father arranged passage to Australia
    (II)-Angus C. McDonell Metis
    (II)-Allen McDonell Metis 
Mother and two Metis daughters at Red River 1836
    (II)-Marie Cecile (Cescil) McDonell Metis  churched 1837 Mattawa, formal married Pierre Narcisse Lorion aka Dorion, they had two kids by 1837 source Karole Dumont 

(I)-Donald MacKay (1753-1833) aka Mad MacKay was rejected passage to England in 1798 but finally was allowed passage this year after causing havoc at York Factory.

(II)-Charles McKay, Metis, b-1799, Albany Factory or Osnaburgh, son (I)-John McKay, b-1753/1763, Scotland died July 5, 1810 and (II)-Mary Favel, Metis, b-1775, Albany, daughter (I)-John Favell Jr.d-1784 and Tittmeg aka Titameg native woman

(II)-Alexander MacKenzie (1763-1820) quit the North West Company and joined the XY Company and he basically retired to  Scotland this year.

(II)-Duncan McGillivray, Metis, (1770-1808) son (I)-William McGillivray and Susan Indian, is placed in charge of Fort Rocky Mountain (House).  

John McKey said that the Tinpots (Tinnawabino) Ojibwa gang and Cranes Ojibwa gang are real brothers, and their lands are the same.  One problem with the use of terms like tribe, gang, group and band is that they do not necessarily relate to a matrilineal totem.  Any group could include the clan of Eagle, Sucker, Crane, Sturgeon, Deer, Loon, Moose, Pelican, or Fisher as example; for they considered all as brothers.   Some suggest it was about this time that the Ojibwa began to shift from a matriarchal society to a European patriarchal society because of the continual pressure of the English and French traders.

John McLeod Metis b-1799 Red River des Metis Settlement married Elizabeth Swain Metis b-1820 bapt 1827 Red River Settlement daughter (I)-James Swain Sr. b-1775 and native wife.

Jean Baptiste Morin Metis b-1799 married Francoise Bonneau Metis b-1801 most likely North West.

Agatha Okabegijigokwe (Landing Place Woman) born 1799 most likely Lake Superior died December 5, 1859 La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Pierre Pelletier, b-1799 N.W. died August 13, 1849, Pembina, son Antoine Pelletier and Marguerite Native; married 1821, Agathe Azure, Metis, b-1806, daughter Joseph Azure, b-1769, Sorel, Quebec and Lizette Ma-na-e-cha, b-1775. 

(VI) Joseph Robidoux (1784-1868) of St. Louis, Missouri is going up the Missouri River, he is the son of (V)-Joseph Robidou (1750-1860) and Catherine Rolet, he married August 13, 1814, St. Louis Angelique Vaudry.  This could be a confusion between father and son?

Jean Baptiste Rousseau (1758-1812), a Metis son of a French fur trader and Indian interpreter, is trading the north shore of Lake Ontario. 

William Saunders b-1799 married Flora Hope Indian b-1820 North West Territories.

Toussaint Savoyard dir Berthelet married 1799, NWT, Marguerite Sauteuse (Chippewa)

(II)-James Swain Metis b-1799/1800 bapt 1823 Red River des Metis Settlement son (I)-James Swain Sr. b-1775 and Indian girl; married Marguerite Racette Metis b-1810 Red River Settlement.

Margaret Terdiff, Cree Metis, b-1799, arrived 1822 Sault Ste Marie, wife Pierre Terdiff, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected as a Cree. 

Don Francois Valle, the Spanish Commandant of St. Genevieve in Upper Louisana made it know he would grant permission to any settlers.  The population taken this year numbered 949 persons.

Joseph Valley, Metis of the Pembina Ojibwa Band, applied February 13, 1869 Lake Superior Script, rejected, received script 1954 La Pointe script, now living Chippewa Station, Minnesota.   

Tousaint Vandry Metis b-1799 Red River des Metis Settlement marriage Marie Crebassa Metis b-1812 Red River des Metis Settlement.

