METIS CULTURE 1803-1804



The French sell what they don't own: the Louisiana Territory.
"The Indians are what they claim to be in their actions.
The English and French are not what they profess to be;
Christians and Civilized." Jameson 1838


  10/01/2012

 
METIS HISTORY 1805-1808

METIS HISTORY Return to METIS 1800-1849 index

METIS HISTORY Return to MAIN METIS index

DIRECTORY Return to MAIN HISTORY index

 



The Englishmen and Scotchmen began their relentless campaign to dominate the Metis.
Metis partners and clerks are systemically replaced with English or Scottish personnel.
The British would continue this relentless practice into the mid twentieth century.


1803  

Thomeson Audinson, Metis b-1803 Red River des Metis married to Leathine Metis b-1802 Red River des Metis living Lakeland eastern Alberta 1891. 

Jean Baptiste Auger Metis joined NWC (1803-1821) HBC (1821-1845) York Factory & Lac La Plue (Fort Frances)  a guide,  interpreter and Canoe builder.

William Barney, b-1803, married 1849 Sault Ste Marie, Julia C. Lefleur (Lafleur), children include John b-1850, Peter b-1851, Mary b-1854, & William

Charles Belgarde, Metis b-1803 Red River des Metis, a hunter, married Susan Brien b-1823 Red River.  

Pierre Bonneau, Metis, born March 22, 1803, Oak Lake, N.W.T. (Manitoba) son Jean Baptiste Bonneau, b-1752, died May 26, 1842 St, Francois Xavier, Red River and Louise Native, b-1760; married (V)-Louise Gariepy, Metis, daughter (IV)-Louis Gariepy b-1777 Josephte Saulteaux a Chippewa Native, b-1785, likely North West.

Alexander Breland, b-1803 N.W.T., d-1858 son Pierre Breland, (1760-1829) a free trader and Louise Belly; married (II)-Emilie Wells, Metis, b-1810 N.W.T. daughter (I)-John Wells, b-1788 England and Josephate Grant, Metis b-1785.

(IV)-Augustin Brisbois son (III)-Ambroise Brisebois and (II)-Marie Anne Legaut (1718-1769) , married January 9, 1769 Lachine, Quebec (V)-Rose Couillard daughter (IV)-Pierre Couillard; believed to be with Alexander Henry (1803-1808), in 1816 he was a guide and was captured at Fort William, in 1821 was working Inland posts, joined HBC and in 1825 took an express to Montreal but returned to Red River (1830-1836).  He retired 1836 and claimed he was age 67 (born 1769). 

(I)-John Calder Surgeon joined HBC (1803-1811) York Factory married Native Woman 1806 York Factory
    (II)-Horatio Nelson Calder Metis b-1807, bapt 1824, died 1885,  married 1830 Nancy Rein
    (II)-Harriett Calder Metis, bapt 1825 married 1824 Henry Bird
    (II)-Elizabeth Calder Metis bapt 1825 married 1825 Kenneth MacDonald
        Alexander MacDonald Metis b-1826
        Donald MacDonald Metis b-1829
        Mary MacDonald Metis b-1831
        John MacDonald Metis b-1833
        Harriet MacDonald Metis b-1835
    Or married 1829 James Sutherland
        Anne Sutherland Metis b-1832
        William Richard Sutherland Metis b-1833
        John Sutherland Metis b-1835
        

Toussaint Charbonneau, (1767-1843) is at Fort Pembina.

Chorette was the X Y trader at Lac du Flambeau

William Connolly (Connoly) born 1787, Quebec, died 1849 at Rat River House in the Athabasca Others suggest died 1848, Montreal 1st married Susanne a cree woman born Churchill died 1862 St. Boniface, Red River.  They had three children:  John, Amelia (b-1812) and William.  Some suggest this marriage was a life long marriage commitment according to the Country tradition, but in (1831)1832, he sent his wife and children back to Red River in order to marry Julia Woolrich of Montreal.

(II)-Joseph Cook Metis (1788/93-1848) son (I)-William Hemming Cook (1766-1846) and unnamed Indian girl d-1821.  Joined HBC (1803-1824) inland, (1815-1816) Athabasca, married (II)-Catherine Sinclair (1798-1881) daughter (I)-William Sinclair (1766-1846) and Margaret [Nahoway], Cree or part-Cree Metis
All dates are baptised dates;
    (III)-William Cook Metis bapt-1824
    (III)-Sally (Sarah) Cook Metis bapt-1824 
    (III)-Henry Cook Metis bapt-1824
    (III)-Elizabeth Cook Metis-bapt 1824
    (III)-Mary Cook Metis bapt-1824
    (III)-Caroline Cook Metis bapt-1826
    (III)-Thomas Cook Metis bapt-1828
    (III)-Joseph Cook Metis bapt-1829
    (III)-Philip Cook Metis bapt-1831
    (III)-John Cook Metis bapt-1833
    (III)-Catherine Cook Metis bapt-1835
    (III)-James Cook Metis bapt-1836
    (III)-Mathew Cook Metis bapt-1839
    (III)-Edward Cook Metis bapt-1841

Marie Crebassa born 1803 USA daughter John Crebassa, living St. Boniface, Red River 1870.

(I)-John Davis d-1824 Joined HBC (1803-1824) South River, Lac Seul, Rupert's River, married Nancy (Ann) Metis/Indian (1789-1849), 
    (II)-Matilda Davis Metis returned to London 1822/23
    (II)-Elizabeth Davis Metis returned to London 1822/23

Bazil (Basile) Delorme, Metis b-1803 Pembina, Red River, a hunter, married Marguritte McGillis, Metis b-1802/07 Red River des Metis.

Red River des Metis Settlement, birth, Antoine Desjardins, Metis, son Jean Baptiste Desjardins Sr., and Josette Laserpente; married Isabelle Lambert.

Jean Baptiste Desmarais married 1803 Josephte Sauteuse (Chippewa).

Michel Deup (Ducept), Metis,  b-1803 Red River des Metis, a hunter, married about 1829 , wife not listed but married to1844, and living Red River, 1850 census.

Suzanne DuCharme born 1803 Red River Settlement daughter Pierre DuCharme.

Benjamin Gervais born 1786 Riviere du Loop arrived the Metis Red River des Metis Settlement this year with several Canadian families.  He however did not farm until 1812 deciding trading is more lucrative.  He would not marry until 1823. 

New Brunswick House, Moose District, birth (II)-Elizabeth Gladman, Metis (1803-1825) daughter  (I)-George Gladman (1765-1821) and Mary More (Moar) an Indian woman from Moose Factory (1774-1858), educated at Albany School.

Marguerite Grant, Metis, b-1790?(not possible)/likely 1803-1805, died 1880 St. Eustake, Manitoba, daughter Peter Grant, b-1764 and Margaret Ahdiksongab aka Marthe Ckear Sky; married Collin Robertson.

Marie Archange Grignon born April 1803 is baptized July 14, 1804 Michilimackinac daughter Francois Grignon and Marie Angelique Gravelle.

Charles Grignon, of Green Bay, at this time clerk for the X Y Company at Fond du Lac post Lake Superior district; later he entered the North West Company, returning home after the War of 1812-15

(I)-Hamelette Henry Hawthorn b-1782 London, employed HBC (1803-1812) Eastman, married Elizabeth Bolland Metis daughter (I)-William Bolland (1757-1804) and Elizabeth Penchequay Indian woman bapt 1810; he took surviving daughter back to London. 
    (II)-Mary Hawthorn Metis b-1807
    (II)-Elizabeth Hawthorn Metis (1810-1810)

Alexander Henry the younger, (1764-1814) of NWC led a brigade to Kaministiquia (Thunder Bay, Ontario) aka Fort William

Jacques Herman married 1803 Louise Saulteuse (Chippewa).

Michael Jeaudrau Jr., Ottawa Metis, b-1803 Mackinac, son Michael Jeandrau Sr. and Indian woman of L'Arbre Croche, listed March 29, 1836 treaty.

Elizabeth Johnson, Ojibwa Metis, b-1803 Sault Ste Marie daughter of brother of George Johnson and Susan Johnson, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Seraphinus (Seraphin) Lacombre (Lacombe) born March 13, 1803, died December 31, 1840 La Pointe, Wisconsin. Headstone reads "This stone is erected to his memory by his friends as a mark of respect and esteem."

