METIS HISTORY 1871-1874
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(III)-Francois Fafard dit LaFramboise (1767-1830) born Trois Rivieres d-1830
Chicago, Cook County, Illinois (killed by Wimmabago Indians; son (II)-Jean
Baptiste Fafard dit LaFramboise and Genevieve Exupere Trotter La Bissonniere;
married 1870, Mackinac Island Shaw We No Quar Pottawatomi Metis b-1760.
(IV)-Alexander La Framboise b-1787 who married Josephe Adhemar
(IV)-Jean Baptiste Fafard La Framboise Metis b-1788 Michilimackic d-1861 Vancouver, Washington, 1st married Marguierite Monominee Indian, 2nd married 1806 Mary Tseleel Chieftness, 3rd marriage July 9, 1839 Fort Vancouver Emile Picard, 4th marriage not listed. Mixup with son (III)-Alexis (Alexander) Fafard dit Laframboise Metis (1763-(1800) son of (III)-Francois above more likely?
Alexander Flett Metis (1870-1957) born Norway House son James Flett stationed Norway House 1870 and Mary Metis or Indian; joined HBC (1888-1931) York and Winnipeg area, married
Horace Glett Metis working southend post
(I)-William Forbes Fillo Alloway (1852-1930) and brother (I)-Charles Valentine Alloway (1850-1929) roamed the Prairies trading, hunting with the Metis and Indians. In the Qu'appelle Valley (Saskatchewan) the Indians told them to move their camp. Shortly their camp site pounded to a pulp by a brown river of buffalo. They watched in fascination for 24 hours as the buffalo passed. Counting the number of buffalo passing per minute they estimated the herd at about one million animals. Buffalo hides were sold for $3-$4 a hide and usually the meat was left to rot by the hide hunters.
Baptiste Flammand Metis joined HBC 1870-1873) Swan River likely related to Oliver b-1830, Joseph (Pere) Flamant and Joseph b-1792/94 all of Swan River District
Ambroise Lepine of the Provisional Government of Red River, alleged the Oblates had advised Louis Riel to execute Thomas Scott.
The Oblate order were very naive in believing the French Metis and French Canadians were culturally in-distinguished. The Oblates did not understand or comprehend the national consciousness within the Metis culture or appreciate its significance. The Dominion Government basically abandoned the founders of the North West with the support of the Oblate missionaries.
The Manitoba act of 1870 clearly sets aside 1,400,000 acres of land for the benefit of the Metis Nation. The Government intentionally employed delaying tactics for nearly 7 years by not issuing land title rights. It would appear the English feared the creation of another Quebec. To resolve the Government created Metis Problem of land rights the Government employed The Dominion Land Act that offered free Metis land to immigrants. The Governments greatest fear was Metis political power. They designed the concept of Script to destroy the link to real ownership of land. It's much like the modern day creation of derivatives with no link to real property. It's a form of vaporware. The script could not be applied to lands that the Metis squatted upon (homesteaded) but only redeemed at the government commissionaire pleasure. As a result 90% of script ended up in the hands of Speculators.
In a single generation, the popular image of the Metis as the free and independent lords of the plains was reduced by that hopeless indigents doomed by the march of progress. The government introduced make work projects such as road building and land clearing to open up more crown land for more desirable European settlers.
Red River, birth (III)-Mary Jane Todd, Metis (1870-1877) (II)-William Todd Jr., Metis (1823-1871) son (I)-Dr. William Todd (1784-1851) and Marianne Ballentyne "half-caste woman" (Metis); 1st married about 1845 Sarah Jane Johnson; 2nd married 1868, Fanny Anne Hourie, b-1842
The Manitoba Provincial Police were formed this year and served until 1932.
The HBC was buying 200,000 lbs of buffalo (bison) a year, this was likely a major factor in the demise of the bison.
Between 1840 and 1870, the Native population of California declined from 200,000 to 31,000 people, from a historical high of 700,000 people. The California settlers would go out two or three times a week to kill, on average, 50 to 60 Indians a trip.
