RED RIVER EXODUS 1815 - 1850


The Americans call this period the Selkirk Settler Clearance or
the Red River Exodus due to the fur trade wars from 1815 to 1821,
  the Great Grasshopper Plague from 1818 to 1819,
and the floods and bad weather.
Those who didn't like the Hudson Bay Company 
now had an alternative with the American Fur Company. 
The Americans called them-
the Canadian refugees.


METIS HISTORY (Return to) 1815-1815

METIS HISTORY Return to METIS 1800-1849 index



It is difficult to determine how many Red River citizens became refugees
at the St. Paul colony of United States of America.  
American records most often just recorded that they were born in Canada.
The 1850 Census of St. Paul, Minnesota, however, provides some indication.
We should keep in mind that others fled to other locations to avoid the turmoil.

This is a listing of Canadians at St. Paul, Minnesota and vicinity in the 1850 census for
St. Paul, which was called Iminijaska (White Rock), Fort Snelling, The Reserve, Little Canada, Mendota, Fountain Cove, and Pig's Eye.

The first inhabitants of this region, however, were the Dakota, Voyagers and Metis.
For example, Mazasagia M'Dawakontonwan, Dakota, married Azayamankawan (1788-1863), residence Mendota (St. Paul), Minnesota
This listing is "born Canada as listed 1850 census" unless otherwise noted

Pierre Allard (Alors) born 1805 
George Anderson born 1825 
Oliver Arseneau born 1831 
Louis v. Auger (Ozier) born 1789 
John Bailey born 1817 France married Victoire born 1830 France
Louis Bartellette (Berthelette) born 1799
William Battleford born 1828
Joseph Baudreau born 1792 married 1817 Quebec Josephte Fortier born 1793 Canada daughter Guillaume Fortier and Angelique Mercier of Vercheres, Quebec

Jean Baptiste Beauchemin (Bouchemin) born 1822 Red River married Sept 6, 1846 Susan Boucher born 1830 Canada both in St. Paul 1846.
Josephine Beauleau (Boileau) born 1810 Kootenais, married Red River 1827 Joseph Rondo
William Beaumette born 1818 Canada, living Red River relocated St. Paul before 1835.  It is noteworthy that 60 families from Red River arrived at St. Paul in 1835 as a result of the exodus.

Edward Beauvais born 1820
Jean Baptiste Belanger born 1828
Antoine Benard (Bernard) born 1827
Elijaha Bissell (Bizzell) born 1817
Joseph Boudrette (Bordette) born 1817
Maxime Boudrette (Bordette) born 1817

Pierre Bottineau,Metis (1810/16/17-1895) Red River son Joseph Charles Bottineau French Huguenot from Boston and Margaret Clear Sky, an Ojibwa (1816-1851).  He traveled the North West extensively as a guide and interpreter, married 1836 Red River Martha Clear-Sky a Lake of the Woods Ojibwa, then he relocated near Fort Snelling 1837.  But like other settlers, he was driven from his land and his home burned. His second marriage at Little Canada (St. Paul) Martha Gervais, died 1895 Red Lake Falls.

Severe Bottineau, Metis born 1814 likely Red River, brother Pierre, Fort Snelling 1837
Joseph Bourcier b 1805 son Joachim & Francoise Duquet
Thomas Brown born 1825
Louis Burette born 1825 Red River
Joseph Burette (Baurette, Burnette, Barrette) born 1827
Scott Campbell born 1790 Prairie du Chein son Colin Campbell (who was employed Fort Snelling 1818-1843 as interpreter)  married Menominee Dakota

Jean Baptiste Campbell, Metis born 1838/41 Fort Snelling son Scott Campbell born 1790 Prairie du Chien.  Jean was killed as an Indian in the infamous mass execution in Mankato, MN on December 28, 1862.

Hypolite Campbell Metis born 1828 Fort Snelling brother of Jean Baptiste.  He escaped execution by fleeing to Red River in 1862
Pierre Cardinal born 1827
Antoine Carofil born 1825
Louis Carbon born 1828
Janie Caprote born 1831 France
Cazeau Freeman (Firman) born 1812
Antoine Chanssee born 1818
Josephine Chappell born 1826
Bernot (Bruno) Chenevert born 1823
Paul Chevereux born 1815
James Reuben Clewett born 1810 Britain arrived Canada 1829, joined American Fur Company 1831 as Voyager to St. Paul 1839

Alexis Cloutier, Antoine Pepin and Joseph Gobin departed Red River for St. Paul late 1830's.  Alexis wife and children remained in Red River until 1849 as Red River births of his children Bernard 1845, Eloysel 1847, Harriel L, 1849, Alexis Jr. and Marie born Minnesota. 