Red River des Metis, birth Elisabeth Lagemoniere, Metis, b-1803 daughter Jean Baptiste Lagemoniere, a bigamist, born December 26, 1778, died September 7, 1855, married 1st Josephte Indian and  married 1806 Maskinouge, Marie Anne Gaboury, born August 15, 1780, Quebec, died December, 1875 daughter Joseph Gaboury and unknown.  Possible (IV)-Joseph Gaboury b-1735 and his second wife Genevieve Toupin, veuve de Nicolas QAmiot-Villneuve.   Marie Anne Gaboury claimed to have the first European child born in Red River and Fort Edmonton but it is likely she was a Metis.  Elisabeth married George Sanderson, Metis, b-1790 son James Sanderson and Elizabeth a Native.

Charles La Marche in 1804 is in the Lake Winnipeg district (Red River); and in 1810 one of the same name was with Henry and company on the Saskatchewan;

Pierre Larocoue, Metis, Jr. b-1802/03, died 1837 son  Pierre (Joseph Felix)  Larocque, Metis Sr. b-1786/87, Canada and Marguerite, Metis; married Suzanne Short, b-1809, died 1861 Red River.  This might be a different set of Pierre's as death date of Jr. is troublesome

Madeleine Lemire, Metis, b-1803 Red River des Metis, married to Francois Fagnant, Metis b-1796 Red River des Metis.

Manuel Lisa (1772-1826) a Spaniard outfitted the Lewis and Clarke Expedition.

John McBean likely Metis had for some years been in the fur trade.  Acting at this time 1803 for the X Y Company, upon the union in 1804 he was rated as clerk and interpreter for the North West Company.  In 1811-12 he was active in opposition to the Hudson's Bay Company in the Pic department

Anawiseum (Annawiskum) (Wiscum) McDonald Metis b-1803 York Factory, son of McDonald and Muskegon, joined HBC (1826-1842) Columbia District settled Cowlitz. 

Red River des Metis Settlement, marriage, Angus McGillis (1774-1842) son Donald McGillis and Mary McDonell Lindry; married country style and churched St. Boniface 1830, Margaret Notinikaban (Vent de Bout).

William McIntosh (1784-1842) is located at Lesser Slave Lake, likely brother (I?)-Donald McIntosh b-1773 .


(II)-John (Jack) McIntosh Metis (1803-1844) born Lake Superior son (I)-Donald McIntosh (1773-1845) and Chippawa girl;  joined HBC (1821-1844) worked Lake Superior (1821-1831) working (1837-1844) Columbia District.  John McIntosh had two wives or more and five recorded children. 
He married Charlotte Robertson b-1810 and together they had 
    (III)-Archibald McIntosh Metis b-1834 HBC (1846-1853) Columbia District
    (III)-Catherine McIntosh Metis b-1831, possibly from a different woman?
    (III)-Donald  McIntosh Metis b-1836, likely from a different woman?
    (III)-John McIntosh Jr. Metis (1839-1860) joined HBC (1853-1860) Oregon territory
    (III)-James [Jacobus] McIntosh Metis b-1843/1845
With Nancy Mestdzey Porteuse, Carrier, they had 
    (III)-Mary McIntosh Metis b-1843

(I)-Charles McKenzie (MacKenzie) (1778-1855) joined NWC (1803-1806) Red River (1807-1821) Lac Seul, Monontague HBC (1821-1822) Saskatchewan, (1822-1852) Lac Seul, Albany.  Married 1824 Mary MacKey Metis retired Red River
    (II)-Hector Aeneas McKenzie Metis (1816-1889) married 1866 Jane Cameron b-1845 daughter Allen Cameron 
    (II)-Catherine McKenzie Metis
    (II)-Margaret McKenzie Metis married 1866 a McDonald 
    (II)-Chas McKenzie Metis
    (II)-Masson McKenzie Metis

(II)-Thomas McMurray, Jr. Metis, (1776-1849) of NWC is posted Fort Dauphin.(Manitoba)

Charles Martin, Ojibwa Metis, b-1803 St. Ignace, brother to Antoine Martin b-1791 Ojibwa Metis & Louis Martin b-1798 Ojibwa Metis, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Marie Anne Martin, Metis, b-1803, daughter Joseph Martin and Saulteuse woman; married February 18, 1833, Red River, Louis Landry, Metis, b-1795 son Julien Landry and Josephte Montagnaise.

William Mitchell, Ojibwa Metis b-1803 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  He lives in Mickinac.  Went to Green Bay on business last fall (1835) and returned this spring (1836).  Put on this list at the request of a council of chiefs.

(II)-John C. Moar Metis b-1803 Nemiskan Lake son (I)-Andrew Moar (1764-1767) and Indian/Metis woman, joined HBC (1818-1860) Eastman & Rupert's River, married Nancy Thomas 
    (III)-John Moar Metis apprentice 1847 Albany River District, married 1859, Lac Seul, Matilda Morriseau daughter Antoine Morriseau and Mary Danel
 

Josette Morris, Ojibwa Metis b-1803 Sault Ste Marie wife of Nicolas Morris, Pawnee Metis, b-1802 Sault Ste Marie son Morris and Pawnee Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Nicolas was rejected as father is white and mother is Pawnee but Josette accepted as parents were Ojibwa Indian and Ojibwa Metis.

George Nelson was a clerk in the X Y Company and after the coalition was employed in that capacity at Lake Winnipeg (Red River).  In 1804-05 he was with Alexander Henry in the NWC Red River department

Daniel Paladien, Ojibwa Metis, b-1803, arrived 1833 Mackinac, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.  Rejected lived in Green Bay till June 1836. 

Joseph Robidoux (1783-1868) of St. Louis, Missouri is at Fort Dearborn (Chicago, Illinois).

Charlotte Rocheblave Metis is baptized July 14 at Mackinac daughter Noel Rocheblave aka Porlier and Nigans Ottawa. Moel is the son of Philippe Francois Rocheblave and he married April 11, 1763 Marie Michelle Dufresne at Kaskaskia, Illinois. Noel died December 10, 1805.

John Charles Sayer Jr. moves to the Folle Avoine Department to curb the generosity of Joseph Duchene La Prairie or Mushkedewinn (Prairie Man) and Joseph Reaume.

Thomas Shaw, Ojibwa Metis, b-1803 Sault Ste Marie son of a near relative of chief at Ste Marie. listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Jean Baptiste Wilkie, Metis b-1803 Pembina a hunter married Amable Elise Azure, Metis b-1808 Pembina. 

Mackinac, Dr William Beaumont, d-1853, an army surgeon treated a Quebec trapper, Alexis St. Martin who'd been shot in the abdomen by a musket ball.  The doctor hired St. Martin as a laborer in exchange for conducting 283 experiments as little was known about stomach disorders and the digestive system.  St. Martin was having trouble digesting food and the doctor discovered it was caused by a hole in the abdominal wall and the stomach.

France was aware they could not hang on to the vast Louisiana Territory and sold it to the U.S. at about 2 1/2 cents an acre rather than let it fall into the hands of the British.

The Northwest Fur Company, which prior to 1803 had its headquarters at Grande Portage, 45 miles south of Fort Kaministiquia, was compelled by the Americans to abandon that rendezvous and establish what was first known as New Fort at La Noue's old site.    By 1807 the New Fort was renamed Fort Williamn in honor of William McGilvary, the head of the Northwest Campany

The NEW FORT later called FORT WILLIAM Fort William  
The N.W.C. New Fort (Fort William) is constructed by the North West Company at the mouth of the Kaministiquia River, some 50 km north of the international boundary, as Grand Portage is now under American control.  It would remain operational under the N.W.C. until 1821 when the Hudson Bay Company merged with the North West Company.  This command post was named in 1807 after (II)-William McGillivray. Metis (1764-1825), son (I)-William McGillivray and Susan Indian, the chief superintendent.  This picture was taken in 1812.  The last remnants of this Fort were demolished in 1902 as the fort was abandoned in 1880. 

The Russians sent an expedition to California for the sea-otter trade.