John Sayer Jr. replaces Joseph Duchene La Prairie or Mushkedewinn (Prairie Man), of the Folle Avoine Department for the John Sayer Sr. and Company, with Joseph Reaume.  Others suggest Joseph Reaume was placed in charge of the Northwest Company Folle Avoine Department from 1799 to 1804.

It is noteworthy that the Hudson Bay Company still only had 498 men in North America, whereas the North West Company had 1,276.  The H.B.C. had 180 on the Hudson Bay and the N.W.C. had 903 at Grand Portage.

Norway House at the north end of Lake Winnipeg is believed to be established after 1799.

Spring:  (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857), N.W.C., stopped at Isle Las Crosse (Saskatchewan) and married (II)-Charlotte Small, a Metis, b-1785, daughter of Free trader, (I)-Patrick Small, and a Cree woman, Patrick, an Irishman, had abandon his family returning to England.  Thompson married and were inseparable for the next 58-60 years. Some suggest the marriage took place in 1798 

(I)- David Thompson (1770-1857) of the N.W.C. essentially completed his assignment of mapping the upper Red River valley, the Mandan villages on the Missouri River, the sources of the Mississippi River, the Fond du Lac and the Rainy River regions west of Lake Superior.  He was assigned a trader position for the next 7 years but continued to survey as time permitted.  During this period, he completely mapped the fur trading territories east of the Rocky Mountains.  In 1806 he would commence the survey of lands west of the Rocky Mountains.

The HBC is claimed to build Action House, commanded by James Bird Sr., in clear sight of the N.W.C.'s Rocky Mountain House. 

The Grand Conclave at Grand Portage saw the resignation, from the North West Company, of  (II)-Alexander Mackenzie (1763-1820).  He is frustrated with the authoritarian style of (I)-Simon McTavish (1750-1804).  (II)-Alexander Mackenzie (1763-1820) had the confidence of the Nor'wester, but the company is now in the hands of (I)-Simon McTavish (1750-1804) and (I)-Joseph Frobisher (1740-1810).  Some believed that this is the beginning of the decline and fall of the company.  (I)-Simon McTavish (1750-1804) had grossly underestimated the importance of maintaining confidence with the Nor'wester, as they represented the real company.  To add to their problems, the Americans discovered that Grand Portage was on American soil and started charging tariff on all goods passing through their territory.  A road is being built between York and Kingston.

(I)-Simon McTavish (1750-1804) and (I)-Joseph Frobisher's (1740-1810) decision to build a canal at Sault Ste Marie on the American side was to eliminate the portage.  The 'XY' Company challenged the rights of the North West Company to charge toll for use of this American canal.  The American Government resolved the issue by Act of Congress, making Sault Ste Marie a port of entry; thereby ensuring their control over the canal.  The North West Company employed a William Munro this season for 120 pounds' wages for working the upper Red River. (II)-Alexander Mackenzie (1763-1820) joined the 'XY' Company in November.

Napoleon Bonaparte made himself the Dictator of France, and George Washington died this year.

Family tradition and some historians suggest that Monsieur Garneau (Gaunaux), the stray of Ste Pierre de Montmagny, born about 1769, had acquired a country wife from the Ojibwa.  They say he had sent her to Quebec for some religious education and to learn the language, before he married her.  (II)-James Brady  contends that he ransomed a Sioux captive from the Ojibwa, and sent her to Quebec for religious education, then marriage.  The records indicate that two related clans of Garneau exist in the west.  One group is at Red Lake, Pembina & Red River, and the other are at Grand Pointe & Sault Ste. Marie.  There are also a few unexplained strays at Sault Ste Marie and Red River.  The La Pointe wife of Monsieur Garneau (Gaunaux), the stray of Ste Pierre de Montmagny, born about 1769 (See Gaunaux So-Way-Guay), could not read or write.  Additional research may resolve some of these soft traditions and assumptions.