Francois Cloutier born 1794 
Philip Constance born 1831 France
William Constance born 1829 France
Jean Baptiste Cornoyer born 1824 migrated from Red River prior to 1842
Joseph Cornoyer born 1818

Jean Baptiste Coty born 1819 arrived St. Paul 1849 but returned to Canada 1852 with wife Julia born 1832 Minnesota and son Joseph born 1847 Wisconsin

Pierre Crevier born 1819
Joel Douglas Cruttenden born 1834 District of Columbia

Kin Ken (Kincade) Cutineau born 1821 Canada wife Terese born 1817 Canada, children born Canada Abraham 1839, Pierre 1841, Joseph 1845, Edward 1847 and Paul born 1849 St. Paul, Minnesota. 

George Dabril born 1836
Elizabeth Dabril born 1838
Francois Xavier Delonais born Canada, died 1874, departed Red River for St. Paul 1843
William Derocher born 1819
John B Derocher born 1835
Peter Desair (Desire) born 1810
Joseph Desmarais Metis born Red River, working as guide and interpreter St. Paul 1843

Michel Donet born 1792 Canada arrived St. Paul 1832 married June 6, 1843 Sorel, Quebec Eleanor Donais born 1827 Canada daughter Jean Baptiste Donais and Archange Arseneau returned St. Paul 1843.

Alexander C. Doucheme born 1819
Francois Dubois born 1815
Maxime Dumas born 1822
Jean Baptiste Duplie born 1820

Alexander Fairbault Metis born 1806 Prairie du Chein died 1882 Faribault, MN son Jean Baptiste Faribault born 1773 Berthier, Quebec Voyager 1806 to Prairie du Chien and Pelagie Kinnie Metis daughter Francois Kinnie and his Indian wife.  Arrived St. Paul 1842.
David Faribault Metis born 1816 brother Alexander in 1850 census.

Thomas M. Finch born 1812
William Henry Forbes born 1815 Montreal arrived Fort Snelling 1837 with the American Fur Company until 1862.
Louis Forcier born 1817 Quebec Voyager 1848 St. Paul
Marguerite Forcier born 1834 Canada daughter Jean Baptiste Forcier and Josephine Patrin of Little Canada, Minnesota, in census 1850.
J. Fournier born 1807.
Pierre Frontingeau born 1815
Noel Gaillard (Jaillard) born 1809 
Francois Gammell died 1871 a Voyager married a Dakota arrived St. Paul 1829
Leander Garinot born 1827
Paul Girout born 1815
Benjamin Gervais born 1786 (July 3, 1792?) Riviere du Loop, Quebec, died 1885 Little Canada (St. Paul) traveled to Red River des Metis in 1803. Was farming Red River in 1812, married Red River September 29, 1823 Genevieve Larans (Lareance) born June 28, 1804, Beithierville, Quebec, died August 30, 1885, Little Canada, Minnesota, family moved to Red River, both lived Lapointe, near Fort Gary, Red River and migrated to St. Paul 1826 with a number of Red River families..

Pierre Gervis born 1803 Canada, brother Benjamin, lived Red River then St. Paul 1826.
Sophie Gerville born 1810
Francois Gingras born 1828
Andre Godfrey married 1848 Margurite Metivier Metis born 1829 St. Paul daughter of Metivier French and Dakota.
Gabriel Goulette born 1795
Joseph Boudreau Gravelin born 1826
Vital Guerin born 1812 St. Remi, Quebec the son of a Voyager, Vital joined the American Fur Company in 1832 is living St. Paul 1835.
Pierre (Rene) Guertin born 1826
Louis Hastin born 1832
Samuel E. (C.) Hoffman born 1813
M. Huot born 1810
Joseph Jabot born 1820
Norman Wolfred Kittson born 1814 Sorel, Quebec grandson of the Alexander Henry (the Elder?), Norman joined the American Fur Company in 1830 assigned to a post between the Fox and Wisconsin River, in St. Paul 1834, Red River in 1838 and Pembinba 1843.  In 1854 Kittson was in partnership with William H. Forbes and established the Old St. Paul Outfit for Indian supply trade goods and freighting to Red River.  In 1860 he created the Red River Transportation Company using steamers and barges.