Napoleon Bonaparte of France sold the French claim on the Louisiana Territory to the United States for twenty seven million dollars.  The French do not consult with Canada on the sale of its territory.  The French do not consult with the 50,000 inhabitants of French Louisiana.  Napoleon feared that Louisiana might fall into British hands.  It is noteworthy that many displaced Acadians in Haiti found their way into Louisiana after the revolution in Saint Domingue (Haiti) in 1791.  This claim had little real significance, as the British did not sell their claim to much of the land, and the Indians were not a party to the transaction.  The only significance is that France would not go to war over an American claim to the territory. Thomas Jefferson would long be criticized for this action, as the land could have been acquired without purchase, as France was unwilling to fight on any account. 

The French conclude that every person of eminence in Canada is engaged in the fur trade.

The trip from Lachine, Quebec to Sault Ste Marie in Chippewa Indian Territory took about four to five weeks to travel.  This was the first major break point for making deals with other traders and for taking on fresh supplies.  Sault Ste Marie was also an opportunity for visiting, merrymaking, singing and dancing.  The parties usually lasted until dawn, and some parties went on for two or three days.  From Sault Ste Marie to Fort Kaministikwa (Thunder Bay), the Voyagers usually kept close to the shoreline whenever possible, which took another two to three weeks.  Before 1803, the trek was to Grand Portage in Chippewa Territory (Minnesota).  One thousand men had built the new nerve center for the North West Company called Fort Kaministikwa because the proposed new Canadian boundary would place Grand Portage in American hands.

After 1803, Fort Kaministikwa, at the mouth of the Kaministiquia River, Lake Superior, is the great central warehouse of the North West Company.  It was the meeting place of the Nor'wester from as far away as Fort Chipewyan on Lake Athabasca, which took three months of travel.  Fort Kaministikwa was comprised of forty two buildings linked to a great hall, with space enough to seat two hundred at a formal dinner.  Kaministiquia was first established in 1678 by Dulhuts, and again settled in 1717.

The Canadian fur traders organized themselves into four groups, namely:
        Montreal:  Agents and Directors who wintered in Quebec,
        Voyager:  Mangeur de lard (pork eating), mostly part time Eastern French Canadians including a few Scots and English, who    were free spirited, but strictly controlled by debt to the company and thereby indentured, and who also wintered in Quebec with
        few exceptions.
        Nor'wester:  Hivernant (winterer) pemmican eating, fully committed free spirits who required a specific ritual, performed at Fort Kaministikwa, before being allowed to become a member and who normally wintered in the Territories.
        Freemen: Anyone involved in the fur trade that was not in the employ of the Canadian North West Company

Washington Irving, born 1783, departed New York for Montreal.  He had a different view of the North West Company.  There were Scottish merchants who formed a kind of commercial aristocracy and who held a feudal sway (the lords of the lakes and forests) over much of Western Canada.  They were cool and calculating businessmen by day.  After dark, they proved to be a lusty breed with well developed tastes for pretty Indian wenches and boisterous all-night celebrations.  They were a hard drinking and heavy eating group of men.  The second men he encountered were the Canadian fur men; the tough and tireless French voyagers.  Sinbads of the wilderness, he called them.  He reported that they often spent more than a year at a time paddling through the woodland streams, coasting the most remote lakes, and creating new wants and habitudes among the natives.  These adventurers of the Canadian west explored and mapped the labyrinthine waterways, the rugged mountains of the far west, the fertile south-central plains and the bleak tundra of the Arctic north.  They planted the first permanent western settlements; their crude little trading posts.  They virtually established the National Canadian Policy of peaceful cooperation with the Indians.  They were the first rulers of Western Canada.  He concluded by saying that this occurred long before the Americans breeched their virgin West.  

During the merry making at the Fort, the senior partners had first pick among the ladies of the country.  The dances included the French jig, the Ojibwa step and Scottish reel.  Singing included naughty French songs and Scottish ballads, but the natives and Metis preferred the French Ballads.  The Voyagers used the Ojibwa women for temporary favors and described them as having a softness and delicacy not found in the more civilized belles.  Before heading back east, the Voyagers had to lug the northern trade goods north to Pigeon Lake; a storage depot nine miles inland.  They said it was easier to get to heaven than to Pigeon Lake; obviously because of the previous nights frolicking.  A storage site at Rainy Lake saved the Nor'wester fifteen days travel time.  By the end of July, it is time for the return trip.

Most of the Nor'westers are Metis, emerging from decades of intermarriage between French Canadians and Native Women; a phenomenon going back to the early fur trading days of New France.  Newcomers to the trade were most likely to throw in their lot with these Metis people and find their own Native woman; mostly Ojibwa and Cree.  At the end of the season only two dozen maintenance staff occupied Fort Kaministikwa.  The Voyagers wintered on the St. Lawrence, and the Nor'westers in the field with their Country Wives.

(I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) reported 110 Iroquois traders up the Peace River near the Rocky Mountains, engaged in the fur trade.

The Nor'wester were pranksters.  They gloried in persuading Natives not to trade food with an opponent, fell huge trees across narrow streams, slash tents or destroy trading goods and canoes,  laughing uproariously at his discomfort, and if he looked like a good fighter they would offer employment.  With the Nor'wester, all was fair in whatever had to do with trade, short of murder.  As a result, few independent traders reached the Saskatchewan.  However, some operated on the Great Lakes such as Forsyth and Richardson and Company out of Detroit which the Nor'wester dubbed the 'Little Company' or little society, and they called their employees Potties;  from the French word 'potee' meaning small measure.  Potties became the nickname for the English in the North West Territories, and the meaning would change.  The Forsyth, Ogilvy and other small companies merged with the 'XY' Company.

At the junction of the Red River and the Assiniboine Rivers, Red River carts arrived with kegs of Maple sugar from Red Lake, Chippewa Territory (Minnesota) for trade purposes.  Twenty Chippewa (Ojibwa) in canoes had also come to the Fort to trade ten kegs of sugar to Alexander Henry Sr. (1739-1824), this must be Alexander Henry the younger, Metis (1764-1814) as the Sr. (Elder)  retired to Montreal (1796) at this time.  The Canadian Camp, a favorite wintering site, in March 7 only contained 6 families.  Daniel William Harmon (1778-1845) departed the camp with his guide Florimeaux who is the grandson of Monsieur Florimeaux and a Cree woman. 


Metis & his horse A Metis was considered one with his favorite horse. The bison (buffalo) hunt became a major Red River occupation to supply the fur trade.
Daniel William Harmon (1778-1845) considered the Canadians ignorant. They only chat about horses, dogs, and canoes, women, and strong men who can fight a good battle.  Harmon, however, admitted that he couldn't speak French.  Harmon's writings clearly demonstrate his English bias. However, he acquired a Metis boy, age 12, by a Canadian and Ojibwa woman, as his own child. 

The Americans, at this time, began calling the Ojibwa on their side of the boundary: Chippewa.

Thomas Douglas of Selkirk, (1771-1820), son Dunbar Douglas and Helen Hamilton, during the period 1803 to1809, is arranging passage for many poor Scottish families to Prince Edward Island. In February, Thomas made a proposal to the British Government to send Scottish Highlander soldier settlers to the Country around Lake Winnipeg. Thomas is aware of the advantage which war might bring from the standpoint of leading government to accept responsibility for potential Lake Winnipeg settlers. Thomas also had a desire to be a military commander. He would continue to pursue this military option in one form or another for the next ten years, even though it was clear he had no support for the venture. Thomas Douglas (1771-1820) was slowly losing credibility among the residents of Kildonan as many tenants began selling their property in anticipation of their imminent departure for North America as a military force. He would have a profound negative impact on Western Canada.

(I)-John Thomas of Vaudreuil Quebec was the Governor until 1813.

John McDonnell (1768-1850) is in charge of the upper Red River Department from 1799 to1809.  He declared that he is determined to rid the senior positions of the North West Company of those Metis and Frenchmen.  Augustin Cadotte (1766-183?) is a clerk in the N.W.C. on the low Red River.  In September, Augustin Cadotte, Antony Payet and five men built a fort at Pinancewaywining Hair Hills to trade with the Cree and Stone Indians.
Active interior posts include:
         La prairie by E. Harrison
         Lake Manitoba by John McDonell
         Bears Head by L. Dorion
         Prairie en Longue by J. St. Germain and La Jeneusse
         Hair Hills by Augustin Cadotte
         Red Lake by M. Langlois and DuFord
         Turtle River by Joseph D. Cameron
         Pembina by Alexander Henry the younger, Metis (1764-1814)

Alexander Hendry built a trading post near old Fort Rouge (Winnipeg).