(I)-David Thompson (1770-1857), N.W.C.,  and (II)-Duncan McGillivray, Metis (1770-1808), brother to (II)-William McGillivray, Metis, (1764-1825), sons (I)-William McGillivray and Susan Indian, and nephew to (I)-Simon McTavish (1750-1804),  traveled the Bow River beyond Calgary.  (I)-Roderick MacKenzie (1761-1844) made a trip from Rainy Lake to Fort Chipewyan in one month and four days, using a light canoe with six men.  The Canadian, Rene Jusseaume, a long time resident among the Mandan of Missouri River, traded on a regular bases to the North West or Hudson Bay Posts, searching for the best trade.

Four or five families of Ottawa (Ojibwa) from Canada have settled about six miles up the Dead River from its junction with the Red River raising corn, potatoes and other farm produce.

Seventy eight percentage of the Hudson Bay Company are from the Orkney Islands, Scotland (according to overseas payroll 416 of 530 servants).  Unknown to these people, they carried a Caucasian disease called multiple sclerosis into the Prairies.  MS is believed to be a Scandinavian disease, carried by the Viking to the Orkney and Shetland Islands, then on to Canada. These Scottish Orkney had Pict ancestry for 2,000 years and Viking ancestry for 1,200 years.  It is noteworthy that no trees grow on the Orkney Islands and have not existed since 1,000 A.D.   The Commandant of Fort Churchill wrote:  If a man can write his name and knows ten words of the Indian dialect, we will put him to trading with the Indians whom he has no idea how to soothe or to intimidate like those Canadians.

The Northwest Company established their third post at Red Lake. It lasted from 1799 to 1801.

John McKay of Osnaburgh House on Lake St. Joseph reported that he invited the North West Company men to celebrate Christmas at the expense of the Hudson Bay Company.  McKay remarked that two HBC men could eat 28 rabbits per week, along with 8 lbs of pork, 12 lbs flour and sometimes 40 rabbits.  I thought 2 rabbits a day was enough for any man but now I find that 4 is too little.

Not a single Hudson Bay employee, during the eighteenth century asked to remain on Hudson Bay following his retirement from the services.  These Bay men did not consider Canada their home.  This is not entirely true, as some asked but were rejected and quit the company to join the Canadians.

(I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822)  is unable to persuade any Indian around Bolsover House at Meadow Lake to guide him to Lac La Biche because all the Indians in this quarter are frightened of the Bungees (Ojibwa) there.  The Ojibwa are trading medicines from Lake Superior to the Cree and Assiniboine.

John Sayer and Jean Baptiste Cadotte are on the Mississippi.

Dunbar Douglas of Selkirk died this year, making his son ,Thomas Douglas (1771-1820), next in line for the title of Earl of Selkirk.  

The Father of Cuthbert Grant (1793-1854) died at Grand Portage, possibly Robert Grant of Grant House.  He had acquired  considerable wealth, leaving ample provisions for his children.  (II)-William McGillivray, Metis (1764-1825) is executor and sends Cuthbert to Montreal and then Scotland for his education. 

Philadelpha has ceased to be the capital of the United States of America.

The derogatory term "half-breed" was used almost exclusively by the Dpominion Government of Canada throughout the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century.

The Hudson Bay Company, this past century, purchased Hospital Boys, those orphaned or poor, some as young as fourteen years old, to be indentured as slaves for seven years into the service of the fur trade.  Many child slaves were sent without their parents permission.  English children were considered as chattel well into the twentieth century.  This practice was being employed as far back as 1680.  

Blue Coat Boys: Charles Coats, Henry Conway, Josiah Gosling and William Wheelehouse.  Assigned to sea duty.

Gray Coat Boys: Henry Hanwell, Charles Marchant, William Charles Payne and Thomas Ramsey.  Assigned to sea duty.

Christ's Hospital: William Dolbey, George Halstead, Samuel Hopkins and Mathew Vicary.  Assigned to land duty.

Gray Coat Hospital: (I)-George Charles, (I)-John Charles, (I)-George Donald, (I)-Joseph Hansom, (I)-John Hodgson, (I)-George Hudson, and (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) .  Assigned to land duty.