It would appear that Bishop Alexandre Tache (1823-1894) was a pawn of the Government, as was Donald Smith (Lord Strathcona), who was married to the Metis daughter of Chief Trader Richard Hardisty Sr. and Margaret (nee Sutherland). Her previous marriage to a fur trader named Grant was annulled in 1853. Donald Smith's brother in law, Richard Hardisty, who is a Metis and spoke Cree, French and English, went as his assistant. Dr. Tupper- the Nova Scotia Father of confederation, Smith and Hardisty all traveled to Pembina to confer with McDougall, Father Thibeault and De Salaberry, with an objective to undermine the Metis Government and deliver the Canadian response to the Metis demands. January 19, the Provisional Government of Red River convinced the people of Red River that they do not want to join the United States. All want satisfactory terms with Canada. Donald Smith and Richard Hardisty would spend some five hundred pounds to undermine the Provisional Government and specifically Louis Riel (1844-1885). Up to this point, the people of the Hudson Bay Company, the former North West Company and those Metis and Indian common values, provided the only form of government to the region which was referred to as the North West Territories. Through their efforts they secured the development and creation of Western Canada and influenced the northern United States, down through the Oregon and California territories, right out to Hawaii. We must acknowledge that, what ever their defects in other roles, as a business trading enterprise they did it supremely well, with minimal bloodshed, becoming increasingly efficient, effective and confident as the decades passed.
There were approximately twelve thousand residents in Red River who proclaimed themselves as follows:
Metis who are French speaking, or 50%
4,000 Metis who are English speaking, or 33%
500 Indian mainly Cree and Ojibwa speaking, or 4%
1,500 and all others classified as White or 13%.
George Hammond is working out of Fort Whoop-Up and is married to Rosalie Wills b-1853, Metis of Red River daughter John Wills Jr. and Mary McKay b-1820. John Wills Jr. is the son John Wills Sr. and Josephite Grant (married September 6, 1842).
Oak Point on Lake Winnipeg was a Metis settlement and, during the resistance movement, John Henderson of the Cattle guard, near Oak Point, is captured and held prisoner for several months. Henderson was a fiery man and he wanted to take revenge on Louis Riel (1844-1885). He had his chance as he accepted the job as hangman of Louis Riel (1844-1885).
During the period of 1870 to 1872 this lawless mob from Ontario began a reign of terror on the populous of the capital of the Metis Nation. These Ontario mobsters were undisciplined and constantly assaulted the Metis population. This reign of terror in Red River proceeded unabated, or so says the press. During this period, hundreds, if not thousands, departed the Red River region for the far west, into Montana, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Oregon Territory and British Columbia. In Alberta the Metis settlements of Trail Creek, Devil Lake (Lac Ste Anne), St. Alberta an Fort Edmonton began a rapid growth. Trail Creek des Metis on the Red River would quickly become the largest settlement west of Red River. About 130 English speaking Metis arrived at Fort Victoria.
This is a view of the Fort facing the Assiniboine River. Garnet Joseph Viscount Wolseley (1833-1913) an Irishman's first impression of Fort Garry was that it is a miserable looking village. His politically motivated, punitive expedition acted with revenge to pacify the Orangemen and Masons of Ontario. The Canadian Government, and Ontario in particular, had violated the spirit of Confederation, and this uncultured act would set the stage for East- West conflict for the next one hundred years. Colonel Joseph Garnet Viscount Wolseley (1833-1913) Quarter Master General of Canada, married a young girl, Mary Isabella Drever (1852-1933) of Red River. Donald Graham was a boatman in this invasion expedition.
When the Metis are on their spring bison (buffalo) hunt, Ontario settlers and land speculators squatted on the Metis land holdings. The Canadian militia supported these confiscations of the Metis farms and homes. It was becoming obvious that, with the Ontario militia in control to support the Orangemen, justice and liberty for all would not be possible.
It would appear that Lawrence Garneau sold his river front property at St. Andrews, some 124 acres, to David Harcus, Metis, lot 96 of 56 acres before survey and pat recorded 1885 and William Saunders, Metis lot 97 of 68 acres before survey and pat recorded 1876. The exodus from Red River would find Lawrence Garneau, wife (IV)-Eleanor Thomas and daughter Victoria wandering the prairies for four years before settling at Fort Edmonton in 1874. Some refer to this as the 'lost years'. It was believed that many Metis would travel between the Metis settlements and return to Red River, their place of birth, before finally settling in one wintering place. Most of the Chief Factors and religious of the Saskatchewan River District are expecting a larger exodus from Red River this year, knowing the Orangemen would effectively gain control through the Canadian militia. Donald Smith (Lord Strathcona) stated that on a bitter night in 1870, in a tent, on the frozen prairie, the C.P.R. is born. This is during a meeting with James J. Hill, later a U.S.A. Railway magnate. It is noteworthy that the Metis had a number of other western settlements such as Wood Mountain, Touchwood Hills, Trail Creek, Devils Lake (Lac Ste Anne), Calgary, Edmonton, Big Lake (St. Albert), Jasper, Carlton, Lac La Biche, Battleford, Lebret, Willow Bunch, Laboucane, Trail Creek and other remote and isolated places.