Fort Dearborn was built at Chicago.

(I)-Jean Laffite (1780-1825) a privateer and his brother Pierre Laffite arrived New Orleans.  He had already amassed an immense fortune in ships and booty.  His fleet included 10 ships which would expand to 50 ships and 1,000 men, a well trained army/navy.   He established a colony and safe haven for pirates and smugglers on the Grande Terrie an Island in Barataria Bay at the mouth of the Mississippi River.  He was well educated and spoke 4 languages, English, French, Italian and Spanish fluently.  He also melded well into the Creole and Acadian cultures.  The citizens of New Orleans freely traded with Laffite and company and the merchants of the US and West Indies frequently owed him large sums of money.  Laffite established his own set of laws:

(I)-Jean Laffite (1780-1825) was called the Corsair, the Buccaneer, the King of Barataria, the Terror of the Gulf, the Hero of New Orleans, the Prince of Pirates or the Ferocious Head of the Desperadoes.  He preferred to be called a privateer.

William Charles Cole Cabildo b-1775 the newly appointed Governor of Louisiana made his first speech and not a single person applauded him.  New Orleans had its own psychology and the Spanish had wisely not tampered with the culture.  The Creoles were of French-Spanish-Indian and African blood, were dark eyed and were a saucy tempered and held an indifference to outside imposed law and order.

January 11:  Monroe and Livingston sailed for Paris to buy New Orleans;  Napoleon Bonaparte however wanted to dispose of all the Louisiana Territory for 60 million Francs or about 15 million dollars.

February 15:  St. Charles, Missouri, marriage (III)-Antoine Marechal b-1780 son (II)-Antoine Marechal, Metis, b-1754 likely Cahokia, (Illinois) and (IV)- Catherine Tabeau b-1757; married February 15, 1803 St. Charles, Missouri Marguerite Cook daughter Jean cook. 

February 21:  Cahokia, marriage (IV)-Angelique Lepage, Metis, daughter (III)-Joseph Lepage, Metis, b-1750 and Genevieve Frechet: married Louise Labossierre. 

March 1:  Ohio became the 17thg state of the US.

April 11:  Louisiana Territory is sold to the Americans by France for $11,250,000.00.  The estimated 50,000 people consisting of mostly Cajun and Metis were not consulted.  The Creoles at this time consisted of mixed blood, French, Spanish, Acadians, Germands, Italian, Scots, Irish, Indian and Blacks.

April 30:  The Americans purchased from Spain the rights to Louisiana, Missouri, Arkansas, Iowa, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota and Oklahoma for $15 million or 4¢ an acre.  Mexico was controlled by Spain and had little say in the matter.  This however would lead to independance.

May 24:  Lake Superior, birth (III)-Genevieve Cameron, daughter (II)-John Dougall Cameron, (1770-1857) and Marie Lesperance, Indian, b-1770; married Joseph Daigneault, b-1794.

May 25:  The British Hudson Bay Policy forbid women Natives (Country Concubines) to come to Britain, nor have any female children born in the Country (Hudson Bay Territory) permitted to return to it after receiving their education in Great Britain.  The official shameful English policy is to abandon their Country Concubines on leaving the service.  Some men, however, arranged marriages (sold their wives and children) to other British Hudson Bay Company men or made monitory provisions for their children.  At this time there were few alternatives, as the British Hudson Bay Company didn't want to establish settlements for retirement.  (I)-John George McTavish (1778-1847) arrived at Moose Factory this year and took a 'country wife'; a (II)-Charlotte Thomas, one of the Governor's daughters.   Other records suggest Charlotte married Peter Spense.   When John George McTavish, the bastardize, cast off his 'country wife' (II)-Thomas, she smothered their two children, and (I)-John George Thomas disowned his daughter.  

May 29:   Mackinac: (I)-James Aird (d-1819) arrived from River St. Peters (Minnesota).

The Canadian North West Company established four trading posts on the Hudson Bay to compete with the British Hudson Bay Company.  They closed in 1806, being uneconomical.  The British Hudson Bay Company followed their usual policy of doing nothing, which worked well this time.  One thousand, mostly Metis, traders are working the Saskatchewan River this season, among three thousand Native traders.

April 9:  Maumee Bay, Lake Erie, Ohio birth  Etienne Porlier Metis daughter Joseph Etienne Porlier born February 9, 1729/30 Montreal and Indian girl.

July 16:   The North West Company entered into agreement with M Cadotte to trade Point Chagouamigoy River de Saugeux and Lac Des Courts Orelles.  Another account suggests that on July 16, the N.W.C. contracted Jean Baptiste Cadotte to trade Point Chagovamigon, Riviere du Sauteaux, and Lac Des Courts Oreilles.  There appears to be a conflict of second account and July 19 statement?

July 19:  (IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1761-1818) was expelled from the North West Company this year, allegedly for intemperance, but some say it is because he is a Metis.  The charges read that he was expelled for conduct highly improper and inconsistent with his duty and with the Character of a Partner of the North West Company.  He, having indulged himself in drunkenness and riot, to the great loss and injury of the said concern.  Cadotte returned to Sault Ste Marie and the following year to Deux Montagnes, near Montreal.

July 28:   Michel Curot of the X Y Company,  likely the son of Amable Curot, and his party of Jean Baptiste Roi, Alexis Beaudoin, Touss Savoiard (Savoyard) and wife, Bazile David, Joseph Boisvert, Jean Connor, Joseph Lizzotte, Francois Lizotte, J. Lajeunesse, Claude Milliette, Guillaume and Hubert Deau departed Grande Portage for Folle Avoine (wild rice), River Jaune (Northern Wisconsin).  Jean Baptiste Roi and Joseph Lizotte are left at Fond du Lac, Lake Superior.  Joseph Lizzotte and Francois Lizotte are at Lake Winnipeg by 1804.  Babeaux, with his wife, is at Fond du Lac to guide Mr. Sayer, his wife, their two Metis children, a Negro (slave?) and another man to Michel Curot's place.  Le Petit Male and wife are at Fond du Lac.  Sayer told the natives that Michel Curot deserves their pity and would not be in the field very long.  Smith's wife had left him, and that he had taken anotherSmith's wife had insisted if he wanted two wives then a wife should have the right to two husbands.  Le Brochet and an Indian lost their life over this incident.

July 28 Michel Curot of XY Company left the Grand Portage, the 28 of JULY, towards nine o'clock in the morning with two canoes and the following men: Jean Bt Roi, Alexis Beaudoin, Tousst Savoiard, Bazile David b-1780, Joseph Boisvert, Jean Connor, Joseph Lizotte, Francois Lizotte, J. Lajeunesse, Claude Milliette, Guillaume and Hubert Deau (Jean B. Roi and Joseph Lizotte were to be left at the Fond du Lac; Alexis Beaudoin was to go and rejoin Mr. McBean in case he had left the Fond du Lac; Claude Milliette was to go with Mr. Bouvier; J. Lajeunesse for Mr. Chaurette, and return to the Grand Portage; Guillaume and Hubert Deau with Francois Lizotte). 

August 16:  Nelson and La Marche left this morning at 5 o’clock for La Pointe (Wisconsin).  Mr. Réaume passed with two canoes, having left Babeux behind to make some gum and go and rejoin him at the entrance of the river Brulé.  Messrs. Grignon and Mc­Bean crossed from the other side this morning to choose a place to build Mr. Grignon's house.   Mr. McBean left for his wintering at nine o’clock.  This evening my men arrived from La Pointe with two canoes, that cost 2 Kegs of mixed rum, one 2 1/2 point blanket, and one Brasse of cloth. 

September 8:  North West, birth, Elizabeth Brown, daughter Joseph Brown, b-1787 and Elizabeth, Metis, married John Tait, b-1801, Scotland.

October:   Thomas McMurray was in charge of the XY Company Post at Fort Dauphin, on the northwest point of Lac des Prairies. He ordered J. Dufaut, Gadon and his native wife and grand daughter, Martelle and family, Fournier, Giroux and Baptiste La Salle to winter near the former site of Fort des Espinettes on the north side of the Assiniboine River; a site abandoned in 1794.  Their first visitor was an Indian named Kekanotin.  L'Oiseau Rouge, Le Coup Fort, Mangiquijique, Petit Borgne, La Loge, and Cou Croche arrived shortly after.

