The creation of the Metis Nation is built on the foundation of the Ojibwa
This mix of people quietly and without fanfare explored and mapped the interior of a continent.
Louis Garneau (1790-1863) homesteaded the Saint Mary's Falls Region of Michigan
and was an early homesteader in La Pointe, Wisconsin
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METIS and OJIBWA at KITCHI-GAMI
This is a representation of an early Anishinaabeg (Ojibwa) pictograph map of Kitchi Gami (Lake Superior).
This is a satellite photo of Kitchi Gami (Lake Superior).
Madeline Island is just offshore from La Pointe, Wisconsin.
The Island provided good protection for the Ojibwa from the Dakota as the latter didn't have the canoe.
The sign however makes no mention of the rich history of the Ojibwa and Metis who continuously occupied this site except when briefly driven off by the French.
It is noteworthy that the Black Robes were banned from Lake Superior for over 200 years until about 1835 because of their evil ways. The cross became a symbol of this intrusion and therefore was not used prior to this time.
OJIBWA ROCK PAINTING
Ojibwa rock painting Mishipeshu Agawa,
1640-1710 Pierre Esprint Radisson
Pierre Esprint Radisson born France 1636, died London, England 1710, arrived in Trois Rivieres 1651. This Coureurs de Bois is responsible for the creation of the Hudson Bay Company.
1668-69 NONSUCH REPLICA
This is a replica of the British ship Nonsuch that was sent out to prove Pierre Radisson's proposal that Hudson Bay can be used to develop a direct route to the interior of Canada for the fur trade. This would lead to the creation of the Hudson Bay Company in 1670.
1744 MAP OF AMERICA
A Partial Map of North America as described by Joseph La France a French Canadese Indian (Metis).
An example of an Ojibwa birch-bark lodge (tipi & domed construction). It is noteworth that frame construction would not be used until much later as a Canadian construction technique.
A sample of an Ojibwa dress
A sample of Ojibwa moccasin
Example of Ojibwa and Algonquian snowshoes
Example of an Ojibwa and Algonquian canoes
METIS, COUREUR DE BOIS
A Metis, Coureur de Bois in early 1700 style of clothing. This drawing appears to be a cross between a Canadian Coureur de Bois and an American Mountain man.
Michilimackinac was originally built in 1715 and was the main hub for the Metis trade and exploration into the interior.
1776 AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE NEW BORDERS
A map of the new borders as a result of the American declaration of independence of 1776. It is noteworthy that the old North West is presently occupied by the Indians, Metis, Coueur de Bois, French and a few British. The American presence is very minor at this time.
A 1780 TRADING POST
A trading post from about 1780
A Express Canoe as used by the North West Company
1797 YORK BOAT
The York Boat was introduced into Hudson Bay as the British and Orkney were unable to master the canoe. This is a replica on the Red River of the north.
LOUIS GARNEAU (1790-1863)
Title reads "Five of the earliest Indian inhabitants of St. Mary's Falls 1855". St. Mary's Falls is Sault Ste. Marie and the people are Metis not Indian.
They however were adopted into the Ojibwa Nation and therefore could rightfully be called Indian but not the earliest inhabitants. Garneau married Cadotte's sister as did John Boucher.
The tag on the photo reads: Left to right (1) Louis Cadotte, (2) John Bouche, (3) Obogan, (4) O'Shawan, (5) Louis Gurnoe aka Garneau. The tag was obviously added after the fact. Heather Cadotte Armstrong suggests the identification is incorrect, see larger photo.
1812 FORT WILLIAM
Photo of Fort William of the North West Company that was built in 1803 to replace Grand Portage as their western trade center. It was named after William McGillivray.
BATTLE OF 1816
A drawing of the Battle of seven Oaks of 1816 in Red River
A drawing of Selkirk in 1817
1817 RED RIVER
This drawing is a part of the Red River settlement. In the early days the term Red River of the North covered a large geographic area from Pembina or more southerly locations to lake Winnipeg, then east and west for some undefined distance from the mouth of the Assiniboine. Most settlers prefered river locations but not all.
1820 BEAVER COIN
A Beaver coin minted by the North West Company, valued at one beaver skin
A drawing of voyagers on the Grand Portage route to the fur country.
1820's RED RIVER INDIANS
A drawing of an Indian trapper family near Fort Gary, Red River
1836 SAULT STE MARIE
Sault Ste Marie, Canada looking across the river to Fort Brady.
1840's SAULT STE MARIE
Sault Ste Marie.
1850 METIS SKIN COAT
Skin coat in the Metis and Dakota style as worn in Red River and the Upper Missouri regions.
1851 RED RIVER METIS CLOTHING
Red River Metis clothing of this period.
Pembina, Red River
1858 CUMBERLAND HOUSE
Cumberland House by John Fleming
1860 LOWER FORT GARY
Lower Fort Gary
1860's METIS CARTS
A simulation of Metis with their Red River carts near Red River.
A typical prairie buffalo (bison)
METIS BUFFALO HUNT
A Metis buffalo hunt
METIS RED RIVER CART
A Metis Red River Cart
METIS BUFFALO HUNT 1800'S
A Metis buffalo hunt in the late 1800'S, a sketch by William Armstrong (1822-1914)
METIS BUFFALO HUNT CAMP
A Metis camp on the buffalo hunt in late 1800's
INTERIOR OF RED RIVER HOUSE
A sketch of the interior of a Metis house in Red River.
GOVERNOR GEORGE SIMPSON
This is an express canoe for Governor George Simpson on an inspection tour. The elite canoe men were selected for the express canoes.
1828 FRAZER RIVER, YALE, B.C.
This painting by Sherriff Scott is one of two canoes on the Frazer River
1863 CANOT DE MAITRE
Montreal canoe used on the Ottawa River and Great Lakes, descending the
painting by Frances Anne Hobkins
1869 CANOES IN FOG
Painting by Frances Anne Hopkins called canoes in fog, Lake Superior..
1870 FORT PELLY
Fort Pelly on the Assiniboine River, in Saskatchewan.
1870 LOUIS RIEL AND COUNCIL
Louis Riel and Metis Provisional Government Council in 1870
1870 FORT GARY, RED RIVER
Fort Gary facing the Assiniboine River after the arrival of Wolseley sent to subjugate the Metis.
1872 FORT PEMBINA, RED RIVER
The H.B.C. Fort Pembina painted August 1872 by Frank Lynn
1872 DAKOTA BOAT, FORT GARY, RED RIVER
The Dakota Boat, Fort Garry, Red River at sunset by Frank Lynn
1885 METIS and INDIAN PRISONERS OF WAR
Metis and Indian prisoners of the war of 1885. The handcuffed prisoners in Regina were found guilty of treason and all were imprisoned.
1885 Louis David Riel (1844-1885)
This is the official drawing of Louis Riel after his execution by the Canadian Government for his part in the Metis and Indian Rebellion of 1885
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