Flavien Labarze born 1812
Issac Labisnier (Labissoniere) born 1823 Pembina son Joseph Labisnier born 1790 Canada, living Red River until 1838, Father in St. Paul 1838
Jean Baptiste Lachapelle born 1800
Charles Landry born 1815
Pierre Langelier born 1822
Timothy Lareau born 1815 Canada, in St. Paul 1847
Leonard H. Laroche born Canada, living St. Paul 1846
Louis Larrivier born 1794, died 1874, a refugee from Red River 1843 to St. Paul
Charles Lavallee born 1830
Daniel Louis Lavallee born 1827 Sorel, Quebec
Francois Xavier Lavallee born 1825
Jean Baptiste Lavallee born 1833
M. Lavallee born 1825
Julia Leblanc born 1845
Antoine Leblanc born Canada
Michel Leclaire born 1822 Canada married a Dakota Metis
Edouard Lemay born 1833 son Michel Lemay born 1804 both in St. Paul
Flavien Lemay born 1829 son Michel Lemay born 1804
Henry Leroche born 1820
Dazize Lomene born 1820
Donald MacDonald, born 1803, went with Miles Montgomery to the Hudson Bay in 1818, with the American Fur Company, and worked the Arctic
Louis Martin born February 11, 1803 entered Maine in 1822, and St. Paul in 1820's where he married Zoe Winona a Midiwankanton Dakota.
Julia Martin Metis daughter Zoe Winona
Mary Martin Metis daughter Zoe Winona
Alexander R. McLeod Metis son HBC man, in St. Paul 1843
Alexander Mege born France moved to Prairie du Chien 1843 then St. Paul before 1850
Marguerite Menager born 1807
Abraham Michee (Michier, Michaudi) born 1800
Joseph Montour born 1811 Quebec, in Wisconsin by 1841, St. Paul 1849 
Amable Morin born 1810 married 1849 Marie Indian
Charles Mousseau born 1807 Voyager with American Fur Company in St. Paul 1827   
Narcisse Noyer born 1823
Frederick Olicer born Canada 
Louis M. Oliver born 1825 
John Orlandais born 1790
Lewis E. Pane born 1827
Gabriel Parents born 1808
Pierre Parents born 1777 Sault Ste Marie, in St. Paul 1832
Francois Patwell born 1827
Peter Patwell (Patoille) born 1816
Edward Peira born 1825
Old Pelon Voyager Prairie du Chein, St. Paul 1842
Joseph Pellond born 1835
Charles Peltier born 1818
Michael Peltier born 1832
Peter Peltier born 1827
Antoine Francois Pepin born 1786 Canada died 1850, lived Red River before 1831, in St. Paul 1831
Abraham Perry born 1780 Switzerland Died 1849 St. Paul arrived Red River 1820 a refugee from Red River to St. Paul 1827.  Joseph Plympton forced Abraham to relocate twice within St. Paul, causing economic hardship and failed health.
Peter Picard born 1821
Joseph Potvin born 1804
Tharsile Pratte born 1804
Joseph Rondo (Rondeau) born 1797 Montreal, joined the H.B.C. to Pacific Coast 1827 Red River, where he married 1827 Red River Josephine Beauleau (Boileau) born 1810 Kootenais, then on to St Paul in 1835
Louis Ronion born 1804
Charles Rouleau born 1807 to St. Paul 1846
Francis St. Arme born 1832
Oliver St. Martin born 1811
Paschal St. Martin born 1819
Pierre St. Martin born 1824
Henry H. Hastings Sibley born 1811 Detroit son Solomon Sibley and Sarah W. Sproat, at Sault Ste Marie 1828, then joined American Fur Company at Mackinac to St. Paul 1834, responsible for forcing the settlers from Fort Snelling and  burning their homes.

Francois Tibot born 1829
Peter Turgeon born 1820
Murance Vadnais born 1838, Quebec
Pierre Vadnais born 1802, Quebec
Maxime Valance (Vance, Vanarse, Damorse) born 1802/03
Zenion Valance born 1826
Clermont Vendall born 1826
Elizabeth Williams Metis 
Peter Young born 1825

This is not likely a complete listing as settlers of this period tend to come and go, trading, freighting or hunting.

Back to Top

METIS HISTORY: Return to METIS 1800-1849 index