October 19:   South West Point, Tuskingo or Shoebouts:  A Cherokee married to Clarinda Ellington, having been taken as a small child by the Shawnees, is with three small children.  When asked if she desired to return to friends and family in Kentucky, she said yes, but not without her children. So she stayed with her husband.

November:  The traders at Grande Portage are grumbling about lack of having wives.

December 7:  Henry and Taillefer left this morning for Fond du Lac from Grande Forks. 

December 11:  Le Jeune Razeur arrived at the house with one of his wives and spent the night there. 

 

 

1804  

Francois Arquoitte b-1779 from Montreal joined NWC ((1804-1821) Lac Nepigun (Nipigon); Lac des Isles, Pic, Fort William

Jean Baptiste Letendre dit Batoche aka Okimawaskawikinam b-1762, Quebec, is working as an interpreter at Fort des Prairies (Fort Corne, Saskatchewan) which was first built in 1753 by Louis a la Corne aka Fort des Prairie..

Angus Bethune, likely Metis, (1783-1858) employed NWC (1804-1821); HBC (1821-1839), 1st assigned White Mud River, Lower Red River (1804-1850).

George Berkhart, Ojibwa Metis, b-1804, arrived 1835 Mackinac son John Holliday, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Toussaint Berthelet aka Savoyard dit Berthelet, Savoyard, b-1780, listed NWC voyageur to Fond du Lac son Toussaint Berthelet and (married 1769) Marguerite Hay of Montreal; Married 1799 Marguerite Saulteaux (Chippewa) 
    Pierre Berthelet Metis b-1800 married Louise Dubois b-1805
    Joseph Berthelet Metis b-1809
    Genevieve Berthelet Metis b-1814
    Marguerite Berthelet Metisb-1817
    Marie Savoyard dit Berthelet Metis b-1825 married Louis Larocque

Angus Bethume, Metis born September 9, 1783, Carleton Island, New York, died Toronto, November 13, 1858, arrived Red River des Metis 1804.

Alexis Bercier b-1772, employed NWC as voyageur to North West (1804) Lac Ouinipic (Lake Winnipeg) and employed NWC (1811-1819) Lac Ouinipic.

(I)-Alexander Birston Orkney, (1774-1829) married likely York Factory, Indian Woman, deceased before Aug 12, 1821 when Metis children were baptized Red River

Joseph Brousseau, a voyageur is at La Pointe, Wisconsin.

Besherman Bushman, Metis b-1804 Pembina, a hunter, married about 1832 Red River Mary b-1810 Red River.

(II)-Colin Campbell Metis b-1787/90 son (I)-John Archibald Campbell (1775-1808) and Dakota woman; joined NWC (1804-1821), English River, Fort Dunvegan, HBC (1821-1847) Athabasca District, (1848-1852) Kenogamisse District.  Married (II)-Elizabeth McGillivray Metis b-1801 daughter (I)-John McGillivray (1770-1855) and Susan Cree.  They had 6 children:
    (III)-Catherine Campbell Metis b-1815 married 1837 Benjamin McKenzie Metis (1807-1837); 2nd marriage William Clouston b-1823 Red River
    (III)-Mary Campbell Metis b-1826 Fort Chipewayn (daughter of a Cree woman); married (III)-James William Sinclair Metis (1806-1856), 2nd marriage Nathen Olney
    (III)-Flora Campbell Metis b-1832/36 d-1872, married 1856 Red River (II)-John Taylor Metis (1834-1935)
    (III)-Margaret Campbell Metis b-1833 Red River married 1856 the Dalls, Columbia District, William C. McKay Metis
    (III)-Richard Duncan Campbell Metis b-1843 Fort Chipewyan, married 1865 (III)-Francoise Jane Thomas bapt 1844

Celiasr Helene Clatsop (1804-1891) daughter Chief Clatsop Choboway who 1st married Basile Poirier (1774-1844) and 2nd married Soloman Smith (1809-1876), an American, who ran a Metis school on French Prairie, Oregon Territory 

Michel Chalifoux aka Jalifoux, Jollifoux, Chalefox, Chalifous and Chilifoux (1754/57-1833/34) employed NWC (1804-1821) voyageur in 1804 to Haute de la Riviere Rouge (Red River).  Assigned (1811-1821) to Fort Dauphin (Manitoba).  (1821-1833) he was a free trader out of Grantown Red River.  He married Elizabeth Collins Metis b-1760 
    Michel Jalifoux, Jr. living Grantown Red River 1833 married 
    Angelique Chalifoux Metis b-1810 NWT married (I)-Hugh Gidson b-1790.

Toussaint Charbonneau (1767-1843) ( had at least 5 young wives) he considered himself to be married his slave girl  Sacagawea (1789-1812), Lemhi, Idaho and later joined the Louis and Ckark Expedition as guides.  Their infant son Jean Baptiste Charbonneau, (1804-1885) Metis was born on the expedition to the Pacific Ocean.  He had a second slave wife Otter Woman also from the Shoshone tribe that the Hidatsa had captured these two young women on one of their annual raiding and hunting parties to the west and sold them to Toussaint.  Toussaint Charbonneau Metis Jr. and pregnant Sacagawea (1789-1812) joined the Louis and Clark expedition to the Pacific.  Others suggest he won Sacagawea (1789-1812) in an Indian gambling game.  

Joseph Cotte was with NWC at Fond du Lac in 1804, with David Thompson 1809 and in Columbia District (1810-1813)

Francois Courchene Sr. b-1786 Berthier, Trois Rivieres married Alnobak of Mad8balodnik, joined NWC (1804-1821) posting not listed but joined HBC (1821-1850) Ile-a-la-Crosse, English River and Lac La Pluie (1837-1850)
    1st married Francoise Beauchamp Metis b-1805 Red River
    2nd married Madeline Indian b-1787
        Joseph Courchene Metis b-1815 joined HBC (1833-1853) English River, Lac La Pluie and Red River 
        Jean Baptiste Courchese Metis born North West joined HBC (1838-1852)
        Antoine Courchese Metis b-1823 joined HBC (1847-1852) Lac La Pluie, retired Red River
        Francois Courchese Jr. Metis b-1837 joined HBC (1848-1855) Mackinizie River, Lac La Pluie, Saskatchewan and retired Red River 

(I)-Cuthbert Cummings (1787-1870) employed NWC (1804-1821) & HBC (1821-1844)  is at Fort Dauphin or Quinioique (Manitoba) 1804, which was established 1741.  He married Susette Indian or Metis girl and had 7 children.  Two recorded children are:
       (II)-Cuthbert Cummings Jr. Metis born before 1820 Swan River
       (II)-John Cummings Metis b-1820 Swan River HBC (1846-1854)?
His second marriage 1842 Lake Superior to Jane McMurray b-March 4, 1778 daughter Thomas McMurray d-1795 and Jane Izenhoult, widow Tobias  Cuthbert  retired to Colborne, Ontario.

Basile (Basil, Bazil)  David, b-1780 listed as voyageur XY Co.., Fond du Lac, (Minnesota) 1804, and with NWC 1810-11 was with Alexander Henry Jr. on the upper Saskatchewan. married 1803/07  Therese Chippewa  b-1784
                Madeline David Metis b-1804,

Marie Anne Desmarais, Metis, b-1804, NWT daughter Francois Desmaris Sr. b-1784 to 1788 married 1803 NWT, Eliget (Elizet) Desmarais native; married John Anderson, Metis, b-1804, NWT. 