Victoria Garneau is born on October 22, 1870 near Lower Fort Garry, Red
River daughter Lawrence Garneau born 1840 son
Louis Garneau and (V)-Archange Cadotte and (IV)-(IV)-Eleanor Thomas born 1851 daughter (III)-Alexander Thomas and Victoria Taylor. Her baptism followed November 1, 1870 St. Andrews Anglican Church, Red River, Ruperts Land.
Lawrence Garneau stated in 1901 that he is living in a rented house in Lower Fort Garry and is working on the Prairies. April 18, 1903 #768987 disallowed Metis script that may indicate she is born before 1870 or in American territory during the semi-annual bison (buffalo) hunt.
More than three thousand, five hundred natives died of smallpox this year on the plains. Many Red River Metis shifted their wintering locations to the Pembina Hills and the Turtle Mountain area, where the main language spoken, called Mischif, is essentially a dialect of Cree with a smattering of several other languages. Others pressed on to Lake Sakakawea, North Dakota.
The census of 1870, St. Andre, Red River, C-2170, p-191 listed (7)-Lawrence Gaurneau age 29 born E.U. (Etats Unis) French speaking Metis, Citoyen des Etats Inis, son (6)-Louis Gaurneau. Lawrence is married to (IV)-Heline (Eleanor) Thomas age 19 born 1851 Red River, English speaking Metis, British Subject daughter (III)-Alexander Thomas born 1823 Red River and Victoria Taylor. The Gaurneau spelling appears to be associated with the Garneau's who migrated to Pembina Hills from Red Lake and then on to Turtle Mountain in North Dakota. The early generations in Pembina used Garneau and later generations in both Pembina and Turtle Mountain used Gourneau. (6)-Francois Gourneau alias Geurnou, Guernoe (Garneau) (1800-1970) is believed to have died about 1870, he is married about 1825 Pembina, North Dakota to a Marguerite Martineau born 1805-1809 and on annuity roll #1166 1893 Red Lake, Minnesota.
THE FOLLOWING PEOPLE APPEAR TO BE LIVING TOGETHER:
Victorre Gaurneau (F) age 1, Metis born Manitoba, British subject, Catholic daughter Lawrence Gaurneau.
Victorre Thomas (F) age 35, English speaking Metis born Manitoba British subject Protestant widow and daughter George Taylor.
(IV)-Marguerite Thomas (F) age 14 English speaking Metis born Manitoba British subject Protestant daughter Alex Thomas.
(IV)-Robert Thomas (M) age 14 English speaking Metis British subject Protestant son Alex Thomas.
(IV)-Victorine Thomas (F) age 10 English speaking Metis born Manitoba British subject Protestant daughter Alex Thomas.
(IV)-John Thomas (M) age 5 English speaking Metis born Manitoba British subject Protestant son Alex Thomas.
(IV)-Albert Thomas (M) age 2 English speaking Metis born Manitoba British
subject Protestant son Alex Thomas.
Mrs. Mary Thomas, a Metis who lived in Red River, is to become the great grandmother of Premier Peter Lougheed of Alberta fame.
Marion Gurnoe traveled from Red River to Saint Cloud, Minnesota to make application for land script, claiming her relatives were Lake Superior Chippewa and that she was born at Red Lake. (7)-Joseph Gurnoe said he had relatives at Red Lake, but he was not sure if she was a relative. Others said they knew of a Gurnoe family between Red Lake and Red River. Others said a number of Gurnoes are living at Fort Garry. Gurnoe is an alias of Garneau.
Margaret Kipland of Clay County, Minnesota, November 3, 1870, being over forty years of age and married, claims her mother's maiden name is Gurnoe. She claims to be Chippewa of Lake Superior, but they rejected her Metis claim.