The HBC fort on the Red River was likely established in 1799, at the mouth of the Assiniboine River on the north side, of the Red River and was called The Forks by the local population.  Fort Garry was not built until 1835-36 by Christe of the HBC.  Fort Douglas was erected in 1812 by Miles McDonnell, in charge of the first Selkirk settlers, who arrived by way of Hudson Bay.  It was located on the banks of the Red River on the north side of a coulee which entered the river. 

January 28:   Michilimackinac, marriage Andre Lachaine to Susanne J. Irebour.

February 14:  Birth (II)-James Swain, Metis, son (I)-James Swain b-1775 and Native Woman; married 1824, Margaret Racette, Metis, b-1809, Lake Winnipeg daughter Charles Racette, b-1766 and Josette or Francoise Sauteuse (Chippewa). 

May 16:   Michilimackinac, marriage Charles Maillet to Isabelle McDonald.

June:   An Indian arrived from Lac Seul and informed John MacKay of Osnaburgh that the Canadian's had robbed all his relations and stabbed his old brother. 

June 20:   Detroit, birth (V)-Julia Dagneau de Quindre died January 16, 1835 Detroit daughter (IV)-Antoine Dagneau de Quindre seur De Pontchartrain (1751-1814) and Catherine Desrivieres Lamorandiere Trottier (1757-1817); married August 21, 1822 Detroit Charles Moran.

July 10:   baptism at Michimac a (V)-Michel Cadot born September 6, 1787, died 1856 and (V)-Marguerite Cadot born December 15, 1788, died 1858 children of (IV)-Michel Cadot (1764-1837) and a Sauteux woman Marie Madeline.

July 22:   Michilimackinac, marriage Pierre Lacroix son Pierre Lacroix and Therese LaFrance of Quebec; married to Marie McGulpin Metis daughter Patrick McGulpin and Magdelaine Crequi.

June 30:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Jean Baptiste Desfonts Metis son Desfonts and Minanaconaton an Outawas Woman named Minanaconation.

July 7:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Josette Laframboise, Metis born September 24, 1795, bapt 1799 Michilimackinac, daughter, Joseph LaFramboise and Madelain of the Courtes Oreilles, likely the brother Alexander Laframboise.

July 7:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Margueritel Laframboise, born November 8, 1797 daughter Alexander Laframboise and Josette (Josephe) Adhema (Adhemar).

July 8:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Josette L'Agace, Metis, born 1794, daughter Joachim L'Agace and Elizabeth of Courte Oreille.

July:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Henri Solomon, Metis, born October 23, 1797, son Guillaumw Soloman and Agibicocona of the Sauteux Nation.

July 8:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Marie Louise Solomon Metis born April 7, 1799 daughter Guillaume Solomon and Agibicocona of the Sauteux Nation.

July 9:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Marie Judith Bourassa, born October 10, 1790, daughter Daniel Bourassa and Margarite Bertrand.   

July 9:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Joseph Vailancourt, born August 27, 1797 son Joseph Vailancourt and Marie Elizabeth Bourgouin.

July 9:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Nicolas Frereau born August 20, 1798 son Nicolas Frereau and Josette Poitras.

July 9:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Leon Bourassa, born October 9, 1798, son Daniel Bourassa and Marguerite Bertrain.

July 9:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Jean Baptiste Vaillancourt born December 17, 1798, son Joseph Vaillancourt and Marie Elizabeth Bourgouin.

July 9:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Marie Louise born 1797 daughter unknown and Manitown a Savage of the Sauteux Nation.

July 10:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Michel Cadot, Metis, born September 6, 1787, son Michel Cadot, Metis, and Savage Sauteeux Woman.

July 10:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Marguerite Cadot, Metis, born December 15 1788, son Michel Cadot, Metis, and Savage Sauteeux Woman.

July 14:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Louis Martin, Metis, born December 29, 1798, son Antoine Martian, Metis, and Kinicona Sauteaux Woman.

July 26:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Alexis Solomon, Metis, born May 23, 1797, Samuel Solomon and Marie of the Sauteux Nation.  

July 26:  Mitchilimackinac, baptism, Joseph Le Vasseur, Metis, born August 8, 1797, son Jacques Le Vasseur and Madelaine of the Courte Oreille Nation.  Jacques and Madeleine married August 5, 1799.