Mary Anne Edwards, Ojibwa Metis, born 1804 Sault Ste Marie married to Thomas Edwards, Metis, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

(IV)-Louis Marie Gariepy, (Gardipie, Gardipis and Gaedipi) born July 3, 1777, Lachenaye, Quebec,  d-1856, son (III)-Bonaventure Gabiepy, born October 27, 1729, Lachenaie, Quebec, d-1782 and (married 1762) (IV)-Marie Reine Lalonde b-1744 Ste Anne de Bellevue, Montreal d-1825;  joined NWC (1804-1821) Haute de la Riviere Rouge (Red River) & HBC (1821-1824) upper Red River, retired St Francois Xavier and White Horse Plains.
1st married, 1799 Josephte Saulteaux, b-1785, 
    (V)-Louise Gariepy Metis b-1800, married Pierre Bonneau Metis b-1803
    (V)-Euphrosine Gariepy Metis b-1815, married Abraham Martin dit Barnabe
2nd marriage August 15, 1825 St. Boniface, Red River Josephte Ducharme, (Metis? or a Chippewa Native), b-1806, daughter Antoine Ducharme (1775-1850) and Josephte Villebrun.
    (V)-Marie Gariepy (Guardipee) Metis (1805-1874), married 1825 Red River, John Beaulieu dit Sinclair Metis b-1820 Swan River d-1902
    (V)-Bonaventure Gariepy (Guardipee) Metis (1825-1890) Red River, married 1847 Madeleine Larocque b-1827
    (V)-Helen Gariepy (Guardipee) Metis (1827-1876/77), married 1853 Red River, Francois Desjarlais (820-1876)
    (V)-Jean Baptiste Gariepy (Guardipee) Metis (1832-1907/08), married 1855 Judith Cardinal b-1827
    (V)-Marie Madeleine Gariepy (Guardipee)  Metis (1833/34-1885) married Narcaisse Cardinal
    (V)-Louis Gariepy (Guardipee)  Metis (1828-1884), married Marie Cardinal
    (V)-Charles Edouard Gariepy (Guardipee)  Metis (1837-1844)
    (V)-Matilda (Mathhilde)Gariepy Metis (1839-1907), married Jean Baptist Lafontaine and Robert Samson
    (V)-Eli Gariepy (Guardipee) (1846-1943)
    (V)-Alexander  Gariepy (Guardipee) Metis b-1841/42-1876), married 1864 Genevieve Cadotte (1844-1872) daughter Joseph Cadotte b-1813 and Genevieve Picard b-1825, Fort Edmonton  and 2nd marriage Mary Gaddy

New Brunswick House, Moose District, (I)-George Gladman (1765-1821) returned to England with two sons, (II)-Joseph Gladman, Metis (1796-1875) and (II)-George Gladman Jr, Metis (1800-1863) for schooling (1804-1814) 

Susanne Grant, Metis, b-1804 daughter Peter Grant, b-1764 and Margaret Ahdiksongab aka Marthe Ckear Sky; married 1837 Joseph Raiche, born June 22, 1794, Nicolet, Quebec.

(I)-Thomas Halcro (Halcrow) (1781/85-before1856) joined HBC 1804-1824) retired Red River.  Married Mary a Southward Indian October 25, 1820, they recorded 7 children:
    (II)-Thomas Halcrow Metis  bapt-1820 married Charlotte Knight 
    (II)-Euphememia Halcrow Metis bapt-1820 married Peter Flett b-1834
    (II)-Mary Halcrow Metis bapt 1820 d-1847
    (II)-Joseph Halcrow Metis bapt-1824 married (II)-Sophia Cook Metis b-1827
    (II)-Barbara Halcrow Metis bapt 1824 married 1842 William Work
    (II)-James Halcrow Metis bapt 1826 died before 1856
    (II)-James ?? an adopted son bapt 1844 died 1847

John Haldane d-1857 is one of six XY Company members to be made a NWC wintering partner.

 Daniel William Harmon (1778-1845) is at Fort Montage a la Basse NWC, about 50 miles above the mouth of the Souris River aka Assiniboine River, also called the Upper Red River by some when they received word that Lewis and Clark were on their way to the Rocky Mountains.  It is noteworthy that Boss Creek and Boss Hill are located in this locality, and there is little doubt Basse (Bass likely referring to the fish in the Creek) has given way to the English word Boss..

(I)-Alexander Kennedy (1781-1832) employed HBC (1798-1829) married 1804 York Factory, Mary Aggathas (Agatha, Aggatha) Isbister and Bear (1782-1863), Cree Metis. 
    RECORDED CHILDREN ARE:
(II)-Dr. John Frederick Metis (1805-1859) married Agatha (Mary) Isbister Bear (1782-1863)
(II)-Mary Kennedy Metis b-1807 married 1821 Thomas Isbister
(II)-Alexander Kennedt Metis b-1808
(II)-Elizabeth Kennedy Metis b-1810 married a Finlayson
(II)-James Kennedy Metis b-1812
(II)-William Kennedy Metis (1814-1890) married 1859 Eleanor Elizabeth Cripps
(II)-George Kennedy Metis b-1816
(II)-Philip Kennedy Metis (1818-1873) married 1838 (II)-Jesse McKenzie Metis daughter (I)-Roderick McxKenzie (1772-1859)
(II)-Isabella Kennedy Metis b-1820
(II)-Roderick Kennedy Metis (1822-1911) married 1847 Mary Mactavish daughter J.G. Mactavish & widoe George Ross

(III)-George Kipling, Metis, b-1804 son (II)-John (James) Kipling, Metis, b-1781, Red River des Metis, (Hudson Bay) died September 25, 1825, Red River, and Nancy a Native, b-1840/1843. 

Pierre (Joseph Felix) Larocque Metis b-1786/87 employed XL Co (1801-1804) NWC (1804-1821) as a voyageur 1804 or earlier in Fort Dauphin or Ouinioique (Manitoba).  There are two Pierre Larocques, one at Fort Dauphin and one at Lac Ouinioique.   Maybe all are the same person? 

Pierre (Peter) Larocque likely Metis b-1786 joined NWC before 1804 likely in Saskatchewan District but listed NWC (1804-1821) Fort Dauphin, Lac Ouinioique and Athabasca & HBC (1821-1833) Red River, married Marguerite Cree and Josephte Descoteaux b-1853 daughter Pierre Descoteaux and Madeleine Dumille
    Louis Larocque Metis married Marie Savoyard dit Berthelet
    Francois Larocque Metis b-1822 married Angelique Sayis, one son recorded 1846/47 Mackenzie District 
    

James Leith (1777-1838) one of the six XY Co. partners joined the N.W.C. this year.  He spent most of his time in Northern Ontario.

Jacques L'Hirondelle was claimed to be a voyager with NWC to Athabasca Department

Brothers Joseph Lizotte and Francois Lizotte are at Lake Winnipeg (Red River) and in 1818 were employed by the American Fur Company in the Fond du Lac (Lake Superior) district. 

Louis (Louison) Landry, Metis b-1806 Red River des Metis, a hunter, married about 1832 Red River Isabelle Chalifoux, Metis b-1810 Red River. 1850 census.  (Louis b-1816 N.W.T. and Isabelle b-1819) Genealogy First Metis Nation

John McBean (1778-1854) employed NWC 1804-1821); HBC (1821-1837) retired Berthier, Lower Canada.  1st. Married a Country Wife, children William, Charles, and a daughter; 2nd marriage Isabelia MacKenzie (nee Latour), widow of Alexander MacKenzie, by whom he had two children.

John (Jack) McDonald (1770-1828) of XY Co. is not in N.W.C. assigned to Fort Dauphin (le Borgne) 


William McGulphin ( McGulpin), Ojibwa Metis, b-1804, Mackinac son George McGulpin Sr., Ojibwa Metis, b-1762, Mackinac and Ojibwa Woman, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Charles McKenzie aka MacKenzie (1778-1855) of NWC, Upper Red River Department, joined the trading expedition up the Missouri River (1804-1806)

(I)-Roderick (Roddy) MacKenzie (1772-1859) Joined HBC (1804-1850) Nipigon, Lake Superior.  Married Angelique Mallotte a Nipigon woman
    (II)-Roderick MacKenzie Metis d-1830 Batchawana
    (II)-Benjamin MacKenzie Metis b-1807 Nipigon (Ontario)
    (II)-Patrick MacKenzie Metis
    (II)-Ferland MacKenzie Metis
    (II)-Alexander MacKenzie Metis bapt 1838
    (II)-Samuel MacKenzie Metis b-1813/14 married but not recorded
    (II)-James MacKenzie Metis
    (II)-Catherine MacKenzie Metis
    (II)-Mary MacKenzie Metis bapt 1835
    (II)-Margaret MacKenzie Metis bapt 1835 married (I)-James Anderson (1812-1867)
    (II)-Kane MacKenzie Metis bapt 1835
    (II)-Nancy MacKenzie Metis

James McMillan, b-1783, Scotland, died 1858 Scotland, married 1st., 1804, Saskatchewan N.W.T., Josephte Bellisle, Metis, b-1795 daughter Antoine Bellisle and Josephte a Native; married 2nd 1808, Saskatchewan N.W.T., Marie Letendre, Metis, b-1788, died October 11, 1877, Red River, daughter Jean Baptiste Okimawaskawikinavy Letendre, b-1772 and Josephte Cree. 