Adam Archibald completed the survey of Red River and the population of Manitoba is 25,228. That would imply a significant number of settlers must have arrived in the last year, given the Red River 1970 population was only 12,000.
At Katchinan, near Carlton House, Saskatchewan River, the Metis held an assembly, controlled by Lawrence Clarke (1831-1890) of the Hudson Bay Company, Joseph Emlin and Rev. Father Andre. The Hudson Bay contended that the 1,500 Metis that comprised 250 families, living near Carlton House, are just wintering houses. The use of the term "just wintering houses" is intended to classify the Metis as a transient population and, therefore, having no claim on property. Europeans believe that people who hold no property are uncivilized and, therefore, lesser in stature. This type of belief is encouraged by the Church and used by the Government to justify claim jumping. The implications are that the inhabitants are still bison (buffalo) hunting, having been driven out from Red River.
The mission of St. Lawrence, at this time, contained forty to fifty French-Metis homes of a good quality. Lawrence Clarke (1831-1890) expressed his pleasure in having control of the assembly, and stated that Chief Factor (II)-Willam Joseph Christie Metis (1824-1899) had control of the St. Albert and St. Anne assembly near Edmonton House in their quest for self government. Clarke and Father Andre pressed the Metis to settle in the area and assured them that they (Church and Government) would protect their interests. As a result of the Red River fight for liberty, equality and nationhood, all Metis are classified as being unstable. Both the Hudson Bay Company and the Roman Catholic Church wanted the Metis to be quiet meek servants, but would not protect their interests in the future.
St. Boniface Hospital was opened August by the Sisters of Charity (order of the Gray Nuns), by Margaret Theresa McDonald whom the locals called Soeur Doctor. The Dominion Government continued to deliberately delay the granting of land rights to the Metis to ensure the greedy land speculators from Ontario could continue the illegal seizure of the Metis land, and the Government troops continued to support these illegal seizures. Lawrence Garneau could do nothing to stop the Orangemen Gang because of their Canadian Army support. In 1882, in Fort Edmonton, Garneau's Vigilance Committee would stop Bannerman (Bennerman) and the North West Mounted Police dead in their tracks, and expose them for the criminals that they were. Some family members contend that the Canadian Army, and later the North West Mounted Police, are involved in the claim jumping of Metis' land in Red River and other locations. They claimed that Lawrence Garneau was determined not to see it repeated in Fort Edmonton.
The Manitoba Act seemed to imply the Metis farmers who occupied land without title would be protected by trespass newcomers from Ontario. (I)-John A. MacDonald (1815-1891) and his government had no intention of protecting the indigenous peoples. Adams G. Archibald was removed because he was encouraging the Metis of their fanciful rights. Alexander Morris was assigned the job to procrastinate on settling Metis land claims. The Liberal Government was determined to land clear the Metis from the best land of Red River.
The Metis in their hundreds fled Winnipeg for the Metis agricultural centers in Alberta; Lac La Biche, Lesser Slave Lake, Lac Ste Anne and Saint Alberta. These locations had agricultural, fishing, trapping, trading and freighting opportunities.
(I)-John A. MacDonald (1815-1891) described the Red River land scheme as being more
important than the protests of 10,000 half-castes (Metis). Only after 1877
are Metis parents allowed to receive rights to their land. The Metis
began their exodus in larger numbers, following the Touchwood-Carlton-Edmonton
trail. This famous trail is from Red River to Brandon, Ellice, Touchwood
Hills, South Branch, Duck Lake, Elbow of South Branch, Battleford, Fort
Pitt, Saddle Lake, Sturgeon River to Edmonton, then Lac Ste Anne or St.
Albert and Lac La Biche. This trail would see Metis settling
at St. Laurent, Batoche and Duck Lake. Some Metis would push on to
St. Albert, Lac Ste Anne and Lac La Biche. Others roamed the prairies
to eventually settle in obscure places like Pincher Creek, Cypress Hills,
Wood Mountain Moose Mountain, Porcupine Mountain, Duck Mountain and
St. Paul de Metis. The Metis usually traveled in caravan, covering
eight to ten miles per day. If a bison (buffalo) hunt was made, the party
would spend four or five days drying the meat and preparing the skins.