July 20:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Henry McFulpin (McGulpin), Metis born June 10, 1797, son Patrice McGulpin and Madeline Creque.

July 28:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Elizabeth McGulpin Metis born February 12, 1798, daughter Patrice McGulpin and Madeline Creque.

July 28:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Giles McGulpin Metis born April 7, 1799, son Patrice McGulpin and Madeline Creque.

August 1:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Catherine Bourassa, Metis born May 1792 a slave of Danie Bourassa and Louise.

August 3  Michilimackinac, baptism, Josette Charlebois, born November 18, 1797, son Andre Charlebois and Josette Ammelain. 

Robert Shore Milnes lieutenant-governor Canada to August 4, 1805. 

August 5:   Michilimackinac, marriage Jacques Vasseur son Jacques Vasseur and Madelaine Vasseur of Montreal; married Madeline unknown. 

August 5:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Madeliene of the Outawas Nation born 1769.  Possible wife 1789 Jacques Vasseur

August 11:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Marie Taillefer, Metis, born April 15, 1787 bapt 1799 Michilimackinac son Joseph Railefer and the late Louise of the Sauteux Nation.

August 11:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Louise Taillefer, Metis, born April 17, 1790 and Joseph Railfer the late Louise of the Sauteux Nation.

August 15:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Jacques Vasseur (Vasseuer), Metis born January 8, 1799 son Jacques Vasseur and Madeleine Ouiouiskins an Outawa Woman, from Corte Orille.

August 15:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Louis Vasseur (Vasseuer), Metis born June 15, 1790 bapt 1799 Michilimackinac son Jacques Vasseur and Madeleine Ouiouiskins an Outawa Woman, from Corte Orille.

August 15:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Genevieve Vasseur (Vasseuer), Metis born July 2, 1792 daughter Jacques Vasseur and Madeleine Ouiouiskins an Outawa Woman, from Corte Orille; married Joseph St. Onge dit Letard          .

August 18:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Jean Baptiste Agacouchin, born 1789 son Charles Agacouchin of the Potowatowmis Nation and Marguerite of the Outawas Nation.

August 18:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Marie Anne La Saliere, Metis, born 1790 daughter Pierre LaSaliere and Therese og the Outawas Nation.

August 18:  Michilimackinac, baptism, Louis Joseph son Louis of the Potowatowmis Nation and Margaeurite of the Outawas Nation.

August 20:   (II)-Thomas McMurry, Jr. Metis, (1776-1849) son (I)-Thomas McMurray Sr. d-1795 and  Jane Izenhoult, most  likely Indian or Metis died June 10, 1781, widow Tobias; is recorded at Point au Foutre on his way to Red River.  The family were long time traders at Michilimackinac.  (II)-Thomas McMurry, Jr. was employed NWC (1799-1804) and then NWC (1804-1821)

September 18:  Marques de Casa Calvo, Sebastian Calvo de la Peurta b- 1751 is appointed interm commander of Louisiana to be followed by Juan Manuel de Sacedo in June next year.

September 23:  Michilimackinac, baptism Antoine of the Mandanes Nation, born 1779 in the service of Charles Langlade.

December 20:  Thomas McMurray passed Point au Foutre (Ontario) bound for Red River, he was recorded at Fort Dauphin (1803-1804) working for XY Company. NWC (1804-1821) HBC (1820-1841) working Lake Superior, Red River to Ile-a-la Crosse. Son Thomas McMurray d-1795 and his second wife Jane Isenhoult d-1781,epouse 1772 Tobias married Jane Cardinalle daughter Joachim Cardinalle
    Dougald McMurray Metis
    John Alexander residing 1824 Terrebonne, Quebec
    Samuel McMurry Metis
    Thomas Patrick McMurry Metis
    William McMurry Metis (1820-1877) married Anne Ballender d-1862, 2nd married 1868 Athabasca  Harriet Inkster
    Mary McMurry Metis married John Matheson
    Jane McMurry Metis married Cuthbridge Cumming

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