Nemiskau Lake birth (II)-John Moar, Metis son (I)-Andrew Moar (1764-1767) employed HBC (1786-1836) married an Indian woman 

(I)- James Monkman Sr., (1771/75-1865) married 1804 York Factory Mary a Swampy Cree.

Joseph Nedeau (Nadeau), Metis  b-1807 Red River des Metis, voyager married about 1831 Red River Susanna b-1808 Pembina.  1850 census. or (Joseph Nadeau, Metis b-1810 N.W.T. married Susanne Bourdon b-1813.) Genealogy First Metis Nation.

Joseph Nolin, Metis, b-1804 likely Sault Ste Marie, died February 19, 1872 son Jean Baptiste Nolin and Marie Angelique Couvret; married Red River, Louise Frederic (1812-1872). 

Bonaventure (Leverture) Parrisen, Metis, b-1804 Red River des Metis son Bonaventure Parisien b-1797 and Isabel Indian b-1783;  married Marguerite Sailteaux, Indian b-1810 Red River des Metis.   1850 census.  (Bonaventure b-1800 & Marguerite b-1805 N.W.T.)  Genealogy First Metis Nation.

(IV)-Jean Baptiste Piquette, Ojibwa Metis, b-1804 Sault Ste Marie, listed March 28, 1836 treaty.

Joseph Nolin, Metis b-1804 Pembina married Louise (Lizette) Frederic Metis, b-1812 Red River des Metis. Louise b-1875 Pembina, likely mother-in-law living with them 1850 census.  (Joseph Nolin b-1810 N.W.T.)  Genealogy First Metis Nation.

Baptiste Batnon (Patenaude), Metis b-1804, a hunter, married Philesta b-1818 Red River.

Andre Poitras (Poitra) (1762/63-1831) employed NWC (1804-1805) Qu'Appelle (Fishing Lake) (Saskatchewan) and likely Red River (1811-1818)

Osceola Powell (Billy Powell) alias Asiyaholi, Metis, (1804-1838) son William Powell, a trader and a Cree woman.

Charles Racette, b-1804, near Qu'Appelle, died July 1881 son Charles Racette b-1766 North West Territories married about 1802, Josephte (Francoise) Sauteuse a Chippewa Native b-1780, North West Territories; married February 15, 1830, St. Boniface, Red River, Reine Boucher, Metis, daughter Paul Boucher, Metis and Francoise St. Germain, Metis, b-1789. .

Jean Baptiste Rivard Sr., b-1772, married 1804, Red River des Metis, Therese Belanger, b-1778

Touss Savoiard rejoined the North West Company.

Oxford House, birth (II)-Mary Sinclair, Metis (1804-1892) daughter (I)-William Sinclair, Orkney (1766-1818) employed HBC (1782-1818) and Margaret Nahoway Cree or Metis; married (II)-John Inkster Metis (1799-1874)

(I)-Duncan Cameron a Scot (1764-1848) wrote that the Nipigon Country has been occupied by the Ojibwa since 1654, partly from Lake Superior and partly from Hudson Bay, as they spoke a mixture of Ojiboiay or Chippeway, as some call it, and the Cree or Masquigon spoken at Hudson Bay.  The elders told Cameron that, as the two peoples encountered each other in the interior, they intermarry and become one People.  

Only four births are recorded at the Red River des Metis Settlement this year.  A great drought in 1804/1805 hit the Red River Valley, adversely affecting the planted crops and the fur trade in general, as a result of the Prairie fires.  The N.W.C. Post on the western shores of Lake Winnipeg also reported suffering serious loss of food due to the drought and fires.

The following is a partial list of North West Company men employed in the North West, especially the Athabasca District:
    Andre Belanger, Francois Belanger, Francois Boucher, Jean Baptiste Bouvier Sr. (1784-1838), Pierre Bruce, S. Cardinal, Gabriel Caisse, Joseph Roy dit Charou, Richard Daigneault, Antoine Denault, Francois Desrosiers, Tomothee Dionne, James England, Jean Baptiste Gerard, Charles Lachance, Pierre Laliberte, Francois Lariviere, Jean Baptiste Larocque Metis (1813-1850), Ignace Lavallee Jr., Jean Baptiste Lemay, H. Moreau, Joseph Paul, Nicolas Paul, Paulet Paul, Augustine Poirier, Francois Raymond  

The North West Company built Fort of the Forks, a.k.a. Fort Simpson, N.W.T., located on an island at the confluence of the MacKenzie and Liard Rivers.  In 1821 it was renamed by the Hudson Bay Company after George Simpson 

Red River Settlement, NWT, birth Marie McGillis Metis (1804-1856) daughter Angus McGillis (1774-1842) son Donald McGillis and Mary McDonell Lindry; married 1803 country style and churched St. Boniface 1830, Margaret Notinikaban (Vent de Bout); Marie married Cuthbert James Grant Jr. (1793-1854) Captain de Metis and Warden of the Plains.

 Antoine Houle b-1787, died March 20, 1867 Manitoba 1st married Josephte Louzon b-1787/89 and 2nd marriage J. Chartland born 1790 Red River Metis settlement.  His children are Francois b-1805, William, Jean Bapriste, Francois b-1811, Antoine Jr b-1812, Josephte b-1812, Joseph b-1816, Madeleine b-1818, Louis b-1824 Louise b-1826, Marguerite b-1831 and Charles b-1833.

Sault Ste Marie?, birth (IV)-Frances Ermatinger Metis son (III)-Charles Oakes Ermatinger (1776-1853) and Charlotte Kalawabide (Kattawabide/Cattoonalute/Manacowe) who died 1880. 

Pascal Breland, a.k.a. Burleigh, Metis, the Freeman, son of Pierre Breland, (1760-1829) also a free man and his Indian wife, Louise Belly (Belley), were on the Saskatchewan River. Pascal, however, spent most of his life in the Red River Metis Settlement. Pascal amassed a fortune of 7,000 pounds, along with some half dozen wives. One of his wives was Maria, daughter of Cuthbert Grant. Adams Archibald, in 1870, would write of the bigamist, that he was a man of means and influence, highly upright in character and a fine specimen of his race.

James Grant of the N.W.C. is posted at the Fond du Lac Dept as a clerk & interpreter for Hugh McGillis.  Fond du Lac is a term applied to the end of Lake Superior, westward from Chequamegon but also to the district drained by St. Louis River.  It also included the upper waters of the Mississippi including Red Ceder, Leech and Sandy lakes.

Mary McKay was born in 1804, the North West daughter of Alex McKay, living St. Andrews, Red River 1870.

James Corrigall born 1804 North West son Peter Corrigall, living 1870 St. Andrews, Red River with his wife Ann Anderson born 1810 North West and daughter James Anderson.

The British are systematically replacing the French in controlling positions in the trade, and now had almost completed their control of the Canadian North West Company with the following composition:
   Type of Activity            British         French    Other
        Bourgeois                   43                2
        Clerks                        44              32
        Interpreters                  2               43
        Guides                                          16
        Voyageurs and others 24             625           8

               TOTAL         113          718         8   

The objective is foreign domination by replacing all clerks with Scottish or English, leaving the second class positions to the French and Metis which was more suited- so the English believed- to their mental capacity.  This is also a belief of the Scottish.  The Scottish would learn that the English considered the Scottish, Irish and Welsh to be second class citizens, making the Mixed Blood the third class.

The annual conclave at Fort William, formally called Kaministikwa, named after (II)-William McGillivray (1764-1825) son (I)-William McGillivray and Susan Indian; and a nephew of (I)-Simon McTavish (1750-1804).  One thousand Country Wives and Metis children are becoming dependent on the Forts and therefore on the Company.  A new regulation prohibiting the employees from marrying pureblooded Native Women, subject to a one hundred pound sterling fine, passed the majority vote.  The argument presented was to ensure husbands for the Metis women and reduce dependency on the posts of abandoned wives.  It is noteworthy that (II)-William McGillivray had a Cree wife.