The teepee was the favorite shelter for travel, and those wobbly red river
carts contained all their worldly possessions. Some plains' men had
many carts and horses, and usually engaged single men to assist on the journey.
Trading and bartering along the way became a way of life. The dispersal
of the Metis from Red River spelled the beginning of the decline and fall
of the Metis Nation.
By this decade most Metis of the Yankton, Otoe, Osage and Kansa Nations had merged with the Indian reservations.
The American Congress finally granted naturalization rights to whites and to people of African descent, but not to Orientals. They didn't receive this right until 1952. In 1924 all immigration from Japan is stopped.
A convention held in Corinne, Utah nominated General George E. Maxwell for Congress. He campaigned condemning polygamy, this alienated not only the Mormons but also the so-called Godbeites, who had left the Mormon Church but still retained the concept of plural marriages. Maxwell lost the election. It is noteworthy that more votes were cast than inhabitants.
Poncha Springs, Colorado hosts 99 mineral springs with temperatures varying from 90 to 185 degrees. The Utes and other Indians had been in the habit of camping here since prehistoric times, claiming that the waters are 'good medicine'. McPherson homesteaded near the largest springs about this time but sold out to James True in 1874.
Don Graham, a boatman, was part of the volunteer troops that descended on For Garry, Red River. He was paid off. He then went into business as a fur trader or more properly, a peddler. In 1871 he bought a Red River Cart and went freighting.
Prior to this decade on the stream later known as Encampment River, about nine miles above its junction with the North Platte, is a pleasant valley where Indians and traders made common camp for trading. The place was known as La Grande Encampment (Wyoming). Gold and copper would be discovered in this valley by 1879.
January 20: Thomas Bunn, at Fort Garry, chaired a meeting of one thousand people who turned out in minus twenty eight degrees Celsius to hear Donald Smith who married a Red River Metis. He worked for the Hudson Bay Company and stated he was a special commissioner, appointed by the Canadian Government. The peoples concern is that Donald Smith had spread five hundred pound sterling among the Metis to buy their votes in favor of the Hudson Bay Company and the Canadian Government.
January 25: A second convention developed a list of Human Rights. These rights support the negotiations for entry into Confederation. A delegation to Ottawa received Red River Government approval.
February 3: Metis List of Rights, adopted this date;
1. That in view of the present exceptional position of the Northwest, duties up goods imported into the country shall continue as at present (except in the case of spirituous liquors) for three years, and for such further time as may elapse, until there be uninterrupted railroad communication between Red River settlement and St. Paul, and also steam communications between Red River settlement and Lake Superior.
2. As long as this country remains a territory in the Dominion of Canada, there shall be no direct taxation, except such as may be imposed by the local legislature, for municipal or other local purposes.
3. That during the time this country shall remain in the position of a territory, in the Dominion of Canada, all military, civil and other public expenses, in connection with the general government of the country, or that have hitherto been borne by the public funds of the settlement, beyond the receipt of the above mentioned duties, shall be met by the Dominion of Canada.
4. That while the burden of public expense in this territory is borne by Canada, the country be governed by a Lieutenant-Governor from Canada, and a Legislature, three members of whom being heads of departments of the Government, shall be nominated by the Governor General of Canada.
5. That after the expiration of this exceptional period, the country shall be governed, as regards its local affairs, as the Provinces of Ontario and Quebec are now governed, by a Legislature by the people, and a Ministry responsible to it under a Lieutenant- Governor, appointed by the Governor General of Canada.
6. That there shall be no interference by the Dominion Parliament in the local affairs of this territory, other than is allowed in the provinces, and that this territory shall have and enjoy in all respects, the same privileges, advantages and aids in meeting the public expenses of this territory as the provinces have and enjoy.
7. That, while the Northwest remains a territory, the Legislature have a right to pass all laws local to the territory, over the veto of the Lieutenant-Governor by a two-third vote.
8. A homestead and pre-emption law.
9. That, while the Northwest remains a territory, the sum of $25,000 a year be appropriated for schools, roads and bridges.
10. That all the public buildings be at the expense of the Dominion treasury.
11. That there shall be guaranteed uninterrupted steam communication to Lake Superior, within five years; and also the establishment, by rail, of a connection with the American railway as soon as it reaches the international line.