Daniel William Harmon (1778-1845), North West Company, recorded : "Those Indians who reside in the large Plains are the most independent and appear to be the happiest and most contented of any people upon the face of the earth."  He is posted to Fort Alexandra up the Assiniboina River, beyond Carlton House. On October 4, Francis la Rocque arrived from Montagne a la Basse, five days march from down river.  Charles Chaboillez (1772-1812) is superintendent of Red River.  Monsieur Poitras commanded the North West Company Fort at River Qui Apelle and Assiniboine, which is near an XY Fort.  Charles Chaboillez (1772-1812), McKenzie and Daniel William Harmon (1778-1845) visited Poitras.  Cadotte is recorded at Grand Portage.

A growing number of retired Canadian North West Employees were choosing to remain in the field with their Country Wives and children, leading the Metis to regard themselves as the New Nation which would focus on the Red River Metis Colony as their capital, but included Red Lake and Sault Ste Marie at this time.  In reality, the Metis occupy the Great Lakes, down the Mississippi and up the Missouri as well as the Red Lake area, the Red River of the North and Saskatchewan River systems.  These fathers of the Metis Nation wanted to ensure their daughters had first preference in marriage, and many, therefore, supported the new law of the land.  Few Voyagers or Nor'westers followed the law, considering the fine a form of taxation to support Metis children.

Joseph Gagnon born about 1804 married Marie Grignon living 1840-1850 Saint Joseph Dakota Territory a brother in law of Antoine Gingras.
             Gareau, a voyager for the North West Company, is posted at Fort des Prairies.
             Charles Groulx, a guide for North West Company, is at Rainy Lake.
             Antoine Genou, voyager for the North West Company, is at Fort des Prairies.
             Pierre Genou alias Gagnon and Ginan, voyager for the North West Company, is not  listed until 1806
             Pierre Genereux, voyager of North West Company, is at Lake Winnipeg.

The war between the North West Company and 'XY' Company came to a sudden end.  The unexpected death of (I)-Simon McTavish (1750-1804) on July 6, 1804, removed one of the barriers for friendly relations.  It is noteworthy that all his children died by their twenty fifty year, as though cursed.

The Hudson Bay Company sought legal advice to protect their charter; giving them exclusive trading rights, being defied by the North West Company.   The opinion was tabled that the H.B.C. charter did not rest on an act of Parliament, but merely upon the Royal prerogative, and the granting of sole trading rights was beyond the power of the crown.  The Royal prerogative to the granting of lands neither obtained by conquest nor occupations, was not reviewed to my knowledge.  The Metis and Indians believed that neither the H.B.C. nor England had any rights to their lands.  They believed in sharing the land and its resources, but not in domination to the exclusion of others.

Michel Curot wrote to Mr. Grignon at Grande Portage requesting provisions and passing on letters from Athabasca.  It took two seasons for goods to pass from Montreal to the Athabasca.

(IV)-Jean Baptiste Cadotte (1761-1818) returned with his family to Deux Montagnes near Montreal.  This Metis community contained many of his friends, and it is believed he stayed for the next three to four years.

Paul Hudon de Beaulieu (1787-1848+) and brother Bazil Hudon de Beaulieu (1785-1838) of Montreal, who died 1838 La Pointe, Wisconsin, are trading Lac du Flambeau, Wisconsin.  Bazil lived and traded Lac du Flambeau (Wisconsin) from 1804 to 1834. 

Joseph Brousseau is listed voyageur at La Pointe, Lake Superior.

A second fort is built on the Saskatchewan River near Duck Lake and near future Fort Carlton.  The first known fort was built in 1795.

(IV)-Francois Grignon son (III)-Joseph Grignon (b-1730) and Amable (Daunais) Fremine? married 1804 Michilimaknac Angelique Gravelle born 1797 daughter Joseph Gravelle and Josephe Raisin.  July 4, baptism (V)-Marie Archange Grignon born 1803 daughter (IV)-Francois Grignon and Marie Angelique Gravelle.  July 4, (IV)-Francois Grignon witnessed a baptism.  Francois is not of the Green Bay Grignon family.

April 30:   Alexander Henry the Younger, (1764-1814) writes in Pembina River Post:  I gave the Indians liquor to decamp and hunt all summer. As a result, Grande Gueule Stabbed Capot Rouge; Le Boeuf stabbed his young wife in the arm; Little Shell almost beat his old mother's brains out with a club; and there was terrible fighting among them.  Alexander Henry the Younger, (1764-1814), writes I sowed garden seeds and the Indian women are also planting crops at Pembina, Red River.

July:   Pierre Dorion (1740-1810) joined the Lewis and Clark expedition as an interpreter. 

August:   (I)-James Aird (d-1819) entered into agreement with Robert Dickson, Allen C. Wilmet, Murdock Cameron, John Lawe and Jacob Frank from the R. Dickson and Company, and competitors Jacques Porlier, Noel Rocheblave, the Grignon brothers, Louis Beaupre, Charles Reaume and others.  

August 29:   Pierre Dorion, Metis (1780/82-1814) and a large band of Yankton (70 men and boys), including Sergeant Pryor, meet the Lewis and Clark expedition on the Missouri, just above the mouth of the James River.  Pierre's father, Pierre Dorion (1740-1810), was with the Lewis and Clark expedition at this time as interpreter, as was Maurice Blondeau.  Toussaint Charbonneau, (1767-1843), and pregnant slave wife Sacagawea (1789-1812) are listed as interpreter with the Lewis and Clark expedition.  The expedition started out from Saint Louis, Missouri.  Sacagawea was considered a better interpreter than her husband.

September 19:  The Red River Settlement Metis are making gallon kegs of pickles from maple sap vinegar, that they claim is not as good as the eastern variety, but passable.  An Indian attack on old Fort du Lac, a small fort near the eastern tip of Lake Athabasca, resulted in two Metis being killed, along with their wives and children.  An ambush near Fort Chipewyan leaves four hunters dead.   Some said the attacks were because of trading with bad brandy.  (I)-Thomas Thomas, born 1781 British Islands, arrived York Factory in 1794, probably one of the 'Hospital Boys' indentured to the British Hudson Bay Company.  He defected to the Canadian North West Company in 1804 and is the great grandfather of (IV)-Eleanor Thomas who married into the Garneau clan.  His desire to have a permanent place to keep his Country Concubine(s) and Metis children led to his defection, even though he would not recognize her (them) as an official wife.  He would claim himself as single until the 1834-1835 census, and probably had three or more Country Wives.

October several Frenchmen namely Joseph Gravelines and Anthony Tabeau, traders are working the Arikaria and Mandan villages.

October 10:   Daniel William Harmon (1778-1845)  takes a Snare Indian slave girl, age 14 years, as his wife.  The Snare Indians live along the Rocky Mountains.  This is noteworthy because earlier he said country wives are no better than concubinage.  This month he is at the mouth of the Qu'Appelle River, where NWC and XY Co. each had a fort Fort Monsieur Poitras NWC and up river at Fishing Lake, both companies also had posts which were abandoned in 1804.  Far up the Assiniboine Fort Alexandria was built at north latitude 52° and west longitude 103°.

October 12:  Nottingham House, birth (II)-Decusroggan  Fidler, Metis, died March 8, 1814, son (I)-Peter Fidler (1769-1822) and Indian Swampy Cree woman (1771-1826).

October 31:   Lewis and Clark wrote from the Upper Mandan Village on the Missouri to (IV)-Charles Chaboiller (1772-1812), saying they met with his man, Hugh M'Cracken, who is conducting trade with the natives for the N.W.C., and they requested help in understanding the geography of the country, its productions: mineral, animal or vegetable, under his jurisdiction.   

November:  The North West Company and the 'XY' Company merged, and (II)-William McGillivray (1764-1825), son (I)-William McGillivray and Susan Indian, and a nephew of (I)-Simon McTavish (1750-1804), took command.  The new Company excluded Sir Alexander MacKenzie to ensure old wars did not persist.  One clause in the agreement allowed for the possible future merger with the British Hudson Bay Company.  The intent was for the Canadian North West Company to buy out the British Hudson Bay Company, in order to create a monopoly.

November 24:   Charles Chaboillez (1772-1812) of Fort Montagne a la Basse wrote that two American Captains, Clarke and Lewis, with 180 soldiers, have arrived at a Mandan Village on the Missouri River, three days march away.  He said that he is invited to visit.

 

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