12. That the military force required in this country be composed of natives of the country during four years. [Withdrawn after a vote of 16 yeas to 23 nays.]
13. That the English and French languages be common in the Legislature and Courts, and that all public documents and acts of the Legislature be published in both languages.
14. That the Judge of the Supreme Court speak the French and English languages.
15. That treaties be concluded between the Dominion and the several Indian tribes of the country as soon as possible.
16. That, until the population of the country entitles us to more, we have three representatives in the Canadian Parliament, one in the Senate, and two in the Legislative Assembly.
17. That all the properties, rights and privileges as hitherto enjoyed by us be respected, and that the recognition and arrangement of local customs, usages and privileges be made under the control of the Local Legislature.
18. That the Local Legislature of this territory have full control of all the lands inside a circumference having upper Fort Garry as a centre, and that the radius of this circumference be the number of miles that the American line is distant from Fort Garry.
19. That every man in the country (except uncivilized and unsettled Indians) who has attained the age of 21 years, and every British subject, a stranger to this country who has resided three years in this country and is a householder, shall have a right to vote at the election of a member to serve in the Legislature of the country, and in the Dominion Parliament; and every foreign subject, other than a British subject, who has resided the same length of time in the country, and is a householder, shall have the same right to vote on condition of his taking the oath of allegiance, it being understood that this article be subject to amendment exclusively by the Local Legislature.
20. That the Northwest territory shall never be held liable for any portion of the L- 300,000 paid to the Hudson's Bay Company or for any portion of the public debt of Canada, as it stands at the time of our entering the confederation; and if, thereafter, we be called upon to assume our share of said public debt, we consent only, on condition that we first be allowed the amount for which we shall be held liable.
February 9: The Orangemen and Mason rebels, including Major Boulton, Charles Mair, Thomas Scott and sixty men, marched toward Fort Garry in the Boulton Rebellion. This rebel mob was attempting to overthrow the Provisional Government a treasonous act.
February 14: John Christian Schultz joined them at Kildonan, and they arrested Parisen as a spy. Parisen escaped and accidentally shot the young John Hugh Sutherland, who he thought was intercepting him. Hugh was riding out to announce the release of all prisoners. The Orangemen rebels killed the feeble minded Metis, young Parisen, with an axe, still claiming he was a spy. Parisen did not understand the idea of being a spy, let alone be one.
February 23: (I)-John A. MacDonald (1815-1891) said that Bishop Alexandre Tache (1823-1894) felt that to send out an over-washed Englishman, utterly ignorant of the Country and full of crotchets- as all Englishmen are, would be a mistake. MacDonald had little regard for the priests, and these comments where like throwing gas on the fire; doing little good for Red River, but speaking volumes about the character of Bishop Alexandre Tache (1823-1894) and MacDonald. (I)-John A. MacDonald's government made it clear that they had little regard for the native culture, just as they made it clear that they wanted to kill the Indian in the children. This attitude would be carried into the Residential School system by the religious. The Federal government promised amnesty for Riel and his men but the feds reneged on their offer. They considered Bishop Alexandre Tache (1823-1894) efforts as meddling. The Metis lost all respect for Bishop Alexandre Tache (1823-1894).
March 4: The Provisional Government at Red River executes Thomas Scott. Scott, considered a hot headed and aggressive redneck Orangeman from Ontario, received little sympathy from the inhabitants of Red River. Donald Smith, the Canadian Government authority on site, called him "a rash thoughtless young man whom none cared to have anything to do with." Some Ontario Orangemen contend that the execution is for the attack last year on Louis Riel's person. Thomas Scott had attacked Louis Riel (1844-1885) with his fists. His defenders said that Thomas had threatened to kill Louis Riel (1844-1885) if given a chance. Some believe that this is why the Canadian Party (Masons) had him in their company. Some believed his execution is for the murder of Parisen.
April 22: The American Congress presented a motion to annex the rebellious territory of Red River to the United States. This month the Orange Lodges of British Loyalists in Ontario sprung into aggressive action, demanding no negotiations with the half-breed (Metis) murderers, calling them rebels and traitors. This over reaction is probably the result of the American Congress motion to annex Red River. The fear is that Canada West might be lost to the Americans, just as Canada had lost Mississippi, Minnesota, and Missouri territories, not to mention the Oregon Territory.
May 7: The Federal Government, to satisfy the Orangemen of Ontario, began assembling an army of four hundred British regulars and eight hundred British Canadian militiamen to leave Toronto for Red River under the command of Joseph Garnet Wolseley (1833-1913) an Irishman. Their route ran from Toronto through Lake Superior then along roads, trails and portages, through the Lake of the Woods to St. Boniface. It would take the troops fourteen weeks to make the trip. This action of bad faith by the Canadian Government would leave a bad taste in the mouth of westerners for the next one hundred years.
May 12: The Manitoba Act received Royal assent, incorporating all the Red River demands, and when word reached Red River, a twenty-one gun salute was fired and a special session of the Provisional Legislature called. Upon motion of Louis Schmidt, they unanimously agreed to accept the terms of entry into the Dominion of Canada. The last meeting of the Northern Department about Rupert's land was held this July at Norway House.
June: The Summer bison (buffalo) hunt was a total failure in Southern Saskatchewan. Indians and Metis suffered starvation, and the men at Qu Appelle are eating gophers.
July 15: (II)-Jean Baptiste Spence aka We-tcha-mash, Metis (1807-1889), is at Totogan, Manitoba. Source Ida A. Spence
July 15: Red River becomes part of the Province of Manitoba and the Hudson Bay Company ceded most of it holdings based upon the terms and conditions demanded, including equality of French and English as official languages and equality of Protestant and Roman Catholic schools. The Hudson Company received one and one half million dollars indemnity from the Dominion of Canada and retained one hundred forts with fifty thousand acres and one-twentieth of all lands lying between the Red River and the Rocky Mountains. The proposed transfer of Hudson Bay land was to have been December 1869. However, due to the Metis Provisional Government action, it did not take place until July 15, 1870.
August 24: Colonel Joseph Garnet Wolseley (1833-1913) an Irishman arrived to find Fort Garry empty. The founding members of the Provincial Government are warned that the invading English Army is hostile and looking for blood. James MacLeod (1836-1894), a brigade major, was among the Ontario rebels. It is noteworthy that Janes Farquharson MacLeod (1836-1894), who was responsible for the atrocities of his men, went on to become a magistrate. Philippe Garnot et Garneau (1859-1916) was a secretary for the Metis Provisional Government.
August: Captain William Francis Butler an intelligence officer who arrived February 18, 1870 Upper Fort Gary, Red River reported that the Ontario Rifles were belting, clubbing and dragging of Metis citizens by soldiers from Ontario.
August 24: Father Lestanc wrote that the Canadian troops arriver Red River and stirred up trouble and spread a feeling of unease everywhere. These Ottawa fanatic Orangemen wanted blood, Catholic blood and two or three murdered immediately signaled their presence there.
September 13: The British Canadian soldiers, headed by Sir John Christian Schultz (1840-1896); a doctor, fur trader, real estate agent and politician, stoned the Metis, Elzear Goulet, to death because he was on the jury for the execution of Thomas Scott (1842-1870). Schultz was also responsible for the murders of Hugh Sutherland and Norbert Parisien. Francois Guilmette killed, near Pembina, Andre Nault (1829-1924). He was bayoneted and left for dead, and the carnage would continue. Some of these Ontario assassins would join the Mounted Police, while others would encourage the claim jumping to follow. Schultz was also responsible for inciting the Ontario Orangemen into their riotous actions in Red River. His murderous deeds made him a very wealthy man, a Senator (1882-1888) and lieutenant governor of Manitoba (1888-1895), leaving a very bad taste in the minds and memories of the peoples of western Canada.
September: Given there is no resistance, the army had three options: remain at Fort Garry in service for another year; return to civilian life and stay in the West with a land grant of one hundred and sixty acres; or go home. Those who stayed would ensure the provisions of the Manitoba Act ignored the rights of the Metis. They would provide the basis for allowing eastern land speculators to take over the Metis' farms. They would not prevent the murder of four members of the Thomas Scott jury, and word is out that Louis Riel (1844-1885) and his followers could expect no less. Canadian Government threats and intimidation forced many Metis involved in the creation of Manitoba to flee their historic home lands. The exodus continued to such places on the Saskatchewan as St. Laurent, St. Louis and St. Antoine (Batoche). Others would flee for their life to Montana, Cypress Hills, Lac Saint Anne, and Saint Albert.